The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.
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A NUMERICAL STUDY ON BLOW MOLDING FOR MANUFACTURING PET BOTTLE CONSISTED OF SINGLE BODY
Forming of PET bottle was performed by injection-stretch blow molding. Blow molding is the process of blowing pressured air into heated preform to make contact with mold cavity. In this paper, the aim was to improve reliability of technical stabilization for the PET bottle that is last productive product and process technology which was able to do maximization by a preform performance enhancement of the uniform thickness that took temperature and a characteristic of materials. Preform design and molds manufacture were conducted using injection blow molding analysis results. Therefore thickness error of 5% for PET bottle can be obtained in this paper.
FOAMING POLYPROPYLENE WITH NANOCLAYS
The object of this paper was to investigate extrusion foaming of different nanocomposites prepared with a linear polypropylene and chemically modified montmorillonite. A chemical blowing agent was used with dies of 2 mm diameter mounted in a single screw extruder. Although the filler loading was about the same in the two nanocomposites the quality of the foam produced was quite different: one of them was all closed cell and had a more uniform cell size distribution. This nanocomposite had two distinct characteristics: the melt displayed strain hardening in uniaxial extensional flow while the other did not and its crystallization temperature was higher than that of the other nanocomposite.
ULTRASOUND AIDED EXTRUSION PROCESS FOR PREPARATION OF POLYOLEFIN-CLAY NANOCOMPOSITES
A continuous ultrasound assisted process using a single screw compounding extruder with an ultrasonic attachment was developed to prepare polyolefin/clay nanocomposites. High density polyethylene (HDPE) and isotactic polypropylene (PP) were compared. The feed rate that controls the residence time of the polymer in the ultrasonic treatment zone was varied. Die pressure and power consumption were measured.Rheological properties morphology and mechanical properties of the untreated and ultrasonically treated nanocomposites were studied. Similarities and differences of obtained nanocomposites are discussed based on their properties and structural characteristics.
ON THE INTERFACIAL BONDING CHARACTERISTICS BETWEEN POLYOXYMETHYLENE AND POLY(LACTIC ACID)
Successful blending of polyoxymethylene (POM) and poly(lactic acid) (PLA) was possible due to the presence of compatible functional groups in both components. However, the extent of interfacial adhesion between POM and PLA is still unclear and therefore will be elucidated in this study. The interfacial bonding strength between POM and PLA was investigated by injecting these materials through separate injection units into a single mold cavity so that the two melt fronts meet to form a weld line. The effect of POM concentration at the interface on the bonding strength was also determined by blending it with varying amounts of PLA prior to injection. The highest strength was obtained when the weld line was formed between neat POM and neat PLA. The strength of the weld line exceeded that of the bulk materials and fracture occurred away from the weld region. The blending of POM with PLA significantly improved their ductility. However, the bonding between POM/PLA blends and neat PLA was weakened especially when the POM content was reduced to become a minor phase in the blend. Etching of the PLA phase at the fractured regions revealed very interesting spherulitic patterns, which indicates unidirectional propagation of POM spherulites across the interface to form transcrystlline regions. This effectively contributed towards the strengthening of the interfacial region.
CHALLENGE STABLE MOLDING PROCESSES WITH CONFIDENCE!
What is the hidden potential of stable molding processes where are the envelope borders? Difficult to answer indeed. The polymer phenomena the interaction with mold components the runner-system and the process can hardly be understood intuitively any longer. Advanced polymer system simulation is required to confidently find ways from a stable process-setup to a more profitable within the molding window. Imagine 6 existing similar 4-cavity-2-component molds and market demands pressure to invest into mold no. 7. This paper focuses on this two component process discusses the improvement found by 3D polymer system simulation and the gains which were realized.
CHALLENGE STABLE MOLDING PROCESSES, WITH CONFIDENCE!
