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The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.

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Conference Proceedings
POLYETHERIMIDE-POLYETHERETHERKETONE BLENDS AND MISCIBILITY
Charlie Y. Lin, Bruce A. Harrington, David B. Dunaway, May 2010
A polyetherimide (PEI, ULTEM* 1000 resin) and polyetheretherketone (PEEK) form a miscible blend that has been well studied. Blends of PEEK with other polyetherimides and polyimides were evaluated to determine miscibility. The effect of extent of miscibility on crystallization of PEEK is also assessed. Potential blends with a range of properties are presented.
IMPACT MODIFIED HIGH MODULUS PC/ABS BLENDS: AUTOMOTIVE AND NONAUTOMOTIVE APPLICATIONS
Amit S. Kulkarni , Parminder Agarwal , Jim DeRudder , Karin van de Wetering , Ying Li , Jenny Zhang, May 2010
The latest applications in automotive and computer & business equipment markets require a high modulus resin coupled with superior impact behavior. It is a challenge to deliver these new features in products coupled with other desirable properties such as low thermal expansion and optimal melt-flow that enables filling of complex parts. This manuscript details the development of new PC/ABS blends based on novel filler technology to deliver these market needs.
IMPACT MODIFIED HIGH MODULUS PC/ABS BLENDS: AUTOMOTIVE AND NON-IMPACT MODIFIED HIGH MODULUS PC/ABS BLENDS: AUTOMOTIVE AND NONAUTOMOTIVE
Amit S. Kulkarni , Parminder Agarwal , Jim DeRudder , Karin van de Wetering , Ying Li , Jenny Zhang, May 2010
The latest applications in automotive and computer & business equipment markets require a high modulus resin coupled with superior impact behavior. It is a challenge to deliver these new features in products, coupled with other desirable properties such as low thermal expansion and optimal melt-flow that enables filling of complex parts. This manuscript details the development of new PC/ABS blends based on novel filler technology to deliver these market needs.
UNDERSTANDING THE COMPATIBILIZATION OF POLYPROPYLENE/POLYSULFONE MEMBRANES
V. Flaris , N. Montero, May 2010
Polypropylene (PP)/polysulfone (PSU) membranes were successfully made using an environmentally-friendly process. Flux amongst other mechanical properties were improved with the introduction of functional polyolefins.Understanding the chemistry and location of the functional polyolefins is critical to explaining these improvements.
UNDERSTANDING THE COMPATIBILIZATION OF POLYPROPYLENE/POLYSULFONE MEMBRANES
V. Flaris , N. Montero, May 2010
Polypropylene (PP)/polysulfone (PSU) membranes were successfully made using an environmentally-friendly process. Flux amongst other mechanical properties, were improved with the introduction of functional polyolefins. Understanding the chemistry and location of the functional polyolefins is critical to explaining these improvements.
TOOLING AND PROCESSING OF CORNER MOLDS USING SIMULATION SOFTWARE
Ashley R. Kropf, May 2010
The optimal tooling and processing methods for a thermoplastic vulcanizate (TPV) have been investigated for a corner mold. Using TPVs has become a cost effective solution to replace thermoset rubber specifically ethylene propylene diene monomer (EPDM) rubber. Due to mold complexity and processing inconsistencies molders have tried varying the number and location of gates to achieve success. Using three-dimensional (3D) simulation software results indicate that one gate should be adequate for corner molding with TPVs.
MAPPING OF POYLMER NANOSTRUCTURES USING TEMPLATE ASSISTED METHOD
Daniel R. Joseph, May 2010
Recently it has been shown that the morphology of nanotubes plays a critical role in determining their behavior in vivo. The purpose of the current work is to utilize anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) templates to fabricate polystyrene nanostructures. The effects of molecular weight, concentration, template pore size and solvent on the resulting morphology have been characterized. Results indicate complete filling of homemade templates was achieved with 1wt% polymer solutions of when Mn > Me.
