The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.
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Evaluation By On-Line Ftir Of The Kinetics Of Pp/Pa6 Blend Compatibilization With Pp-G-Mah During Extrusion
The on-line evaluation of the effects of process conditions variation during the extrusion process on the kinetics of compatibilization of polyamide 6 (PA6) in a matrix of polypropylene (PP) compatibilized with polypropylene grafted with maleic anhydride (PP-g-MAH) in different locations along the extruder by infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy is proposed in this work. As preliminary results and as a basis for comparing the on-line results that will be shown in the presentation the evolution of dispersion of the second phase of PA6 in the PP matrix is presented here. The area ratio of the peak of carbonyl stretching in amide present in PA6 at 1640 cm-1 standardized to the IR area of the peak at 1170 cm-1 relative to PP is applied to evaluate the evolution of dispersion along the extruder and the effect of the process condition in it. The standard deviation (s.d.) of the area ratio was used to correlate to the changes in dispersion condition when the process temperature, the feed rate and the screw speed were varied.
Mechanical Failure In Agricultural Silo Bags
Silo bags are used for bulk storage of grains in farmland. There are two typical modes of their failure: while being filled with grains, or due to long-term creep deformation during storage. In the past, several numerical studies have been conducted to improve the quality of grains stored in these bags by optimizing the moisture content or CO2 levels. The failure of these bags, however, especially when excessive pressure is applied during grain filling and subsequent creep during storage, is not well understood. Explicit Dynamic Solver in Abaqus (Product of Dassault Systems Simulia Corporation, USA) was used to model polymeric silo bags storing granular material under gravitational loading and pressure. The material computational model for silo bags (film) and the granular material has been developed using material subroutines, which themselves have been calibrated through in-house tensile and creep testing for the film. Numerical analysis of agricultural silo bags has been performed to understand mechanical failure in the bags during installation and usage at different temperatures.
Mineral Fiber Filled PC+ABS Blend Designed For Large Off-Line Painted Exterior Components
A newly developed mineral fiber-reinforced PC+ABS satisfies all OEM requirements for large, painted, exterior components. It delivers a very low CLTE value, which ensures a high dimensional stability as needed for low gap designs. The low CLTE value is combined with a low density of only 1.24 g/cm3 which facilitates lightweight components and potential cost optimization. Beside the low density, the material offers very good flow properties, which not only permit thin walls but also guarantee a high degree of design freedom, even with large, long moldings. The good flow also speeds up cycle times and contributes to a cost-efficient production process. The new substrate material has proven to provide a nice class A surface of the final component after painting. The good paint adhesion meets the most stringent OEM requirements also after climate aging. Overall, the new mineral fiber-reinforced PC+ABS formulation has proven its technical fit and is a cost-efficient alternative to metal or PC+PET materials for exterior automotive applications. These improved properties of this material will help accelerate the trend to plastic exterior panels in autonomous vehicle since they allow much better pass through of various communication and lighting signals, compared to metal body panels.
Magnum Abs: The Benchmark ABS For Extrusion
Acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) resins are widely used for applications such as appliances, toys, office equipment, sanitary wares, building & construction, transportation and more. Extrusion of ABS covers around 25% of the total ABS market in North America, namely through sheets, pipes, edge bands, and profiles. ABS extruded into sheets and formed into final parts, finds its way into furniture, automotive, buses, trucks, recreational and utility vehicles, sanitary applications, advertisement boards, luggage and doors. For optimum product performance and cost efficiency, the ABS resins require specific attributes. These are an excellent lot-to-lot consistency, a white and thermal stable base color, an adequate UV stability, a low amount of unmelts and a high product purity. Because sheets and edge bands are demanded in a wide range of colors, self-coloring has become a key cost driver through necessities such as color matching, UV absorbers, and optical brighteners. Limited run sizes and regrinding also lead to increased scrap and constant color adjusting. Because the surface quality of thermoformed parts is so critical, presentation of unmelts and high levels of volatile organic compounds in the resins affect aesthetics. This study discusses the attributes of ABS specifically for extrusion and thermoforming, and compares the benefits of MAGNUM™ ABS versus several emulsion ABS. It is intended to provide information to manufacturers of extrusion applications to select the most suitable ABS materials for optimum production performance and cost efficiency.
