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The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.

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Conference Proceedings
UNDERSTANDING AND QUANTIFICATION OF DIE DROOL PHENOMENON DURING POLYPROPYLENE EXTRUSION PROCESS
M. Zatloukal , W. Sambaer , A. Libotte, May 2010
In this work, die build-up phenomenon has been investigated theoretically, by using FEM analysis, as well as experimentally for polypropylene resins which are commonly used in the biaxial oriented film production. It has been demonstrated that the negative pressure at the die exit region is correable with die drool phenomenon in this case.
FACTORS AFFECTING THE RAPID CRACK PROPAGATION PERFORMANCE OF POLYETHYLENE PIPES
Mark Lamborn, Ashish Sukhadia, May 2010
Good resistance to Rapid Crack Propagation (RCP) is considered to be important in plastic pipe field performance. However, RCP is a very complex phenomenon that depends on a variety of factors including pipe geometry (diameter and wall thickness) and test conditions (temperature and pressure). We show the effects, from both theoretical and experimental aspects, of these and other variables on RCP performance and share our concerns about some of the current RCP (S4) test practices.
A STUDY OF CRYSTALLIZATION KINETICS OF POLY (3-HYDROXYBUTYRATE-CO-3- HYDROXYVALERATE)/ZN-AL LAYERED DOUBLE HYDROXIDE (LDH) STEARATE NANOCOMPOSITES
Koffi L. Dagnon , Clark Robinson , Hua H. Chen , Nandika A. D’Souza, May 2010
Isothermal crystallization of poly (3-hydroxybutyrateco- 3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV)/ Zn-Al layered double hydroxide (LDH) stearate nanocomposites was investigated by means of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The Avrami equation was derived and the parameters were assessed for the nucleation and crystal growth mechanism of PHBV and its nanocomposites. (Ref.8)
A STUDY OF CRYSTALLIZATION KINETICS OF POLY (3-HYDROXYBUTYRATE-CO-3- HYDROXYVALERATE)/ZN-AL LAYERED DOUBLE HYDROXIDE (LDH) STEARATE NANOCOMPOSITES
Koffi L. Dagnon , Clark Robinson , Hua H. Chen , Nandika A. D’Souza, May 2010
Isothermal crystallization of poly (3-hydroxybutyrateco- 3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV)/ Zn-Al layered double hydroxide (LDH) stearate nanocomposites was investigated by means of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The Avrami equation was derived and the parameters were assessed for the nucleation and crystal growth mechanism of PHBV and its nanocomposites.
MORPHOLOGY AND PROPERTIES OF NANOCOMPOSITES BASED ON HDPE/HDPE-G-MA BLENDS
Adam Kramschuster, Lih-Sheng Turng, May 2010
Nanocomposites formed from blends of HDPE and HDPE-g-MA and organoclay were melt processed and analyzed by WAXS and TEM coupled with particle analysis to explore the effect of HDPE-g-MA on extent of exfoliation and mechanical properties. As HDPE-g-MA content increases, the global average particle aspect ratio increases drastically, peaks, and slightly decreases. Relative modulus improves with increased levels of HDPE-g-MA, and then levels off.
MORPHOLOGY AND PROPERTIES OF NANOCOMPOSITES BASED ON HDPE/HDPE-G-MA BLENDS
Matthew W. Spencer , Lili Cui , Youngjae Yoo , D. R. Paul, May 2010
Nanocomposites formed from blends of HDPE and HDPE-g-MA and organoclay were melt processed and analyzed by WAXS and TEM coupled with particle analysis to explore the effect of HDPE-g-MA on extent of exfoliation and mechanical properties. As HDPE-g-MA content increases the global average particle aspect ratio increases drastically peaks and slightly decreases. Relative modulus improves with increased levels of HDPE-g-MA and then levels off.
THE EFFECT OF SECOND SHOT MATERIAL ON WARPAGE OF MOLDED AND COATED LARGE TWO-COMPONENT
Michael Heinzer, Myoungbae Lee, Rachel VanHouten, Ozma Lane, James E. McGrath, Donald G. Baird, May 2010
Two-component injection compression molding process is the most advanced technology to produce large optical polycarbonate glazing panels. The paper investigates the effects of molding conditions and second shot material on the warpage of finished (coated) parts through a molding trial DOE. The data and results can provide a guideline for a proper part and process design and materials selection to manufacture good quality 2two-component PC panels/glazing with minimum warpage.
PREPARATION OF REINFORCED POLYPROPYLENE COMPOSITE VIA SMART PELLET ADDITIVES
Nicole Hoekstra, Edward Lao, May 2010
A commercially available inorganic fiber product Hyperform HPR-803 was introduced into films with both polypropylene (PP) and polysulfone (PSF). These fiber-filled multilayer products were then added to PP resins and injection molded. This methodology allowed for high glass transition temperature PSF to be injection molded at 175oC. The morphology behaviors of the composites were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Mechanical properties of the composites were investigated by performing tensile, flexural, and impact strength tests.
THE EFFECT OF INJECTION MOLDING PARAMETERS ON THE PROPERTIES OF CARBON NANOTUBES FILLED THERMOPLASTICS
Fabian Rios, Amos Ophir, Samuel Kenig, May 2010
The electrical and mechanical properties of Polycarbonate and Polybutylene Terephthalate carbon nanotubes (CNT) nanocomposites were studied with respect to injection molding processing parameters, by means of design of experiments (DOE). Results demonstrated that the injection molding parameters had a significant effect on the properties of polymer/CNT nanocomposites. While the melt temperature had the most significant effect on the resulting volume resistivity, combination of parameters affected the mechanical properties of each polymer/CNT nanocomposite.