IMPROVING BLOWN FILM YIELD BY REDUCTION OF RESIN USED TO COVER PROCESS SHORTCOMINGS
Daniel R. Joseph, May 2010
This paper introduces the concept of improving blown film yield by reducing excess resin being used to cover chronic gauge problems and manual width control methods. The term runaway resin is introduced and quantified for manual width control. A case study is presented that demonstrates reductions in runaway resin and yield improvement by adding an easy to install width control system to a basic 405mm die (without internal bubble cooling) running commodity products.
IMPROVING BLOWN FILM YIELD BY REDUCTION OF RESIN USED TO COVER PROCESS SHORTCOMINGS
Daniel R. Joseph, May 2010
This paper introduces the concept of improving blown film yield by reducing excess resin being used to cover chronic gauge problems and manual width control methods. The term runaway resin is introduced and quantified for manual width control. A case study is presented that demonstrates reductions in runaway resin and yield improvement by adding an easy to install width control system to a basic 405mm die (without internal bubble cooling) running commodity products.
REVIEW PAPER: PROCESSING ASPECTS OF HOT MELT EXTRUSION IN PHARMACEUTICAL APPLICATIONS
Huiju Liu , Peng Wang , Marino Xanthos , Linjie Zhu , Costas G. Gogos, May 2010
Applying extrusion technology to drug manufacturing received increasing attention in the last two decades. Extrusion technology has the potential of replacing current pharmaceuticals manufacturing methods due to the advantages such as the elimination of solvent and the continuous and consistent high throughput. This article presents a brief review of Hot Melt Extrusion (HME) from polymer processing perspective, concentrating on mixing, material degradation and process analytical technology.
SIMULATION OF DISTRIBUTIVE AND DISPERSIVE MIXING IN A CO-ROTATING TWIN-SCREW EXTRUDER
L. Cong , M. Gupta, May 2010
Simulation results for mixing of two different polymers in a co-rotating twin-screw extruder are presented. Velocity distribution predicted by a threedimensional simulation of the flow is used to predict the change in the spatial distribution of initially segregated particles as well as the reduction in radius due to erosion.The predicted particle distribution is used to estimate the increase in Shannon entropy due to dispersive and distributive mixing along the extruder channel.
EXTRUSION FOAMING OF POLYMER NANOCOMPOSITES WITH DISTINCT STRAIN HARDENING CHARACTERISTICS
Amit K. Chaudhary, Krishnamurthy Jayaraman, May 2010
Thermoplastic foams were produced from two different polypropylene nanocomposites by extrusion with the help of a chemical blowing agent. The strain hardening ratio decreased with increasing strain rate for one of the nanocomposites. For the other nanocomposite melt, the strain hardening ratio was unchanged with strain rate. Smaller cell sizes (less than 40 microns in diameter) were obtained when the nanocomposite melt displayed strain hardening levels in extensional flow that were maintained over a range of strain rates.
STUDY ON MORPHOLOGY, CRYSTALLINITY, BARRIER AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF PET NANOCOMPOSITE FILMS
Gowrishankar Srinivasan, David Grewell,, May 2010
Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) nanocomposite films were prepared by cast extrusion followed by stretching, using chill rolls. Tensile modulus, tear and puncture resistance of the cast films were measured in the machine (MD) and transverse (TD) directions. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was used to study the effect of processing conditions on crystallinity of the products. Effects of draw ratio and clay content on the mechanical properties and on the oxygen permeability of the PET nanocomposite films were also evaluated.
POLYMERIC FILMS FOR SELECTIVE PERMEATION OF CO2 AND O2
H. Wang , V. Pethe , B. D. Freeman , A. Hiltner , E. Baer, May 2010
Polymeric membranes with high permeationselectivity for carbon dioxide (CO2) over oxygen (O2) wereprepared by melt-blending polyethylene oxide (PEO) with ethylene-co-acrylic acid (EAA) and also by layermultiplying coextrusion. The solid state structure and thermal behavior were characterized and the permeabilityof O 2 and CO2 was measured at 23 ?§C. Comparison ofblends and microlayers revealed that the high CO 2selectivity of PEO was most effectively captured when the PEO phase was continuous as in the microlayers or in the cocontinuous 50/50 melt blend.