Processing And Characterization Of Microcrystalline Cellulose Reinforced Amorphous Polyamide Composites
The primary objective of this work was to evaluate the processing and mechanical, rheological and thermal properties of a 2 and 10 weight percent loading of MCC in amorphous polyamide (APA). Modified, unmodified MCC and commercial MCC (FI-1 fibers) were investigated. Melt-blended composites of the various MCCs and amorphous polyamide were prepared by single and twin-screw extrusion, then injection molded into test specimens. Rheological properties of 2 and 10% MCC filled composites were studied using a rotational parallel plate rheometer. The mechanical behavior of all three filled polymer composites were examined by studying storage and loss modulus with frequency. Also, the influence of moisture content in neat and cellulose reinforced composites were also investigated. These results indicate the need for extensive moisture control for amorphous nylon and microcrystalline cellulose.
A Study Of Melt Temperature Of A Lab-Scale Blown Film Line And Effect Of Melt Temperature On The Film Properties
Melt temperature is an important parameter in the blown film process, as it can impact melt strength, bubble stability, crystallization/orientation, and maximum throughput. The melt temperature at the extruder discharge, blown film die exit and film bubble of a lab-scale blown film research line were measured using a hand held thermocouple and a FLIR thermal camera. The die melt temperature was 10 to 18 °C higher than the die temperature set point, but the extruder discharge melt temperature had only a small influence on it. This could be caused by the balance of shear heating in the die and cooling from the metal. Films were fabricated at high and low melt temperatures at the die and at the extruder discharge for two resins. All other process conditions such as rate, frost line height (FLH), film thickness, blow up ratio (BUR), die gap, and air ring, were kept the same to study the effect of melt temperature. Film properties, i.e., haze, dart, tear and tensile were characterized. Most properties did not show a clear trend with the melt temperatures in the range of the experiment (25 °C variation of die and 40 °C variation of extruder). The one exception was dart, which showed slightly reduced values at higher melt temperature. The results from this study provide important information for blown film process modeling.
Cavity Pressure Measurement During Injection Molding Via Ultrasonic Technology
Cavity pressure history during the injection molding process dramatically affects the properties of the product. This study proposes a non destructive method for measuring cavity pressure by evaluating stress on the tie bars of the injection molding machine using ultrasonic technology. Both theoretical discussion and experimental results are presented in this study, and the correlation between ultrasonic signals and stress es on the tie bars are further determined by a magnetic type clamping force detector. The method is then precisely calibrated with an R squared value up to 0.99 962 in average. Following this, it is a pplied to measure the cavity pressure and proves feasible, with r elative errors within 4.3 This method can be applied to online monitoring in the injection molding process to detect parameter variations and indicate product properties. This method has th e advantage of high stability, being non destructive, online and low cost, and can be widely promoted in injection molding industries.
Thermoforming Evaluation Of Coextruded Multilayer Evoh/Ldpe Film/Foam
A multi-layered film/foam system having 16, 32, and 64 alternating foam and film layers has been developed using multilayer coextrusion technology. The film layer was based on ethylene-vinyl alcohol (EVOH) copolymer and foam layer on low-density polyethylene (LDPE). The cellular structure was characterized by scanning electron microscopy investigating the effect of the number of layers and layer composition on the film/foam structure. The film/foam materials produced exhibited variable properties, such as density, cell size, cell density, and mechanical properties by changing the layer number and composition. The stress-strain behavior of these film/foam materials at several temperatures was examined. The stress‐strain curves obtained were referenced to understand the influence of temperature on the uniaxial deformation process. This information provides insight into the material properties and process conditions influencing thermoforming behavior and performance. The thermoformability of the film/foam materials were evaluated. Optimum forming capacity was achieved at 60ºC. These film/foam materials showed a lower reduction of thickness in the sidewalls, as well as a higher dimensional uniformity in the thermoformed product.
Investigating The Effects Of Dynamic Melt Manipulation On Pla Crystallization During The Injection Molding Process
The crystallization of poly(lactic acid) (PLA) under conventional injection molding and vibration assisted injection molding (VAIM) was studied by using differential scanning calorimetry, infrared spectroscopy, and polarized optical microscopy analyses. Application of VAIM appears to influence the crystal structure of the molded samples, where data suggests the technology may result in the formation of a more ordered crystal structure. The overall crystallinity of the molded samples is shown to be significantly affected by the mold temperature, and relatively less due to VAIM. However, polarized optical images reveal that crystallized PLA with VAIM appears to favor the formation of crystallized regions oriented in the direction of shear. The crystal structure and morphology of VAIM PLA parts may be a contributing factor affecting its crystallization behavior. In this regard, this study attempts at a further understanding of this element, such that injection molding of PLA can be performed within viable cycle times.
