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The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.

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Conference Proceedings
EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF THE UNDERWATER PELLETIZING SYSTEM FOR PRODUCING PELLETS
Kun Chang Lin , Chia-Hsun Chen , Chen-Feng Kuan , Hsu-Chiang Kuan , Sin-Jhih Peng, May 2010
Underwater pelletizing currently is the most promising, most innovative and, concerning the range of plastics materials to be processed, the most flexible technique for the production of high-quality plastics pellets.In this work, we established the experimental analysis of the underwater pelletizing system for producing pellets. The key process conditions for producing small pellets (<1.5mm) are low extrusion throughput, high cutter rotating speed, and low possibility of die freeze-off.
ULTRASONIC EXTRUSION AND FILM BLOWING OF PA6/CLAY NANOCOMPOSITES
Nan Chen, Mohammad Monirul Hasan, Takashi Kuboki, Chul B. Park, May 2010
Polyamide 6 (PA6)/Clay 30B nanocomposites of various concentrations were prepared at different amplitudes using an ultrasonic extruder. The die pressure and ultrasonic power consumption were measured. X-ray patterns, thermal, mechanical and rheological properties of extruded nanocomposites were obtained. Films were manufactured from prepared nanocomposites by film blowing process and their structural and mechanical properties in the machine and transverse directions were studied.
EFFECT OF CROSSLINKING ON THE SOLUBILITY OF N2 IN ETHYLENE-VINYL ACETATE (EVA)
Nan Chen , Mohammad Monirul Hasan , Takashi Kuboki , Chul B. Park, May 2010
In this paper, the effect of the crosslinking degree on the solubility of N2 in Ethylene-Vinyl Acetate (EVA) was investigated. Determining the solubility of the blowing agent is crucial for achieving fine-cell products in both the continuous and batch foaming processes with crosslinking. The variation of the crosslinking degree was controlled for the EVA samples, and a magnetic suspension balance (MSB) was employed to run the sorption tests. The solubility results were analyzed and discussed based on the experimental data.
THE MECHANISMS OF CHLORINE DIOXIDE OXIDATION ON PLASTIC PIPING SYSTEMS
Sarah Chung , Tieqi Li , Ken Oliphant , Patrick Vibien, May 2010
There have been several studies on the impact of chlorine on plastic piping systems in potable water applications and methodologies of ensuring performance have been successfully developed. The impact of chlorine dioxide is less well known. In this paper laboratory exposed plastic pipe samples are examined to study the impact of chlorine dioxide on oxidative degradation in potable water applications. The mechanisms of oxidation are characterized and recommendations for long-term performance validation are presented.
ULTRASONIC EXTRUSION AND FILM BLOWING OF LLDPE/CLAY NANOCOMPOSITES
H. C. Chen, S. C. Chen, P.M. Hsu, H. S. Peng, Y. C. Wang, May 2010
LLDPE/Clay 20A nanocomposites of various concentrations were prepared at different amplitudes using an ultrasonic extruder. The die pressure and ultrasonic power consumption were measured. X-ray patterns, thermal, mechanical and rheological properties of extruded nanocomposites were measured. Films were manufactured from prepared nanocomposites by film blowing process and their structural and mechanical properties in the machine and transverse directions were studied.
MODELING MOLD CAVITY TEMPERATURE USING ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORK PARAMETER ESTIMATION TECHNIQUES
Scott E. Everett, Mauricio J. Hernandez, Rickey Dubay, May 2010
In injection molding, final product quality is influenced by the cycle average mold cavity temperature, which depends on the mold coolant flow-rate. The design of a generic average temperature controller is difficult due to the nonlinear characteristics of the in-mold part cooling process. In this investigation, the parameters of a lumped-model are obtained using artificial neural network techniques to develop a generic model-based control scheme that can be implemented in a variety of molds with minimal open loop testing.
MODELING MOLD CAVITY TEMPERATURE USING ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORK PARAMETER ESTIMATION TECHNIQUES
Scott E. Everett , Mauricio J. Hernandez , Rickey Dubay, May 2010
In injection molding final product quality is influenced by the cycle average mold cavity temperature which depends on the mold coolant flow-rate. The design of a generic average temperature controller is difficult due to the nonlinear characteristics of the in-mold part cooling process. In this investigation the parameters of a lumpedmodel are obtained using artificial neural network techniques to develop a generic model-based control scheme that can be implemented in a variety of molds with minimal open loop testing.