ENGINEERING SOLID SOLUTION PHYSICAL PROPERTIES TO ENABLE PHARMACEUTICAL PRODUCTS
Walter Michaeli, Andreas Neuss, May 2010
The use of a common solid solution intermediate to support multiple pharmaceutical product applications is demonstrated with particular emphasis on the physical particle attributes required for success. Design of suspensions, tablets, and injection molded products from spray dried or extruded solid solutions is described together with illustrative preclinical pharmacokinetic profiles.
RHEOLOGICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF ETHYLENE VINYL ACETATE
O. Y. Alothman, May 2010
The behavior of melt flow of Ethylene Vinyl Acetate was studied using a capillary rheometer. The true flow curves were obtained by applying the Bagley correction into the apparent flow curves. It was found that EVA follows the typical pseudoplastic behavior with power indices within the range of polyethyleneƒ??s power indices. Moreover, end pressure losses were estimated.
PROCESSING AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF JUTE FABRIC REINFORCED SMC MOLDINGS
Makoto Sarata , Masaharu Nishiura , Yuya Hidekuma , Masanori Okano , Asami Nakai , Hiroyuki Hamada, May 2010
Recent earth environmental concern requires easy recycle material system and the use of biodegradable polymer and natural fiber is noticed in composite materials. In this study jute cloth reinforced SMC was fabricated. And the effect of water included in jute cloth was investigated by bending impact and tensile testing. As a result it was revealed that the dry processing was very important to apply natural fiber for composite materials.
Processing and Mechanical Properties of Jute Fabric Reinforced SMC Moldings
Makoto Sarata , Masaharu Nishiura , Yuya Hidekuma , Masanori Okano , Asami Nakai , Hiroyuki Hamada, May 2010
Recent earth environmental concern requires easy recycle material system, and the use of biodegradable polymer and natural fiber is noticed in composite materials. In this study, jute cloth reinforced SMC was fabricated. And the effect of water included in jute cloth was investigated by bending, impact and tensile testing. As a result, it was revealed that the dry processing was very important to apply natural fiber for composite materials.
RHEOLOGICAL BEHAVIOR OF SULFONATED POLYSTYRENE IONOMERS
Masaharu Nishiura, Makoto Sarata, Yuya Hidekuma, Masanori Okano, Asami Nakai, Hiroyuki Hamada, May 2010
The rheological behavior of the alkali metal salts of oligomeric (Mw = 4 kg/mol) sulfonated polystyrene ionomers (SPS) was characterized using dynamic and steady shear measurements. Sulfonation increased the melt viscosity of the PS, by as much as 4 orders of magnitude, and the zero shear viscosity scaled with the Coulombic strength of the cation Although Mw was below the entanglement molecular weight, the ionomer melts exhibited strong elastic behavior.
SINGLE-WALLED CARBON NANOTUBE DISPERSION WITH ELECTROSTATICALLY TETHERED NANOPLATELETS
Ivan D. Lopez, Sven Hoffmann, Al Bednar, Tim A. Osswald, May 2010
We report an exceptionally effective method for physically pulling nanotube bundles apart by utilizing electrostatically tethered nanoplatelets to gather and concentrate sonication energy at the surface of nanotube aggregates. Following dispersion, the nanoplatelets can be separated from the nanotubes by tuning the ionic strength of the medium. This colloidal approach obviates the need to drastically modify nanotube surface chemistry to achieve full exfoliation, thereby preserving their intrinsic properties.
FILLING SIMULATION AND TEMPERATURE PREDICTION IN HOT RUNNER SYSTEMS
Ivan D. Lopez , Sven Hoffmann , Al Bednar , Tim A. Osswald, May 2010
A simulation based on the Radial Functions Method was implemented to estimate temperature and flow in hot runner systems during the mold filling process of a discshaped mold cavity. The simulation predicts temperature developments inside the hot runner and its effects on the temperature distribution inside the cavity. Filling cycles were repeated until the system reached steady state condition.
THE USE OF BETA NUCLEATION TO IMPROVE THE IMPACT STRENGTH AND REDUCE THE WARPAGE OF POLYPROPYLENE CAPS & CLOSURES
Philip Jacoby, May 2010
We have developed a unique masterbatch that can be used to produce polypropylene caps and closures containing the beta crystalline phase of PP. These caps exhibit dramatically improved impact strength without a significant loss of other desirable physical properties. Another benefit of beta-nucleated closures is improved dimensional stability and reduced warpage. The masterbatch can be added during molding of the closures by blending pellets of the masterbatch with that of the PP resin and no pre-compounding is required.
THE USE OF BETA NUCLEATION TO IMPROVE THE IMPACT STRENGTH AND REDUCE THE WARPAGE OF POLYPROPYLENE CAPS & CLOSURES
Philip Jacoby, May 2010
We have developed a unique masterbatch that can be used to produce polypropylene caps and closures containing the beta crystalline phase of PP. These caps exhibit dramatically improved impact strength without a significant loss of other desirable physical properties. Another benefit of beta-nucleated closures is improved dimensional stability and reduced warpage. The masterbatch can be added during molding of the closures by blending pellets of the masterbatch with that of the PP resin, and no pre-compounding is required.
SUDDEN FAILURE OF FINAL GRP PRODUCTS
Eric D. Bowersox, May 2010
Experience of application of chimney liner, process pipes, ducts, scrubbers, and other kinds of equipment demonstrates that under operating conditions their failure can occur. Failure occurs because of formation of cracks in chemically resistant layer of GRP multilayered structure. The structural and technological factors causing the failure of final GRP products are considered.
UNDERSTANDING THE ASTM METHOD FOR HEAT BUILD-UP
Steven Goldstein, May 2010
In reviewing the ASTM method for heat build-up one is curious as to the robustness of the method. The test method is designed for PVC only.


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