SPE Library

The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.

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Conference Proceedings
INFLUENCE OF CROSSLINKING ON RHEOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF ELASTOMER AND ITS FOAM EXTRUSION
N. Chen, J. Wang, R. Chu, C.B. Park, May 2010
In this paper, the effect of crosslinking on the flow properties in foam extrusion and injection molding was studied using. The change in flow resistance of Ethylene-Vinyl Acetate (EVA) from partial crosslinking of the resin was characterized, with and without the influence of the dissolved blowing agent. The shear and extensional viscosities of the resin were approximated through the analysis of the pressure drop across a Hele-Shaw die channel. The influence of blowing agent on the viscosity of the EVA resin was also investigated.
DEVELOPMENT OF CROSSLINKED WOOD FIBER/ELASTOMER FOAMS
Shia-Chung Chen, Shih-Hsien Tarng, Cheng-Han Tsai, Yan-Chen Chiou, Wen-Hsien Yang, May 2010
In this paper, the development of crosslinked wood fiber/Elastomer foams was investigated using a batch foaming system. Potential cost reduction and improvement of certain mechanical performance are the motivations of this study. The cell morphology of the foamed products was optimized by varying processing. The influence of different parameters on the cell structure was analyzed. The mechanical properties (tensile modulus and durometer hardness) were also measured to pursue the effect of wood fiber.
INCORPORATION OF SILICONES INTIO WOOD USING SUPERCRITICAL CO2
Scott A. Eastman , Alan J. Lesser , Thomas J. McCarthy, May 2010
Wood samples have been impregnated with silicones and subsequently crosslinked in-situ by utilizing supercritical CO2 as a solvent and transport medium.These wood-silicone composites have been exposed to controlled thermo-oxidative conditions under load to determine their time to failure. The time to failure of wood samples has been found to be related to temperature through an Arrhenius type relationship. The addition of silicone to wood significantly increases time to failure suggesting that the silicone is acting as a reinforcing scaffold during the thermal degradation of wood.
NEW ENVIRONMENTALLY PROGRESSIVE POLYESTER FR RESINS
Rama Konduri , Chris van der Weele, May 2010
New family of ENH flame retardant PBT (polybutylene terephthalate) thermoplastic polyester resins developed is aimed at helping electrical/electronics (E/E) manufacturers and suppliers comply with regulations restricting use and disposal of hazardous substances. The non-chlorinated non-brominated resin based on PBT delivers good ductility and strength than other nonhalogen flame-retardant PBT materials as well as electrical properties of standard flame-retardant PBT materials. Some of the resin properties will be discussed in this publication.
THE EFFECT OF EXTENSIONAL STRESS ON FOAMING BEHAVIORS OF POLYSYTRENE BLOWN WITH CARBON DIOXIDE
Jianxin Feng, Chunmeng Lu, Linjie Zhu, Peng Wang, Victor Tan, Qi Zhang, Shuli Teng, Subhash H. Patel, Ming-Wan Young, Costas G. Gogos, May 2010
Stresses can induce cell nucleation and affect the final cell morphology in plastic foaming processes. In our previous work, a novel batch foaming visualization system was developed in order to capture the in situ foaming process of a plastic specimen under extensional stress. Using the visualization system, this paper elucidates the effects of extensional stress on the foaming behaviors of polystyrene blown by carbon dioxide as processing conditions are varied.
FATIGUE TO CREEP PREDICTION IN BIMODAL POLYETHYLENE
Z. Zhu, J. Wang, J.W.S. Lee, Christian B. Park, May 2010
This paper describes the numerical analysis of cell growth during the filling and post-filling stages in injection foam molding. The pressure change with regard to a Lagrangian framework, as well as temperature distribution, was calculated using the Finite Element Method. The foaming initiation line was predicted by utilizing the solubility of the blowing agent in polymer. Individual bubble growth during the filling and post-filling stages was simulated using the Cell Model. Furthermore, cell trajectory during the filling stage was tracked.