Evaluating Healing Behavior Of Reversible Adhesive Bonded Joints Subjected To Transverse Impact Loads
Impact loads transferred to the bond-line of adhesive joints can significantly decrease their load carrying capacity. If the damage in the adhesive layer can be healed, such losses in structural behavior can be recovered. One such healing technique is the use of thermoplastic ‘reversible’ adhesives which are reinforced with conductive nanoparticles. Such materials have been shown to heal through exposure to electromagnetic fields. In this work, single lap joints were manufactured using ferromagnetic nanoparticle reinforced ABS thermoplastic polymer as the adhesive. The joints were tested under quasi-static tensile loading to determine their baseline performance. Similar joints were then subjected to impact load (10 J) to induce bond-line damage. Impacted joints were subjected to quasi-static lap-shear to obtain impact-induced performance. Next, the impacted joints were subjected to electromagnetic fields to heal the damaged adhesive and then subjected to quasi-static lap-shear tests to obtain the healed performance. The loss in joint strength due to impact, and its subsequent recovery due to healing was evaluated.
Molecular Dependence On Rheological And Mechanical Properties Of Sebs For Films And Fibers
A series of designed hydrogenated styrenic block copolymers have been synthesized for better understanding their molecular structural correlation with rheological and mechanical properties. The block copolymers are widely used in extrusion and injection molding; however, they are often compounded with other materials such as polyolefin and oil to avoid the processing issues caused by the nature of phase separation. Combining other materials would, in the meantime, reduce the elastic property and affect the application that require elastic recovery property. As the demand of elastic film and fiber is growing, this study offers an insight of the molecular design for processability and end-use applications. The structural parameters include molecular weight, styrene content, and vinyl content. The rheological property was performed within linear viscoelastic limit, and the mechanical property was measured under nonlinear deformation. These two sets of properties show different structural dependences demonstrated in this study.
Additive Blooming: Origins, Detection, And Control In Polymer Processing
Paint and adhesive adhesion issues to flame or corona treated injection molded thermoplastic olefin automotive components was not explainable by data generated through wetting tension tests using dyne solutions. Careful analysis of surfaces using FTIR identified additive blooming that was responsible for adhesion failures. Water contact angle measurements were equally sensitive to the presence of these blooming agents and furthermore provided a practical in-process measurement for detection and control of additive blooming that can occur in the manufacture of molded thermoplastics. This paper discusses the origins of blooming and common additives that are subject to blooming along with strategies for detecting, controlling, and avoiding issues associated with blooming.
Evaluating Residual Stresses In Bonded Lap Joints Through Experiments And Numerical Modeling
Structural adhesive joining is considered to be an excellent route to achieve both light weighting and dissimilar material joining for automotive structures. While adhesive joining eliminates the needs for drilling holes and distributes the load over larger areas; the processing/curing conditions, especially the thermal shock (rapid cooling) can create residual stresses that significantly reduce the strength of the resulting joints, in most cases prior to application of mechanical/service loads. These residual stresses can lead to dimensional instability, increased stress corrosion and reduced fatigue life. In this study, adhesively bonded single lap joints were manufactured using Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS) adhesive and glass fiber reinforced epoxy (Garolite, G-10) substrates. The joints were processed at a constant temperature of 240℃ maintained via oven-heating and subsequently allowed to cool under natural convection in ambient air. The residual strains generated in the adhesive layer were measured experimentally using an embedded high-resolution fiber-optic strain sensor. The results were compared against a coupled thermo-mechanical finite element (FE) model. Initial results show good agreement between the experiments and numerical models for the elastic behavior. Introduction Adhesive bonded joints are widely used in automotive, aerospace and marine applications due to uniform load distribution, superior fatigue resistance, higher strength to weight ratio and less stress concentrations relative to mechanical fastened joints [1-3]. For optimal design, understanding the stress distribution inside these joints is critical to make accurate predictions about their in-service mechanical behavior. There are two types of stresses which can originate in an adhesively bonded joint: mechanical stresses, which originate due to external loads; and residual stresses (locked-in stresses) which can either originate during the bonding process, or when a mechanical load is removed after inducing a plastic deformation. In an adhesive, these locked-in stresses can be generated either due to the difference of thermo-mechanical properties between the adhesive and the substrates, difference in the moisture content between them or the chemical and physical changes inside the adhesive when it cures . In this study, the focus is on the stress developed during the curing process, which are dependent on the curing temperatures of the adhesive, its thermal and mechanical properties, boundary conditions, and the cooling conditions . Prediction of these residual stresses is critical since they are often attributed to cause premature failure in conjunction with fatigue, creep, corrosion, and wear . A wide range of numerical and experimental techniques have been used to study the residual stresses in composite laminates and are well documented in ; however extension of these techniques to adhesive bonded joints has not been fully explored [8-15]. Moiré optical inferometry has been successfully used in measuring residual stresses in adhesively bonded lap joints [16-18]. This technique can however only measure surface strains  in limited material configurations. Neutron Diffraction has also been used to measure residual stresses within adhesively bonded double-lap joints [6, 16], but it has spatial resolution limitations and is not capable of measuring residual stress variations over distances smaller than ~1mm. . More