MICROPATTERNING PROTEINS ON PLA FILMS USING PHOTOLITHOGRAPHY
Rahul M. Rasal , Douglas E. Hirt, May 2010
In this research proteins were micropatterned on poly (lactic acid) (PLA) films. Poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) was micropatterned using photolithograph. These micropatterns were characterized using ATR-FTIR spectroscopy and toluidine blue dye staining. Acid groups were subsequently conjugated with amine terminated biotin using carbodiimide chemistry. Biotin micropatterned PLA films were then immersed in a solution of fluorescenceconjugated streptavidin. The streptavidin adsorption behavior was examined by fluorescence microscopy.
PACLITAXEL ATTACHMENT TO PLA-PHA BLEND FILMS
Courtney J. Taylor, May 2010
The overall objective of this research was to prepare paclitaxel-delivering poly(L-lactic acid) (PLA) - poly(hydroxyalkanoate) (PHA) blend films focusing on drug attachment to the films. Blend films (10 wt% PHA) were melt extruded using a single screw extruder. A sequential two step photografting approach was used to photograft poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) to the film surface.Acid groups from PAA were then reacted with a specific ƒ?? OH group on paclitaxel using water soluble carbodiimide chemistry. To assess the extent of drug attachment the resultant films were characterized using ATR-FTIR spectroscopy.
PACLITAXEL ATTACHMENT TO PLA-PHA BLEND FILMS
Courtney J. Taylor, May 2010
The overall objective of this research was to prepare paclitaxel-delivering poly(L-lactic acid) (PLA) - poly(hydroxyalkanoate) (PHA) blend films, focusing on drug attachment to the films. Blend films (10 wt% PHA) were melt extruded using a single screw extruder. A sequential two step photografting approach was used to photograft poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) to the film surface. Acid groups from PAA were then reacted with a specific – OH group on paclitaxel using water soluble carbodiimide chemistry. To assess the extent of drug attachment, the resultant films were characterized using ATR-FTIR spectroscopy.
MODELING THREE DIMENSIONAL SECONDARY FLOWS IN NON-CIRCULAR DUCTS
H. Inoya, Y. W. Leong, S. Thumsorn, S. Thitithanasarn, H. Hamada, May 2010
Viscoelastic secondary flows occurring in square ducts are simulated using the open source finite volume-based software, OpenFOAM. To validate a viscoelastic solver, experimental observations by other researchers were successfully reproduced, as well as compared to finite element results and recent results of a meshless technique known as the Radial Function Method (RFM). A single mode Giesekus and a multi-mode Phan-Thien Tanner (PTT) model are implemented to reproduce full three-dimensional (3D) flow through a square duct.
CONTRASTING DEFORMATIONAL CHARACTERISTICS BETWEEN LAMELLAR AND CYLINDRICALLY PHASE SEPARATED TPES
Mohit Mamodia , Alan J. Lesser, May 2010
In this study we investigate and compare the deformation behavior of SEBS triblock copolymers with lamellar and cylindrical morphology. Structural changes that occur at various length scales have been studied using a simultaneous small- and wide-angle X-ray diffraction (SAXD/WAXD) technique during uni-axial tensile deformation. Further deformation calorimetry is used to investigate the energetics involved during the deformation of these materials. Series of results from these various techniques indicate that the deformation takes place in three stages.
