SPE Library

The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.

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Conference Proceedings
UNDERSTANDING THE ASTM METHOD FOR HEAT BUILD-UP
Steven Goldstein , Chris Valovic , Mark Gall, May 2010
In reviewing the ASTM method for heat build-up one is curious as to the robustness of the method. The test method is designed for PVC only.
ULTRASONIC DIAGNOSIS OF THE VIBRATION BEHAVIOR OF SCREWS IN A SINGLE SCREW EXTRUDER
Zhigang Sun , Leszek A. Utracki, May 2010
Ultrasonic diagnostic method of screw behavior during extrusion has been designed developed and evaluated for a single screw extruder. It was found that under the same processing conditions and depending on the past history of the equipment usage the vibration behavior of screws in the inspected processing equipment could vary noticeably and the vibration pattern repeated itself at every two screw revolutions. Results suggest that the vibration behavior of the screw is dictated by how the screw is engaged in and the status of the gearbox.
ULTRASONIC DIAGNOSIS OF THE VIBRATION BEHAVIOR OF SCREWS IN A SINGLE SCREW EXTRUDER
Zhigang Sun , Leszek A. Utracki, May 2010
Ultrasonic diagnostic method of screw behavior during extrusion has been designed, developed, and evaluated for a single screw extruder. It was found that under the same processing conditions and depending on the past history of the equipment usage, the vibration behavior of screws in the inspected processing equipment could vary noticeably and the vibration pattern repeated itself at every two screw revolutions. Results suggest that the vibration behavior of the screw is dictated by how the screw is engaged in and the status of the gearbox.
BREAKTHROUGH INVENTIONS AND INNOVATIONS IN DIE DESIGN FOR POLYMER PROCESSING
Joseph Dooley , Gary Oliver , Karen Xiao, May 2010
After a polymer has been converted from a solid to amolten state, it must be processed into a final shape tohave value to a customer. This final shape may be apellet, a film, a sheet, a profile, or many other finalgeometries. This paper will discuss some of thebreakthrough inventions and innovations in die design thatare used to produce this vast array of final polymerproduct shapes.
SHAPING THE EXPERTS OF TOMORROW: PREPARING THE WORKFORCE OF THE FUTURE
Michael Jaffe, George Collins, Anthony J. East, Willis Hammond, Zohar Ophir, Xianhong Feng, Paul Friedhoff, May 2010
With the retiring baby-boomers, educational challenges, poor public perception of manufacturing, and difficult economic climate, we are on the cusp of entering one of the most challenging times in American manufacturing. American manufacturers within all industries will be faced with tremendous difficulty in finding the skilled workforce they need to be competitive in todayƒ??s market. We need to identify the problem and layout a feasible first step in addressing it if we hope to minimize the impact.
IMPACT RESISTANCE AND RAMAN CHARACTERIZATION OF Al2O3/ZnO POLY(METHYL METHACRYLATE) NANOCOMPOSITES
Wantinee Viratyaporn , Richard L. Lehman, May 2010
In the present work, composites comprised of oxide nanoparticles in a PMMA matrix were studied and the Raman shifts associated with the interfacial moieties were identified and correlated with possible structures.The potential effects of these structural perturbations on composite properties are considered.
A ONE-STEP EXTRUSION PROCESS FOR PREPARING POLYOLEFIN/CLAY NANOCOMPOSITES USING SODIUM MONTMORILLONITE
Benjamin F. Ports , R. A. Weiss, May 2010
Polyolefin/clay nanocomposites were fabricated by directly melt compounding polyethylene with sodium montmorillonite a poly(ethylene-co-acrylic acid) ionomer compatibilizer and a quaternary ammonium salt in a simple one-step extrusion process. The effects of processing conditions salt structure and concentration on the clay dispersion morphology and mechanical properties were investigated using X-ray diffraction transmission electron microscopy and mechanical testing.
A ONE-STEP EXTRUSION PROCESS FOR PREPARING POLYOLEFIN/CLAY NANOCOMPOSITES USING SODIUM MONTMORILLONITE
Benjamin F. Ports , R. A. Weiss, May 2010
Polyolefin/clay nanocomposites were fabricated by directly melt compounding polyethylene with sodium montmorillonite, a poly(ethylene-co-acrylic acid) ionomer compatibilizer and a quaternary ammonium salt in a simple one-step extrusion process. The effects of processing conditions, salt structure and concentration on the clay dispersion, morphology and mechanical properties were investigated using X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and mechanical testing.
PART WEIGHT CONTROL VIA MODEL FREE OPTIMIZATION FOR INJECTION MOLDING
Xiangsong Kong , Xi Chen , Zhijiang Shao, May 2010
Quality requirements of injection molding parts have become more and more stringent. Part weight is one of the most important quality characteristics. A model free optimization method based on the simultaneous perturbation stochastic approximation (SPSA) method is presented for the weight control of injection molded parts. The experimental results using different materials show that this model free optimization method is effective for the part weight control.
PART WEIGHT CONTROL VIA MODEL FREE OPTIMIZATION FOR INJECTION MOLDING
Xiangsong Kong , Xi Chen , Zhijiang Shao, May 2010
Quality requirements of injection molding parts have become more and more stringent. Part weight is one of the most important quality characteristics. A model free optimization method based on the simultaneous perturbation stochastic approximation (SPSA) method is presented for the weight control of injection molded parts.The experimental results using different materials show that this model free optimization method is effective for the part weight control.