What is the hidden potential of stable molding processes, where are the envelope borders? Difficult to answer, indeed. The polymer phenomena, the interaction with mold components, the runner-system and the process can hardly be understood intuitively any longer. Advanced polymer system simulation is required to confidently find ways from a stable process-setup to a more profitable within the molding window. Imagine 6 existing similar 4-cavity-2-component molds and market demands pressure to invest into mold no. 7. This paper focuses on this two component process, discusses the improvement found by 3D polymer system simulation and the gains which were realized.
MECHANICAL PERFORMANCE AND FRACTURE CHARACTERISTICS OF INJECTION MOLDED R-PET/PE-E-GMA BLENDS
The effect of the amount of reactive additive and screw speed during extrusion on the morphological characteristics and mechanical performance of recycled poly(ethylene terephthalate) (RPET) has been investigated. With the increase of E-GMA additive content, a gradual increment in Izod impact strength of the RPET/E-GMA blends was initially recorded. Subsequent increments in E-GMA content to above 13.5 wt% led to a drastic enhancement in the toughness of the blends. Meanwhile, the density of the blends decreased with increasing amount of additive E-GMA. The toughness and density of the blends were found to be dependent on screw speed during the extrusion. In addition, ductile and microporous structures could be observed from the Izod impact fracture surfaces.
LESSONS LEARNED THROUGH DEPLOYING AN UNCONVENTIONAL DESIGN FOR LEAN SIX SIGMA DEPLOYMENT PROGRAM
In early 2005 Xerox Corporation began deployment of their Design for Lean Six Sigma initiative. This unconventional program structure was built around elements such as a unique competency-based certification process and a push coaching model. Throughout the program development and deployment to the technology and product development community there were a series of lessons learn. These typically focused on what worked did not work and was ultimately could be characterized as interesting. This paper outlines what was learned and the impact these lessons had on the overall Design for Lean Six Sigma program.
EFFECTIVENESS OF TALC AS REINFORCEMENT FOR RECYCLED-PET/PE-G-MA BLENDS
Recycling post-consumer PET bottles is an essential and practical solution to reduce the amount of waste discarded at the landfills. Several methods are commonly used to recycle PET such as fiber making, sheet extrusion and injection molding. However, PET is known to exhibit low notched impact strength and low heat distortion temperature. In this study, an impact modifier was successfully used to enhance the toughness of recycled RPET (RPET). Subsequently, talc, which is typically used in polypropylene, was introduced into RPET and its effectiveness as a reinforcement was evaluated. It was noted that the heat distortion temperature (HDT) of the composites increased significantly with increasing talc content.
OPEN-CELLED THERMOPLASTIC FOAM FOR AQUEOUS-BASED FLUID ABSORPTION
The development of open-cell foaming technologies opens a new avenue in the search for less expensive alternatives to conventional absorbent materials used in personal care and hygienic products. This paper presents a systematic study conducted on the development of low density, open-celled thermoplastic foam for aqueousbased fluid absorption. Open-celled polystyrene foam structures were fabricated using extrusion foaming techniques with n-butane as blowing agent. Sulfonated polystyrene was introduced to the polymer system to improve the hydrophilicity of the polymer system. The effect of the addition of such surfactant on the cellular morphology and water absorption ability was examined.
EFFECTIVENESS OF SUPERCRITICAL FLUID FOR FOAMING OF POLY(LACTIC ACID) DURING INJECTION MOLDING
Poly(lactic acid) (PLA) is one of the most favorable candidates to replace conventional packaging materials due to its biodegradability and sustainability. However, its high viscosity and density often poses a challenge to melt processing especially injection molding. In this study, PLA was injection molded and foamed by using supercritical N2. Injection molding parameters such as mold temperature and SCF content were varied in order to investigate their effects on foam cell size. The effects of nucleating agent on the foam structure and cell size distribution were also elucidated by image analysis. Impact and dynamic mechanical performance of the foams were also evaluated.