NUMERICAL ANALYSIS OF CELL GROWTH DURING FILLING AND POST-FILLING STAGES IN INJECTION FOAM MOLDING
Z. Zhu , J. Wang , J.W.S Lee , C.B Park, May 2010
This paper describes the numerical analysis of cell growth during the filling and post-filling stages in injection foam molding. The pressure change with regard to a Lagrangian framework as well as temperature distribution was calculated using the Finite Element Method. The foaming initiation line was predicted by utilizing the solubility of the blowing agent in polymer. Individual bubble growth during the filling and post-filling stages was simulated using the Cell Model. Furthermore cell trajectory during the filling stage was tracked.
INFRARED THERMOGRAPHY APPLIED TO THE TENSILE TESTING OF PLASTICS
Moiz Jafferji, Daniel F. Schmidt, Emmanuelle Reynaud, May 2010
In this study, polypropylene tensile bars were tested at rates of 50, 100, 200, and 400 mm/min while monitoring their heat output using an infrared video camera. Stress-strain-temperature curves and plots correlating mechanical work with heat output were then generated. The results demonstrate that changes in deformation behavior may be quantified via this approach, providing a new means of relating loading conditions, microstructure and ultimate properties.
THE MICROSTRUCTURE AND QUALITY OF LASER-WELDED JOINTS
Mohammad H. Al-Wohoush , Musa R. Kamal, May 2010
The microstructural characteristics of laser-welded joints of PC PA-6 and PA-6 reinforced with 30% glass fibers were examined using optical and polarized light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The influence of laser power on the tensile strength of the laser-welded joints was examined and discussed in terms of various microstructural aspects. The melt fronts at the contact interface of PA-6 joints were monitored as a function of laser power. Glass fiber re-orientation in the reinforced PA-6 was also examined.
POLYETHYLENE – LAYER DOUBLE HYDROXIDE NANOCOMPOSITES: FLAMMABILITY AND THERMO PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
Divya Kosuri , Sunny M. Ogbomo , Nandika A. D’Souza, May 2010
Layer Double Hydroxides (LDH) as flame retardants are a growing interest. The quest for non-halogen flame retardants has led to the need to find non-toxic flame retardants for commercial use in polymers. This article reports the thermal and flammability properties of linear low density polyethylene (LLDPE) incorporated with LDH. The objective of this project is to evaluate the flame retardance of polyethylene. Thermophysical measurements and tensile results are also conducted.
NANOSCALE IR SPECTROSCOPY OF POLYMER SYSTEMS USING AN ATOMIC FORCE MICROSCOPE
Nivedita Sangaj, Amol Mohite, Abhijit Namjoshi, Vijay Mhetar, May 2010
We describe a lab based AFM based IR measurement capability that can obtain local spectra and IR maps over the spectral range of 1000-4000cm-1 with spatial resolution as high as 100nm. We demonstrate this new capability on a polymer multilayer.
A STUDY OF FOAMING MECHANISMS IN ROTATIONAL MOLDING
A. Gava, G. Lucchetta, May 2010
The presented research focuses on the fundamentals of the foaming process in rotational molding and control of final cellular structure. The experimental results of foaming experiments, performed under isothermal and non-isothermal conditions, indicate that the foaming process could be divided into three distinct phases: bubble nucleation, bubble growth and bubble coalescence. It was found that bubble growth and coalescence mechanisms are dynamically competing during the entire foaming process and the degree of uniformity and structure of the final foam are primarily determined by the nucleation stage.
MICRO INJECTION MOLDING OF LCP-MODIFIED PA66
A. Gava , G. Lucchetta, May 2010
Injection molded micro parts require accurate replication of micro-scale features. This replication is governed by complex mechanisms and its quality depend on the plastic material properties, the geometry of the features and the process conditions The objective of this paper is to improve the replication of the micro-scale features by decreasing the polymer viscosity. The effects of melt viscosity and molding conditions on replication of microscopic features in injection molded parts were examined for a PA66 blended with a LCP additive. The replication was measured at different contents of LCP and at different process conditions.
