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The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.

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Conference Proceedings
CHALLENGING THE PARADIGM OF MICROCELLULAR FOAMS: MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF LOW-DENSITY CYCLO-OLEFIN COPOLYMER FOAMS
Richard Gendron , Martin Bureau, May 2010
Low-density foams of ethylene-norbornene copolymers were produced and their mechanical properties in compression investigated. Microcellular morphologies were observed with mean cell diameters lower than 20 ?m. Although the cyclo-olefin copolymer (COC) resin shares similar mechanical properties with polystyrene elastic modulus and compressive strength of the microcellular COC foams were much lower than the values for standard PS foam having larger cells (100-200 ?mrange) comparison made at the same density i.e. in the 50- 100 kg/m3 range. This goes against the usually accepted paradigm of enhanced properties with microcellular foams. Mechanisms for such unexpected behavior are proposed.
CHALLENGING THE PARADIGM OF MICROCELLULAR FOAMS: MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF LOW-DENSITY CYCLO-OLEFIN COPOLYMER FOAMS
Richard Gendron , Martin Bureau, May 2010
Low-density foams of ethylene-norbornene copolymers were produced and their mechanical properties in compression investigated. Microcellular morphologies were observed, with mean cell diameters lower than 20 ?¬m. Although the cyclo-olefin copolymer (COC) resin shares similar mechanical properties with polystyrene, elastic modulus and compressive strength of the microcellular COC foams were much lower than the values for standard PS foam having larger cells (100-200 ?¬m range), comparison made at the same density, i.e. in the 50- 100 kg/m3 range. This goes against the usually accepted paradigm of enhanced properties with microcellular foams. Mechanisms for such unexpected behavior are proposed.
MICROMOLDING FOR QUARTZ GLASS/POLYMER COMPOSITES
Darin VanDerwalker, Stephen Johnston, Dan Hazen, David Kazmer, May 2010
Micromolding with microscale surface features and thin-wall plates of the quartz glass/polymers composites were performed to fabricate a new micro-fluidic plate with glass. Effects of process parameters on processability and surface replication of the molded parts were evaluated. The replication ratio and internal morphology of molded green and sintered microparts were analyzed using SEM and a confocal laser scanning microscope. During sintering processes, the green molded composites shrank with removal of binder polymer. The internal morphology affected shrinkage of green molded composites. The surface replication ratio of molded and sintered parts showed high values. Sintered molded parts were produced with a high aspect ratio of 3.4 and 10 ?¬m micro-line width.
EFFICACY OF SATURATED DESIGN OF EXPERIMENTS IN MULTIVARIATE PROCESS CHARACTERIZATION
Darin VanDerwalker , Stephen Johnston , Dan Hazen , David Kazmer, May 2010
Process characterization provides a model of process responses as a function of process factors, which is useful for process optimization and quality control. In this paper, four Design of Experiments (DOE) are implemented for a thin wall molding process, including two fractional factorial designs, a D-optimal design, and a supersaturated fractional factorial design. The capability of the DOEs are subsequently analyzed with respect to the estimated main effects and defect prediction capabilities. The results indicate that fully saturated designs are satisfactory for process characterization, but all critical process factors should be investigated. Experimental designs having confounded process factors were found preferable to experimental designs of similar size that were not confounded, but investigated fewer factors.
REPLICATION PROPERTIES AND STRUCTURE IN MICROMOLDING WITH HEAT INSULATOR MOLD
Alan D. Jaenecke, May 2010
Micromolding with microscale surface features and thin-wall plates was performed to fabricate zirconia with heat-insulated molds. Effects of process parameters on processability and surface replication of the molded optical parts such as a diffraction grating and anti-reflective plates were evaluated. The replication ratio and higher-order structure of molded parts were analyzed using SEM and a polarizing optical microscope. Using an insulated mold, the flow length and surface replication ratio of molded parts increased. The molecular orientation of molded parts decreased using this mold, as it did in molding conditions of higher mold temperatures and injection temperatures.