EFFECT OF NATURAL FIBER SURFACE TREATMENT ON THE INTERFACIAL ADHESION AND MECHANICAL PERFORMANCE OF POLY (LACTIC ACID)-BASED TEXTILE INSERT MOLDINGS
Poly (lactic acid) (PLA) is known to be a relatively brittle material, which significantly narrows its window of application. Natural fibers such as jute have therefore been incorporated into PLA in order to improve its mechanical performance while maintaining its biodegradability. However, most injection molded PLA-based natural fiber composites consist of short fibers. This study involves the usage of textile insert molding technique to incorporate continuous natural fiber mats onto PLA substrates. This unique technique is extremely versatile, fast and most importantly prevents exposure of the natural fibers to high temperatures for long periods of time. A naturally derived surface treatment, i.e. aqueous shellac resin, was also used to treat the surface of the natural fibers to modify interfacial adhesion. The effect of shellac concentration on the mechanical performance of the moldings was elucidated.
GRADIENT MULTILAYER FILMS BY FORCED ASSEMBLY COEXTRUSION
A breakthrough in the design of novel uneven" split layer multiplying dies has enabled co-extrusion processing advancements from uniform to gradient layer thickness multilayered films. "Uneven" split layer multiplier and "forced assembly" technology provides flexibility in the design of gradient multilayer film distributions by (1) altering the die A/B split ratio and (2) changing the sequencing of a series of "uneven" split layer multiplying dies. Flexibility in the design of gradient layer distributions allows for the development of unique multilayered films for a variety of applications. Gradient films with layer thickness distributions in the micro- and nanometer scale have been shown to possess wide optical reflection bands which are envisioned to be used as light enhancers filters and reflectors in electronic and information devices. A breakthrough in the design of novel uneven" split layer multiplying dies has enabled co-extrusion processing advancements from uniform to gradient layer thickness multilayered films. "Uneven" split layer multiplier and "forced assembly" technology provides flexibility in the design of gradient multilayer film distributions by (1) altering the die A/B split ratio and (2) changing the sequencing of a series of "uneven" split layer multiplying dies. Flexibility in the design of gradient layer distributions allows for the development of unique multilayered films for a variety of applications. Gradient films with layer thickness distributions in the micro- and nanometer scale have been shown to possess wide optical reflection bands which are envisioned to be used as light enhancers filters and reflectors in electronic and information devices and controlled release applications. "
PROPOSAL OF WET REGULATED INSULATION MOLD SYSTEM (WRI-MOLD) FOR HIGH-GRADE SURFACE QUALITY UNDER LOW INJECTION PRESSURE
In most injection molded parts, the surface appearance is especially important to enhance aesthetic qualities. Surface irregularities such as sink marks, weld lines and flow marks are undesirable although often unavoidable. Therefore, a novel concept, known as WRI-molding, was introduced whereby the temperature of the mold cavity and core surfaces were carefully regulated in order to change the tackiness of the resin as well as to generate resin movement towards the cavity surface to compensate for any surface irregularities of the product. Another interesting aspect of this technique is the possibility of producing moldings with good surface appearance under low injection pressures, irrespective of whether the material involved is of a neat resin or a filled composite system. The effectiveness of the WRI-molding technique in surface replication and enhancement of surface gloss in moldings will be discussed.
PROPERTIES OF COMPOSITES PREPARED FROM COCKLESHELL-DERIVED CaCO3 FILLED POLYPROPYLENE
Mineral fillers were prepared from cockleshell derived CaCO3 and used to fill polypropylene. The composites were prepared by melt blending and fabricated by injection and compression molding techniques. The effects of micro filler on crystal structure, crystallization and thermal degradation characteristics of filled polypropylene composites were elucidated. The cockleshell filler promoted the formation of the ?ý- crystalline phase in PP, which improved the rigidity and toughness of the composites. However, stearic acid treatments on the filler would significantly affect the nucleation process and therefore hindered crystallization. Acceleration in thermal degradation of PP was also noted with increasing filler loading.