A NEW METHOD FOR CONTROLLING THE BARREL TEMPERATURE IN AN INJECTION MOLDING MACHINE
Meaghan Charest, Jose Mauricio Hernandez, Rickey Dubay, May 2010
A new method of obtaining open loop responses of a three barrel injection moulding machine is investigated. The method involves limiting the amount of heat transfer between adjacent zones by using a controller to create an artificial adiabatic wall. Since most barrel zones are run at or near to the same temperature, the system identified by the adiabatic wall method better represents industrial operating conditions. A predictive controller was designed to handle the dynamics of the adiabatic system and compared to a conventionally-tuned controller
THE EFFECT OF COMPATIBILIZER ON MICROFIBRILAR-PHASE FORMATION IN PE/PP BLENDS
Dana Hnidáková , Roman Cermák , Jana Výchopnová, May 2010
The paper focuses on the role of ethylene-propylenediene rubber compatibilizer in the formation of polypropylene microfibrils in polyethylene matrix during extrusion through semihyperbolic die. Several blends varying in phase composition was processed. The structure and properties were examined by scanning electron microscopy DSC and tensile testing. Significant changes in morphology and properties were observed.
ENVIRONMENTALLY SUSTAINABLE THERMOPLASTIC FOAMS: POLYLACTIDE FOAMS VERSUS POLYSTYRENE FOAMS
Shia-Chung Chen, Pham Son Minh, I-Sheng Hsieh, Yan-Chen Chiou, May 2010
Polystyrene (PS) foams have a number of desirable properties and thereby have been used for many applications. However, one of the most notable drawbacks of PS foams is its non-biodegradability. In recent years, polylactide (PLA) has been viewed as an environmentally sustainable substitute of PS. In this context, this paper aims to provide head-to-head comparisons between PLA and PS foaming processes, in terms of the cell formation mechanisms and foamability of the resultant foams.
EFFECTS OF E-BEAM IRRADIATION ON MELT BEHAVIOR OF POLY(LACTIC) ACID
Jon Lazarus , Anthony DiFonzo, May 2010
In this paper the effects of ionizing radiation on poly(lactic acid) PLA will be investigated. The PLA used in this experiment is a NatureWorks LLC extrusion and thermoforming polylactide resin product code 2002D. Its rheological properties will be investigated. This team worked in conjunction with Mr. Song Cheng and Scott Goetz of Sterigenics and Professor John Bartolomucci of the Pennsylvania College of Technology. The material was irradiated using electron beam radiation. The material was then tested to obtain rheological properties at various dosage levels.
ASYMMETRIC AND SYMMETRIC COMPOSITE FOAMS
Han-Xiong Huang, Jian-Kang Wang, Hong-Fei Xu, May 2010
In this work, symmetric and asymmetric structural polyethylene foams were produced via compression molding using a chemical blowing agent and wood fibres as reinforcement. By modifying the temperature field in a compression molding process, it is possible to adjust the density across the partƒ??s thickness. Here, the results are discussed in terms of density profile and mechanical properties.
CAVITY PRESSURE CONTROL DURING INJECTION IN AN INJECTION MOLDING MACHINE
José M. Hernández , Ma’moun Abu-Ayyad , Rickey Dubay, May 2010
Many investigations have emphasized the importance of cavity pressure in determining final part quality in an injection molding machine. During the injection cycle the main factor affecting cavity pressure is the screw hydraulic pressure valve Y3. Cavity pressure has some nonlinear characteristics thus an advanced control strategy is developed. Experiments quantified the relationship between the nozzle pressure and the Y3 valve in order to design a predictive controller. The controller was implemented with good closed loop results.
SIMULATION OF THE FOUNTAIN FLOW EFFECT BY MEANS OF THE RADIAL FUNCTIONS METHOD (RFM)
Lenka Chvátalová, Jana Výchopnová, Roman Cermá, Martin Obadal, May 2010
The fountain flow effect affects the orientation of the macromolecules and the mechanical and optical properties of injection molded parts. The fountain flow effect is modeled using the Radial Functions Method (RFM). In this paper, the flow in a planar slit and a steady state is considered. Good agreement between the obtained results (velocity field, pressure field and front shape) and the existing data in the literature was attained.
INVESTIGATING THE EFFECT OF INJECTION PRESSURE SCREW POSITION BARREL TEMPERATURE AND OTHER VARIABLES ON CAVITY PRESSURE
Daniel Hazen , Lee Hutson, May 2010
An investigation into the effect of injection pressure screw position barrel temperatures and other variables on cavity pressure data is presented. This approach consists of monitoring key process data features and using a Projections to Latent Structures (PLS) multivariate modeling technique to correlate injection molding process variables to cavity pressure data.


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