NON-ISOTHERMAL SIMULATION OF THE FLOW IN CO-ROTATING AND COUNTER-ROTATING TWIN-SCREW EXTRUDERS USING MESH PARTITIOING TECHNIQUE
Mahesh Gupta, May 2010
A new algorithm for simulation of non-isothermal flow in a twin-screw extruder is introduced. In the new algorithm the finite element mesh of tetrahedral elements is created in the complete barrel including the space occupied by the screws. By partitioning the tetrahedral elements which are intersected by the screw surfaces into two tetrahedral pyramidal or prismatic finite elements the new algorithm allows the flow simulation in twinscrew extruder without regenerating the finite element mesh as the two screws rotate.
FLAMMABILITY OF FR-PP BASED SANDWICH INJECTION MOLDINGS
Makoto Seino , Manabu Nomura , Masaya Kotaki, May 2010
Flammability of frame retardant polypropylene (FR-PP) based sandwich injection moldings was investigated. Flame-retardant and filler were intentionally incorporated in the skin and the core parts of sandwich injection moldings. Sandwich injection moldings showed superior flame retardancy and mechanical properties when high contents of flame-retardant and filler were incorporated in the skin and the core parts respectively. This trend was remarkable when phosphorous flame-retardant (Intumescent) was used compared to bromine flame-retardant.
FLAMMABILITY OF FR-PP BASED SANDWICH INJECTION MOLDINGS
Makoto Seino , Manabu Nomura , Masaya Kotaki, May 2010
Flammability of flame retardant polypropylene (FR-PP) based sandwich injection moldings was investigated. Flame-retardant and filler were intentionally incorporated in the skin and the core parts of sandwich injection moldings. Sandwich injection moldings showed superior flame retardancy and mechanical properties when high contents of flame-retardant and filler were incorporated in the skin and the core parts, respectively. This trend was remarkable when phosphorous flame-retardant (Intumescent) was used compared to bromine flame-retardant.
RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PROPERTIES, CITRATE CONTENT AND POSTPRODUCTION TIME FOR A PLASTICIZED POLYLACTIC ACID
Jungjoo Lee, Lih-Sheng Turng, May 2010
Due to the recent interest on citrates as a biodegradable plasticizer for Polylactic acid PLA, several PLA blends that were plasticized with tributyl citrate TBC were prepared in a co-rotating twin screw extruder. A range of 12.4 to 22.5% by weight was considered for the plasticizer content. The thermal, rheological and mechanical properties were correlated with the plasticizer content and compared with pure Polylactic acid. Additionally, the change of these properties as a function of postproduction time was studied and correlated with the plasticizer permanence.
IMPROVEMENT IN SURFACE QUALITY OF MICROCELLULAR INJECTION MOLDED PARTS
Jungjoo Lee , Lih-Sheng Turng, May 2010
Microcellular injection molding has many advantages such as cost savings reduced cycle times and excellent shrinkage properties. However surface defects on the microcellular injection molded parts—such as gas-flow swirl marks and a lack of smoothness—still remain a challenge. This paper describes a method to improve the surface quality of microcellular injection molded parts.
IMPROVEMENT IN SURFACE QUALITY OF MICROCELLULAR INJECTION MOLDED PARTS
Jungjoo Lee , Lih-Sheng Turng, May 2010
Microcellular injection molding has many advantages such as cost savings, reduced cycle times, and excellent shrinkage properties. However, surface defects on the microcellular injection molded partsƒ??such as gas-flow swirl marks and a lack of smoothnessƒ??still remain a challenge. This paper describes a method to improve the surface quality of microcellular injection molded parts.


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