ENZYMATICALLY AND CHEMICALLY MODIFIED ABACA FIBRE FOR PP COMPOSITES
Andrzej K. Bledzki , Abdullah A. Mamun , Karsten Erdmann , M. M. Huque, May 2010
Abaca fibre reinforced PP composites were prepared using a high speed mixer followed by injection moulding with 30% of fibre load. Prior to composite production, the fibre was modified by o- hydroxy benzene diazonium salts, synthetic and natural enzyme. The effect of modification of the fibre was assessed on the basis of moisture resistance, mechanical, thermal properties of the resulting composites. Coupling agent (PPMA 6452) has been used to increase the interaction between fibre and polymer matrix.
PLA COMPOSITES REINFORCED BY WHEAT AND RYE HUSK
Andrzej K. Bledzki , Abdullah A. Mamun , Adam Jaszkiewicza , Jürgen Volk, May 2010
PLA-composite materials were prepared by injection moulding process through high speed hot-cool melt compounding process with 40 wt% loads of husk. Chain extender (Joncryl ADR 4368) has been used during the melt mixer. To characterize the composites materials morphology mechanical (tensile flexural and charpy) thermal (crystallinity Tg and Tm) and rheological (melt flow rate viscosity) properties were studied and the properties were compared to soft wood fibre composite’s properties.
PLA COMPOSITES REINFORCED BY WHEAT AND RYE HUSK
Andrzej K. Bledzki , Abdullah A. Mamun , Adam Jaszkiewicza , Jürgen Volk, May 2010
PLA-composite materials were prepared by injection moulding process through high speed hot-cool melt compounding process with 40 wt% loads of husk.Chain extender (Joncryl ADR 4368) has been used during the melt mixer. To characterize the composites materials, morphology, mechanical (tensile, flexural and charpy) thermal (crystallinity, Tg and Tm) and rheological (melt flow rate, viscosity) properties were studied and the properties were compared to soft wood fibre compositeƒ??s properties.
NANOMECHANICAL PROPERTIES IN ULTRATHIN POLYMER FILMS: MEASUREMENT ON RECTANGULAR VS CIRCULAR BUBBLES
Wade DePolo, Ronald D. Moffitt, Frederick L. Beyer, James M. Sands, May 2010
Confinement effects on the mechanical properties of ultrathin polymer films were investigated by a bubble inflation technique developed in our lab. Prior studies of ultrathin films of poly(vinyl acetate) (PVAc) and polystyrene (PS) were performed on circular bubbles of different diameters. Here we show early results of rectangular bubble measurements for PS thin films. Results are compared with those for the circular bubbles.
PROCESS IMPROVEMENTS FOR PLASTIC PROCESSORS RESULTING FROM A MODIFIED FORM OF TITANIUM DIOXIDE
Dr. Scott Wright , Brian Noble , Carlo Giubardo , Lisa Swain, May 2010
Titanium dioxide pigment (TiO2) is notoriously difficult to process due to its self-binding properties and dusty nature. It is possible for the form of the titanium dioxide to be modified to an easy-flow pigment. This modification allows for lower dust levels which improve the working environment, and offer process efficiencies which lead to lower conversion costs and more consistent quality.
TRENDS AND NEEDS IN AUTOMOTIVE MATCHED BY VARIOUS PLASTIC SUSTAINABLE SOLUTIONS
Bert Havenith, May 2010
An overview is given of the various drivers, needs and trends in the automotive industry and how these are matched by various new plastic solutions, which in the end all significantly increase the sustainability of various car components and of the cars in total.
ELECTRIFICATION OF HOT RUNNER SYSTEMS
Denis Babin , Hitesh Kaushal, May 2010
This paper overviews advancements in the electrification of valve gate actuation in Hot Runner systems for use in cleanroom environments. This paper offers a review of the existing technologies laying out the advantages and disadvantages of the various offerings in the market. It will also help the molders to choose the right application for cleanroom production.
ELECTRIFICATION OF HOT RUNNER SYSTEMS
Denis Babin , Hitesh Kaushal, May 2010
This paper overviews advancements in the electrification of valve gate actuation in Hot Runner systems for use in cleanroom environments. This paper offers a review of the existing technologies, laying out the advantages and disadvantages of the various offerings in the market. It will also help the molders to choose the right application for cleanroom production.
VIBRATION WELDING OF TWO DIFFERENT TYPES OF POLYAMIDE MATERIALS: GLASS FILLED PA6 TO GLASS FILLED PA66
D.S. Bangarusampath, Holger Ruckdäschel, Volker Altstädt, Jan K.W. Sandler, Milo S.P. Shaffer, May 2010
This paper presents experimental results on vibration welding of two different types of PA materials, PA6 and PA66 materials, which exhibit significantly different melting temperatures. Factors affecting the weld strength such as weld bead design and welding process parameters are presented in the paper.
MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF HEAT-SEALED PART IN ENVIRONMENTFRIENDLY FILM
Rei-ichi Konishi , Kazushi Yamada , Yasuo Hashimoto , Yew Wei Leong , Tetsuya Tsujii , Hiroyuki Hamada, May 2010
Multi-layered laminated films are widely used as general packaging materials and thermal lamination is one of the environmentally friendly techniques since it does not involve solvents during lamination. The heat exerted during the heat- sealing process however could affect the lamination strength of these films. In this study we focused on the relationship between the results of pinhole test and the properties of heat sealed parts.


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ANTEC 2016 - Indianapolis, Indiana, USA May 23-25, 2016. [On-line].
Society of Plastics Engineers
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