FACTORS CONSIDERED IN DARK COLORED WINDOWS AND SIDING Part I - THE COMPLEX COMBINATION OF REQUIRED VINYL PROPERTIES
Jian Wang, Marc Mangnus, Wallace Yau, Willem deGroot, Teresa Karjala, Mehmet Demirors, May 2010
Successful dark colored windows and siding require pigmentation for long-term durability and for solar reflection to avoid excessive temperatures, a durable polymer, limits on coefficient of linear thermal expansion to minimize buckling stresses, formulations with excellent initial and retained impact resistance, and a polymer base with sufficient glass transition temperature and buckling resistance to maintain shape at maximum solar heating for several decades of time.
INSERT FILM INJECTION MOLDING TECHNOLOGY FOR AUTOMOTIVE PLASTIC PARTS WITH THE MULTI-CAVITY MOLD SYSTEM
Sunghee Lee , Youngbae Ko , Jongwon Lee, May 2010
As modern users of automotive interior plastic parts demand to enhance higher surface quality and lower manufacturing cost, film insert molding method has been widely applied lately to these injection molded products. In this paper, the integration technique of vacuum thermal forming, insert film injection molding and cavity monitoring processes, which is performed on multi-cavity mold system, is proposed and performed both experimentally and numerically for an automotive plastic part model.
DEVELOPMENT AND TESTING OF NOVEL ORIFICE DIE DESIGN FOR EXTENSIONAL VISCOSITY MEASUREMENTS
M. Zatloukal , J. Musil, May 2010
In this work novel patent pending orifice die design for precise extensional viscosity data determination from entrance pressure drop measurements has been developed and tested both theoretically (through Finite Element Analysis) and experimentally. It has been demonstrated that the proposed novel orifice die allows much more precise extensional viscosity measurements for polymer melts in comparison with conventionally used orifice dies.
DEVELOPMENT AND TESTING OF NOVEL ORIFICE DIE DESIGN FOR EXTENSIONAL VISCOSITY MEASUREMENTS
M. Zatloukal , J. Musil, May 2010
In this work, novel patent pending orifice die design for precise extensional viscosity data determination from entrance pressure drop measurements has been developed and tested both, theoretically (through Finite Element Analysis) and experimentally. It has been demonstrated that the proposed novel orifice die allows much more precise extensional viscosity measurements for polymer melts in comparison with conventionally used orifice dies.
EFFECTS OF VARIATION OF CROSS-LINKING AGENT, EXPANSION TIME AND EXPANSION TEMPERATURE ON CORECELL-M FOAM PROPERTIES
P.R.W. Hanna, M.P. Kearns, E. Maziers, May 2010
CorecellTM is a unique SAN structural foam successfully used in the Wind Energy and Marine markets. Corecell's density can be controlled by different formulation and process parameters such as cross-linking agent, expansion time or temperature. The foam mechanical properties are also affected by each of these variables and therefore the relationship between density, properties and formulation is complex. This article describes these relationships and how Gurit has used this knowledge to develop the new CorecellTM M-foam.
STUDY INTO THE DENSIFICATION BEHAVIOUR OF POLYETHYLENES FOR ROTATIONAL MOULDING
P.R.W. Hanna , M.P. Kearns , E. Maziers, May 2010
The melting and densification behaviour of a range of Polyethylenes (PEs) produced from 2 different catalysts, Ziegler-Natta and Metallocene types, were investigated using a novel visual data acquisition and analysis system (TP Picture??), developed by Total Petrochemicals Research Feluy. Differences in the dissolution behaviour of the bubbles were observed and correlations with the material density, densification rate, bubble size/ distribution and MFI were determined.
UNDERSTANDING AND QUANTIFICATION OF DIE DROOL PHENOMENON DURING POLYPROPYLENE EXTRUSION PROCESS
M. Zatloukal , W. Sambaer , A. Libotte, May 2010
In this work die build-up phenomenon has been investigated theoretically by using FEM analysis as well as experimentally for polypropylene resins which are commonly used in the biaxial oriented film production. It has been demonstrated that the negative pressure at the die exit region is correable with die drool phenomenon in this case.


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