SPE Library


The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.

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Conference Proceedings

A STUDY ON THE EFFECT OF NAN-O-SIL ASD ON COOLING TIME REDUCTION
Jonathan Meckley, Pravin Shah, Richard Oder, May 2010

A cooling time study was performed to show the benefits of the Nan-O-Sil ASD additive. Through the use of an infrared camera, the parts temperatures can be examined. The parts warpage was also measured and compared to the neat resin for each material. The materials used in this study were PP, PBT - 33% glassfilled, Nylon 6/6 ƒ?? 33% glass-filled, ABS, and HDPE. Through the use of the Nan-O-Sil silica dioxide additive, cycle time can be reduced by as much as 70% in semi-crystalline materials.

THE RAPID ROTATIONAL FOAM MOLDING PROCESSING ADVANTAGE
Steve W. Tuszynski, May 2010

Over recent decades the rotational molding process has evolved into a technology that advantageously allows for creating a cellular structure, i.e., a distinct foamed layer or core within the interior of hollow moldings that can be encapsulated entirely within integrated solid skin boundary layer. However in order to survive the competition, its processing cycle time and the energy consumption must be reduced to levels not conceivable with the prior art, without compromising product quality.

STUDY OF ULTRASONIC WAVE EFFECT ON POLYPROPYLENE IN SOLUTION
J. Guillermo Martínez-Colunga , Carlos Ávila-Orta , Odilia Pérez-Camacho , J. Alberto Rodríguez-González, May 2010

The effect of ultrasonic radiation on polypropylene insolution was studied, applying different radiation doses(50 - 150 watts) for different exposure times from 10 -20 min., observing that for low energy and shortexposure time the change in molecular weight wasminor compared to greater doses and greater exposuretimes. In addition, changes in the temperature ofcrystallization and thermal properties were observedresulting from the action of the ultrasonic radiation onthe polymer .

THE BUILDING BLOCKS OF INNOVATION: DELIVERING COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE THROUGH CREATIVE PEOPLE
Stephen O. Bozzone , Bonnie J. Bachman, May 2010

The goal of innovation should be to create sustainablecompetitive advantage'not just create inventions withlittle or no market value. In order to compete, the productof service being offered must provide value to theconsumer, be differentiated from competitors' offerings,and be protected from imitation. Frequently employeesand managers involved with product development are notaware of the broader picture and the essential elementsnecessary to create innovative products.

INTERACTION OF HALS AND COLORANTS: PART II
David Bigio, May 2010

A series of colorants including yellows, reds, blues and greens have been evaluated when processed with monomeric and oligomeric HALS in PP and HDPE. Comparisons have been done in masstone and tint looking at effects on color shift and strength.

ADVANCEMENTS IN STACK MOLDING TECHNOLOGY
Sarah K. Overfield, May 2010

Stack molding can be an attractive way to improve the output and efficiency of an injection molding machine. However, molding parts simultaneously at multiple parting lines can introduce new challenges to both the mold maker and the molder. Mold complexity, residence time, and cavity filling are some of the key considerations. Advancements in the melt transfer technology that bridges the machine nozzle and the hot runner melt distribution system have addressed some of these challenges. The features, configurations, and technologies employed will be examined.

SYNTHESIS, CHARACTERIZATION, AND DEGRADATION OF BIOPLASTICS FROM RENEWABLE POLYFUNCTIONAL MONOMERS
Mathew D. Rowe , Keisha B. Walters, May 2010

Bioplastics were produced by the copolymerization of 1,3-propanediol (PDO) with malonic acid (MA) and with itaconic acid (IA). Effects of reaction temperature and time were examined on the yields and molecular weight (MW) distributions. The resultant bioplastics were characterized using FTIR and 1H NMR and were found to contain anhydride, ester, and ether backbone functional groups. Hydrolytic degradation of the PDO-MA copolymer was also studied as a function of time, temperature, and pH.

VOICE OF THE CUSTOMER: ITS IMPACT ON INNOVATION AND COMMERCIAL SUCCESS
Philip Mayfield, May 2010

This article focuses on obtaining custome rrequirements as a part of the product development process. A common mistake in product development is to begin development without obtaining the Voice of the Customer (VOC). This leads to products that are likely to be financially unsuccessful, such as the Segway'. Companies that take the time to research customer requirements can develop fiscally successful products. An example of this is the patented plastic resealable packaging developed by Kraft Foods.

POLYPHENYLENE ETHER MACROMOLECULES. VII. PERFORMANCE IN T-BUTYL STYRENE/DIVINYL BENZENE RESIN SYSTEM
Can Weng, W.B. Lee, S. To, May 2010

The optical quality of plastic microlens arrays is very sensitive to the presence of residual stress induced during the molding process. In this paper, the effects of aperture structures on the maximum value of residual stress have been investigated. The results from numerical simulation indicate that the geometrical configuration of the aperture can profoundly influence the levels of residual stress in precision injection molded microlens arrays. The five aperture structures present similar trends to the change of mold temperature, packing pressure, packing time and cooling time. With regard to melt temperature and flow rate, the trends of maximum value of residual stress exhibit differences with different aperture structures. It is shown that the cooling time has the least effect on the residual stress. The aperture structure of microlens arrays should be considered the effects on final quality of product at the initial stage of optical design.