EFFICACY OF SATURATED DESIGN OF EXPERIMENTS IN MULTIVARIATE PROCESS CHARACTERIZATION
Process characterization provides a model of process responses as a function of process factors, which is useful for process optimization and quality control. In this paper, four Design of Experiments (DOE) are implemented for a thin wall molding process, including two fractional factorial designs, a D-optimal design, and a supersaturated fractional factorial design. The capability of the DOEs are subsequently analyzed with respect to the estimated main effects and defect prediction capabilities. The results indicate that fully saturated designs are satisfactory for process characterization, but all critical process factors should be investigated. Experimental designs having confounded process factors were found preferable to experimental designs of similar size that were not confounded, but investigated fewer factors.
DEPENDANCE OF CRACK-TIP TEMPERATURE ON STRESS INTENSITY AND NOTCH-SENSITIVITY OF POLYETHYLENE TEREPHTHALATE
During tensile loading, the temperature of notched materials is correlated to the applied stress and its resultant strain. At crack propagation, the strain energy that is released, or work done during deformation, affects the temperature at the crack tip and the yielding axis. The intensity of the temperature is seen to depend on the notch depth and stress intensity at the notch root. In this investigation, an infrared camera was used to monitor the temperature distribution around the crack axis during the tensile loading of notched PET specimens. The correlations between the temperature distributions at the crack-tip, notch sensitivity and essential work of fracture were established. Results reveal that the one of the major fracture mechanism that increases temperature is a mixed mode fracture. This occurs when crazing precedes semiductile/ brittle fracture. It was observed that the highest change at the notch root temperature occurred in samples where the notch depths are located at the interface between the skin and the core regions.
TEXTILE INSERTED SANDWICH STRUCTURE BY INJECTION-PRESS MOLDING
The current study is to research the sandwich molding process of both the plate type reinforced material inserted sandwich structure and the textile inserted sandwich structure. The sandwich molding process in this study consists of injection molding process and injection-press molding process. The sandwich plate type insert glass fiber-reinforced polypropylene (GFPP) instead of textile was studied mainly. Additionally, the relationship between the improvement of strength and the lightening of weight was investigated through controlling the position of the plate type insert of GFPP in the sandwich structure. It is found that this sandwich molding process was effective in controlling position of the insert in the sandwich structure. And through controlling position of the insert, this sandwich process was possible to improve the strength and to lighten the weight by reducing thickness of the sandwich structure.
ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH AND SAFETY ISSUES AND APPROACHES FOR THE PROCESSING OF POLYMER NANOCOMPOSITES
In 2005 Environmental Defense and DuPont entered into a partnership to develop a framework that seeks to identify and address potential environmental health and safety (EH&S) risks of nano-scale materials. The Nano Risk Framework was published to establish a systematic and disciplined process to identify and reduce potential risks during nanomaterial development and meet continued product stewardship commitments . This paper describes an approach developed for and the application of the Framework to the processing of polymer nanocomposites at laboratory and semi-works scales. Carbon nanotubes were melt-blended into a polymer matrix with a batch mixer to improve mechanical and electrical properties.Nano-TiO2 nanocomposites were made on laboratoryand semi-works extruders. These case studies exemplify DuPontƒ??s approach to handling nanomaterials in the product research and evaluation phase of development.Utilization of the Framework enabled further refinement of internal EH&S management procedures and to identify questions to be answered for such applications before they move to commercialization.
NOVEL SILOXANE BASED CORE-SHELL IMPACT MODIFIERS
Core-shell impact modifiers are special class of elastomers, which can be tailored to possess special functional groups and wide range of desired particle sizes. Such structural modifications can result in achieving miscibility or compatibility enabling desired/enhanced properties in polymeric compositions. A core-shell impact modifier based on siloxane core and polystyrene shell, with tunable particle size was synthesized by emulsion polymerization. The performance of synthesized material was evaluated in polyphenylene ether (PPE) formulations and compared with that of styrene block copolymers.
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