ABRASION TESTING OF PACKAGING FILMS
Alan D. Jaenecke, May 2010
When packaging sterilized medical devices or products, the integrity of the film is essential to ensure sterility of the device until usage. With competitive forces prompting the use of thinner gauge films, the risk of abrasion-induced failures increases dramatically. Until recently, there have been no effective means for packaging engineers to quantify which films would be most suitable for final applications. The Flexible Material Abrasion Kit allows engineers to perform a controlled laboratory test and analyze the variables that may influence the abrasion resistance of packaging films. This paper presents the concept behind the device and describes an actual case study.
MULTIVARIATE ROBUSTNESS MEASUREMENT
David Kazmer , Stephen Johnston , Darin VanDerwalker, May 2010
Multivariate modeling methods such as Principle Components Analysis are increasingly being used for quality control. The capability of such PCA models are traditionally verified by changing the process settings on an individual basis until a process fault is encountered. While such an approach is valid it is inefficient and does not consider interactions between multiple process settings. In this paper a design of experiments (DOE) is applied to more effectively identify process constraints with greater precision than the traditional fault identification approach. The method is demonstrated with the production of short shots and indicates significant differences between univariate and multivariate analyses with respect to yield predictions.
MULTIVARIATE ROBUSTNESS MEASUREMENT
David Kazmer , Stephen Johnston , Darin VanDerwalker, May 2010
Multivariate modeling methods such as Principle Components Analysis are increasingly being used for quality control. The capability of such PCA models are traditionally verified by changing the process settings on an individual basis until a process fault is encountered. While such an approach is valid, it is inefficient and does not consider interactions between multiple process settings. In this paper, a design of experiments (DOE) is applied to more effectively identify process constraints with greater precision than the traditional fault identification approach. The method is demonstrated with the production of short shots, and indicates significant differences between univariate and multivariate analyses with respect to yield predictions.
IN-SITU REINFORCED THERMOSET COMPOSITES USING CRYSTALLIZABLE SOLVENTS
O. Sinan Yordem , Alan J. Lesser, May 2010
This study demonstrates an approach to generate reinforcement in thermosetting polymers through crystal growth of low molecular weight crystallizable solvents. Phase separation and crystallization in blends of dimethylsulfone (DMS) and diglycidyl ether of bisphenol- A monomer were investigated via small angle laser scattering and optical microscopy at different isothermal conditions along with crosslinked mixtures using 1 3- Phenylenediamine. Reaction conditions which lead to suitable reinforcements were identified. It is also shown that DMS crystals grow anisotropically to form faceted geometries that resemble chopped-fiber-like morphologies as well as show unique ways of anchoring to the matrix.
IN-SITU REINFORCED THERMOSET COMPOSITES USING CRYSTALLIZABLE SOLVENTS
O. Sinan Yordem , Alan J. Lesser, May 2010
This study demonstrates an approach to generate reinforcement in thermosetting polymers through crystal growth of low molecular weight crystallizable solvents. Phase separation and crystallization in blends of dimethylsulfone (DMS) and diglycidyl ether of bisphenol- A monomer were investigated via small angle laser scattering and optical microscopy at different isothermal conditions along with crosslinked mixtures using 1,3- Phenylenediamine. Reaction conditions which lead to suitable reinforcements were identified. It is also shown that DMS crystals grow anisotropically to form faceted geometries that resemble chopped-fiber-like morphologies as well as show unique ways of anchoring to the matrix.