EFFECTS OF APERTURE STRUCTURE ON RESIDUAL STRESS OF PRECISION INJECTION MOLDED MICROLENS ARRAYS
Can Weng , W. B. Lee , S. To, May 2010

The optical quality of plastic microlens arrays is very sensitive to the presence of residual stress induced during the molding process. In this paper, the effects of aperture structures on the maximum value of residual stress have been investigated. The results from numerical simulation indicate that the geometrical configuration of the aperture can profoundly influence the levels of residual stress in precision injection molded microlens arrays. The five aperture structures present similar trends to the change of mold temperature, packing pressure, packing time and cooling time. With regard to melt temperature and flow rate, the trends of maximum value of residual stress exhibit differences with different aperture structures. It is shown that the cooling time has the least effect on the residual stress. The aperture structure of microlens arrays should be considered the effects on final quality of product at the initial stage of optical design.

PRESSURE/FLOW PERFORMANCE OF VISCOELASTIC POLYMERIC MELTS IN CYLINDRICAL CHANNELS
Hossein Hosseini , Boris V. Berdyshev , Mohammad Mosaddegh, May 2010

One of the most widespread practical methods of polymer processing is the extrusion method that is based on pressing a polymeric melt through channels of the molding tool which have different geometrical crosssections.The basic performance of extrusion is based on the pressure/flow performance which sets functional correlation between volumetric flow rate of a polymer medium pressed through a molding tool and created pressure drop. Arguments of this correlation are the rheological parameters of polymer and the geometrical characteristics of the channel in which the polymeric melt flows. In this paper a viscoelastic model with a corrected strain energy function is implemented. The comparison of revealed theoretical expression in this paper with the experimental data for flow of polymeric melts in cylindrical channels with various cross-sections demonstrates a good convergence over a wide range of pressure.

PREPARATION OF POLYPROPYLENE-ORGANOCLAY ANOCOMPOSITES: EFFECT ON THERMAL, MORPHOLOGICAL AND VISCOELASTIC PROPERTIES
Mohammad Al-haj Ali, Rabeh Elleithy, Saeed AlZahrani, Achmad Chafidz, May 2010

In the present work, PP-clay nanocomposites were prepared and the effect of nanoclay content on the properties of the nanocomposite was studied. polypropylene/surface modified clay nanocomposites were prepared via melt blending method in a laboratory mixing extruder (LME) using commercial polypropylene (PP) and nanoclay masterbatch in concentrations ranging from 5 to 15 wt%. The structure and thermal-mechanical features of the nanocomposites were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) as well as dynamic mechanical analyzer (DMA). For all nanoclays loadings, SEM shows homogeneous dispersion of the nanoclay in the polymer matrix. The DSC curves show a 15% increase in heat of fusion (crystallinity content) up to 5% wt nanoclay loading but then decreased at higher loadings. This is attributed to the nucleating role of the silica particles at low nanocaly content; however, at relatively high loadings, the presence of excessive number of silica particles hinders the motion of polymer chain segments and thus, retards crystal growth. The temperature sweep reveals an increase in storage modulus (G') with increasing nanoparticles content due to the restricted motion of the PP chains as a result of the interaction between the nanoclay and the matrix that depends on the interfacial area shared between the PP and the nanoclay. As the interfacial area increased, the interaction increased, and hence the chains were more restricted. Besides, the estimation of the softening temperature as well as the slope of the flat region of the curves show that the addition of the nonmaterial increases the thermal stability of the nanocomposites as compared to the neat polypropylene.

COMPARING THE RHEOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF SELECTED POLYOLEFINS USING ROTATIONAL RHEOMETRY TO THOSE OBTAINED FROM MELT FLOW INDEX; A TRILOGY
Eric A. Koester, May 2010

This paper is the third in a series which was previously presented in ANTEC08(1) and ANTEC09(2). These papers showed different applications of the melt flow index, MFI, equipment. These applications included the temperature and/or shear sensitivity, extrudate (die) swell, melt density, melt strength, thermal degradation, and processability of polyolefins. In the current paper, the relation between the measured values via MFI equipment will be related to the viscoelastic properties measured by rotational rheometer. For example, the extrudate swell will be compared to the elastic properties of some polyolefins. Additionally, the processability will be analyzed via the relationships of viscosity, shear rate, and temperature. Moreover, some molecular structure parameters are indentified and then are used to interpret some of the properties measured by the MFI equipment.

HOW TO STRUCTURE FUND & FINANCE A CLEAN TECHNOLOGY VENTURE: TRENDS FOR DEVELOPING INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGIES IN A “GREENING” MARKETPLACE
Eric A. Koester, May 2010

The plastics industry and related markets represents a substantial opportunity for entrepreneurial and intrapreneural activity ƒ?? particularly in the emerging Clean Technology space. Investment into clean technology is one of the fastest growing markets. However the plastics industry is currently lagging in its ability of startup technologies to tap into those funds. In order to increase access to capital the plastics industry must continue to foster innovation through its development of clean technologies companies. These companies will be built on entrepreneurial and scientific talent broad market opportunities and cutting edge technologies. There are many challenges faced by clean technology companies but with the right foresight and planning success can be achieved and new technologies commercialized.This presentation will provide insights into the clean technology marketplace and insights into successful companies within the plastics industry. In addition weƒ??ll explore what new and emerging companies will require in order to tap into investment dollars and advance their technologies.

UNDERSTANDING THE CONSEQUENCE OF DUCTILE-TO-BRITTLE TRANSITIONS IN A PLASTIC MATERIALS FAILURE
Jeffrey A. Jansen, May 2010

The goal of a failure analysis is to identify the mode and cause of the failure. The assignment of the failure mode is often straightforward through fractographic techniques.Comparatively the determination of the cause of the failure is often less apparent but required if proper corrective action is to be carried out. Many times the cause of the failure is related to factors that produce a ductile-to-brittle transition within the material. These factors are associated with material processing design and service issues. This paper addresses the failure modes of thermoplastic resins in regards to a ductile-to-brittle transition as the cause of the failure.

UNDERSTANDING THE CONSEQUENCE OF DUCTILE-TO-BRITTLE TRANSITIONS IN A PLASTIC MATERIALS FAILURE
Jeffrey A. Jansen, May 2010

The goal of a failure analysis is to identify the mode and cause of the failure. The assignment of the failure mode is often straightforward through fractographic techniques. Comparatively, the determination of the cause of the failure is often less apparent, but required if proper corrective action is to be carried out. Many times the cause of the failure is related to factors that produce a ductile-to-brittle transition within the material. These factors are associated with material, processing, design, and service issues. This paper addresses the failure modes of thermoplastic resins in regards to a ductile-to-brittle transition as the cause of the failure.

CHARACTERIZATION OF VIRGIN-RPET COMPOSITES
Greg Curtzwiler , Keith L. Vorst , Wyatt Brown , J. Singh, May 2010

Thermoformed polyethylene terephthalate (PET) produce trays (clamshells) produced by a large retail supplier using virgin resin were compared to PET clamshells containing 30, 70, or 100% recycled-PET (RPET). Comparisons were made of functional groups, ultravioletvisible (UV-Vis) light absorption, and thermal properties. An increase in the crystallization temperature was observed as RPET increased when compared to virgin PET. This suggests that the crystallization temperature (Tc) may be used as a quantitative indicator for determining the amount of RPET in a plastic composite.

MOST CRITICAL STEPS FOR REPLACING METAL WITH HIGH PERFORMANCE ENGINEERING POLYMERS (HPEP) FOR UNDER-HOOD APPLICATIONS
Kirit C. Desai, May 2010

In today's competitive world, speed to the global market plays a major role in overall success of a conversion program. When it comes to metal to plastic conversion, most designers still think in terms of direct part-for-part replacement which adds both cost and time to the overall development cycle. In order to expedite the conversion process, there have been significant developments in polymer science, plastic processing and simulation technologies. The new range of HPEP compounds offers the best price-performance options, whereas the latest wave of simulation technology provides a reliable method to predict part performance. This paper talks explains the importance of understanding material properties and the re-designing for plastics to reduce product development cycle time. It also discusses the new development in simulation technology, commonly known as computer aided engineering (CAE) integration.

SONOPLAST NEW PROCESS AND MACHINERY FOR MICROPARTS MOLDING BASED ON ULTRASOUND EXCITATION
Esther Richards, Reza Rizvi, Andrew Chow, Hani Naguib, May 2010

Injection molding although widely extended as one of the main replication technologies has shown important limitations when applied to the manufacture of plastic parts in the micro and mini scale. The present work describes a new moulding process based on the fusion ofthat has been thermoplastics materials via ultrasounds developed in the Sonoplast European project. First experimental achievements led to an innovative concept of mould and ultrasound moulding machine for the production of plastic parts (micro and mini). In addition the molding process management is simplified and directed by few machine parameters differing from conventional injection molding. The ultrasound molding process is extremely fast and with reduced filling pressures achieves a very good reproduction of the mould micro details. Besides it has been possible to obtain reductions about 50% on sprue volumes (around 0,16 g of plastic per shot) comparing with a conventional microinjection machine. Moreover, process energy consumption and power requirements are between 500 and 1200J and 200 and 500W, respectively. Finally, rheological analysis showed that no noticeable degradation process occurred after processing; equally, tensile testing gave better mechanical performance retention, comparing with traditional microinjection processes.

SYNTHESIS AND PHYSICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF BIODEGRADABLE PLA/PHBV FOAMS
Esther Richards , Reza Rizvi , Andrew Chow , Hani Naguib, May 2010

This paper examines the effect that blending two biodegradable polymers has on the thermal properties and morphology of the resultant foams blown with carbon dioxide (CO2). Polylactic acid (PLA) Polyhydroxybutyrate-co-valerate (PHBV) and blends of both were foamed and characterized in terms of thermal characteristics relative density cell size and foam morphology. The results indicate that although PLA and PHBV are immiscible the presence of small quantities of PHBV could lead to low density foams with finer more uniform cells.










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