THE USE OF RHEOLOGICAL AND THERMAL FRACTIONATION METHODS FOR THE ASSESSMENT OF NUCLEATING AGENT EFFICIENCY IN POLYPROPYLENE
Eric Moskala, May 2010
The increasing diversity of commercial polypropylene products in recent years, related to the increase in the production volumes of PP, has led to a high number of studies dealing with structure-specific nucleating agents (NAƒ??s). Experiments on sorbitol-based NAƒ??s suggest that the nucleation function of this group of nucleating agents is a result of hydrogen bonding and self-assembly. So far, nucleation studies have been conducted in an indiscriminate manner with little reference to the exact effect of PP structure on nucleating behaviour of NAƒ??s. However, given the variety of commercial PP structures produced today, the question on the existence of synergy between polypropylene structure and nucleating efficiency of NAƒ??s remains open. The SIST (Stepwise Isothermal Segregation Technique) has been used in this study as a fast and efficient method to characterize a group of random PPƒ??s having different structures, giving the lamellar thickness distribution. In addition, temperature sweep measurements were performed to study the effect of flow on the interaction between NA and PP. In this way, small discrepancies between different materials can be pointed out to assess the nucleating efficiency of the nucleating agent.
AN APPROACH TO POLY(1,2-DICHLOROETHYLENE) SYNTHESIS VIA RING-OPENING METATHESIS POLYMERIZATION (ROMP)
Xianlong Ge , William H. Starnes Jr., May 2010
The preparation of poly(1,2-dichloroethylene), an unknown material that is expected to be a superb engineering thermoplastic, was explored. The ROMP of cis-3,4-dichlorocyclobutene quantitatively yielded a white linear polymer with 'CHClCHClCH=CH' repeating units. However, its subsequent addition chlorination could not be made to occur to a detectable level. Steric hindrance and/or electronic deactivation due to the inductive effect of Cl apparently made the chlorination impossible. Furthermore, thermal degradation of a series of model compounds indicated that polymers containing (CHCl)n (n ' 3) structures would have low thermal stabilities.
DESIGN OF AN ADVANCED INJECTION MOLDING CONTROL SYSTEM
Clive P. Bosnyak, Alexander Chudnovsky, Shaofu Wu, Hoang T. Pham, May 2010
In injection molding, the control system plays a crucial role in quality consistency. Low-grade IMMs are manufactured in a large volume in Asia with low profit margin. Technology upgrade is the key to business success. An advanced control system has been designed in this paper to improve the performance of existing low-end IMMs with minimal modification. The control system architecture and advanced features are introduced. Experimental results show that with this controller, the performance of low-end machines can be comparable to that of the high cost and high performance machines, in term of repeatability and accuracy.
POLYETHERIMIDE-POLYESTERCARBONATE BLENDS WITH LOW HEAT RELEASE
Yashpal J. Bhandari , Robert R. Gallucci , Mark Sanner , Rajendra K. Singh, May 2010
Blends of polyetherimide (PEI) with polycarbonate (PC) form phase-separated mixtures. However replacement of polycarbonate bisphenol-A (BPA) derived linkages with resorcinol derived ester linkages to form isophthaloyl and terephthaloyl resorcinol polyestercarbonate (ITR-PC) exhibits surprising miscibility with PEI. Due to the flame retarding capability of ITR-PC versus PC the PEI + ITRPC blends also exhibit improved flame resistance in terms of lower heat release (HR) as measured by Ohio State Universityƒ??s (OSU) Heat Release test apparatus.Due to their lower heat release (< 65/65) these blends are compliant with US Federal Aviation Authority Regulation (FAR 25.853) and thus are acceptable for use in the fabrication of interior components for transportation industry. Due to their miscibility these PEI + ITR-PC blends can also be used in applications requiring transparency.
ADHESION OF BIODEGRADBLE PLASTICS WITH BONE: A COMPARATIVE STUDY USING COMMERCIALLY AVAILABLE SCREW / PLATE SYSTEM AND BIODEGRADABLE POLYMER MELT ADHESIVES
Anshuman Shrivastava , Jeffrey Weinzweig , Stephen McCarthy, May 2010
Biodegradable bone plates are commonly secured to bone surfaces using screws in craniomaxillofacial surgery. Using melt adhesives potentially replaces the need for existing screws and the associated complex techniques and equipment. Previously we have shown the advantages of using biodegradable melt adhesives over screw systems [1]. A time-based study comparing the effect of using melt adhesives and screws to secure bone implants to bone in a live goat model was performed. This paper demonstrates and compares the impact of using screws plates and melt adhesives on the healing of bone and operative time.
ADHESION OF BIODEGRADABLE PLASTICS WITH BONE: A COMPARATIVE STUDY USING COMMERCIALLY AVAILABLE SCREW / PLATE SYSTEM AND BIODEGRADABLE POLYMER MELT ADHESIVES
Anshuman Shrivastava , Jeffrey Weinzweig , Stephen McCarthy, May 2010
Biodegradable bone plates are commonly secured to bone surfaces using screws in craniomaxillofacial surgery. Using melt adhesives potentially replaces the need for existing screws and the associated complex techniques and equipment. Previously we have shown the advantages of using biodegradable melt adhesives over screw systems. A time-based study comparing the effect of using melt adhesives and screws to secure bone implants to bone in a live goat model was performed. This paper demonstrates and compares the impact of using screws, plates, and melt adhesives on the healing of bone and operative time.
CELL STRUCTURE OF INJECTION MOLDED THERMOPLASTIC OLEFIN FOAMS
Amirhossein Maani , Marie-Claude Heuzey , Pierre J. Carreau , Omar Khennache, May 2010
A linear and a branched polypropylene were blended with an ethylene ?ñ-olefin copolymer as the toughening elastomeric compound. A significant strain hardening behaviour was observed for the branched polypropylene (B-PP) as well as the branched polypropylene based TPO (B-TPO). The foamabilities of the compounded TPOs were investigated in a low pressure injection foaming process at an industrial scale. While linear polypropylene based TPO (L-TPO) exhibited no strain hardening behaviour, the cell density of the LTPO was significantly higher than that of the B-TPO.The results of injection foaming of neat polypropylenes, however, showed that the cell density of B-PP foam is almost 2 folds larger than that of the L-PP foam! These observations along with the morphological investigation of the unfoamed blends suggest that the foaming behavior of these TPOs is controlled by the interfacial properties and the blend micro-structure.
ON-LINE IN-MOLD TRANSDUCER IN INJECTION MOLDING
Yiyan Peng, Haimei Li, Lih-Sheng Turng, May 2010
Pressure and temperature sensors installed in the injection molding molds have been applied in industry to measure quality related information. However, these sensors allow only the measurement of polymer melt status at the location where the sensors are installed, limiting the generality of information. This paper presents a new transducer technology developed based on the dielectric properties of polymers. The transducer can be installed in the mold with low cost and provide continuous measurement. Plenty of information during the production can be obtained by this transducer. Simulation and experimental results show the effectiveness of the transducer.
DEVELOPMENT OF DIELECTROSTRICTIVE SENSORS FOR ON-LINE SHEAR STRESS MEASUREMENT DURING THE INJECTION MOLDING PROCESS
Yiyan Peng , Haimei Li , Lih-Sheng Turng, May 2010
This study presents the development of a novel sensor based on dielectrostriction principles. Dielectrostriction defined as a variation of dielectric properties of material under deformation detects evolution of molecular orientation during injection molding and enables on-line shear stress measurement. To demonstrate the feasibility of this approach a planar capacitor sensor rosette has been developed and attached to the surface of an injection mold to obtain the dielectrostriction signals under various processing conditions. The calculated shear stresses of polymer melts based on the dielectrostriction signals were validated by simulation predictions.
DEVELOPMENT OF DIELECTROSTRICTIVE SENSORS FOR ON-LINE SHEAR STRESS MEASUREMENT DURING THE INJECTION MOLDING PROCESS
Yiyan Peng , Haimei Li , Lih-Sheng Turng, May 2010
This study presents the development of a novel sensor based on dielectrostriction principles. Dielectrostriction, defined as a variation of dielectric properties of material under deformation, detects evolution of molecular orientation during injection molding and enables on-line shear stress measurement. To demonstrate the feasibility of this approach, a planar capacitor sensor rosette has been developed and attached to the surface of an injection mold to obtain the dielectrostriction signals under various processing conditions. The calculated shear stresses of polymer melts based on the dielectrostriction signals were validated by simulation predictions.


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