Increased Food Shelf-Life In Retail Display Cases Using Sustainably Sourced Filtering Technologies
New Department of Energy requirements for lighting will mandate inclusion of light emitting diode (LED) light sources for the production of retail display cases. These high intensity and highly directional lighting sources provide excellent illumination of products but can induce rapid product degradation resulting in color fading reactions and potentially off-flavors. The purpose of this study was to quantify the ability for recently developed sustainably-sourced filters to mitigate the effects of light induced degradation on fresh Colby cheese and rare roast beef under simulated retail display conditions. Color changes in the food products were quantified as a function of time utilizing the CIE L*a*b* color space and qualitatively via digital imaging. There was no distinguishable difference (both visually and utilizing quantitative colorimetric analysis) between the color change trends of the roast beef under the filtered light and dark control roast beef up to 120 hours of exposure time. Roast beef specimens exposed under non-filtered light reached the maximum color change value of the filtered samples (ΔE ~3.7) approximately 100 hours earlier. However, the filter did not provide additional protection for the Colby cheese samples under the conditions used in this study.
The Novel Silver Based Antimicrobial For Plastics
The use of silver and silver compounds as antimicrobial agents has been known since ancient times. There are several kinds of silver materials like colloidal silver, silver glass, titanium oxide with silver and silver zeolites. In this work, a different silver based antimicrobial for plastics, using carrier a silica to promote the bactericide and fungicide effect of the silver. The silver particles are anchored on silica ceramic particles using chemical process and it composite can be incorporated directly to the polymers. The process of obtaining these additives with antibacterial property is performed by homogenization of the melt (composting), to produce concentrates of Ag particles (masterbatch) in various types of plastic resins. After preparing the masterbatch, the compound can be used, with recommended percentages in accordance to evidentiary tests of its effectiveness, in all types of plastic transformation processes. Plastics samples in different resins was submitted ISO 22196 test and the silica/silver material eliminated 99.99% of the E. Coli. Eye irritation test was conducted with rabbits to determine the potential for the silver based antimicrobial to produce irritation from a single instillation via the ocular route. Skin irritation test was conducted with rabbits to determine the potential for composite to produce irritation after a single topical application. Under the conditions of this study, the test substance is classified as slightly irritating to the skin. Migration tests was conducted to the composite and the results showed that the migration in polyolefins is according to permit regulatory agency like FDA.
Influences Of Process Parameters On Penetration In A Hybrid Single Shot Manufacturing Of Carbon Fiber/Epoxypolypropylene Structure
The authors detail the creation of a hybrid material structure via the injection of polypropylene (PP) with high ductility into a robust CF/Epoxy thermoset sheet. The purpose of this hybrid method involved combining the inherent properties of both thermoset and thermoplastic materials in a new hybrid structure while reducing the cycle time. The effect of pre-heating time, blank holder force, injection temperature, and injection speed rate on the deformation of prepreg and polymer penetration through prepreg sheets were evaluated. The results of the experimental design based on the Taguchi L18 orthogonal array indicated that the hybrid structures were manufactured with no penetration present in any combinations of parameters. An inadequate deformation characterized the samples created at a lower injection temperature, and pre-heating time, with insufficient adhesion as a result. Although the high injection speed enhanced formability and joinability, no significant effect on deformation and joining occurred from an increase in blank holder force.
Automotive Lightweighting Via Supercritical Foam Injection Molding Of Thermoplastic Olefin
The automotive industry has been transitioning from a primarily metals-based assembly towards a multi-material architecture driven by the need to meet the Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) standards that mandate automakers to have a fuel economy of 54.5 MPG by 2025. Polypropylene (PP) based Thermoplastic Olefins (TPO) blends constitute a significant portion of the automotive market due to its extensive use in many interiors, exterior and under-the-hood applications. However, lightweighting of PP based TPO blends by foaming often presents numerous challenges - most widely known is a resulting poor A-surface appearance. In this work, Clemson University and our OEM partner are investigating the impact of foamability on PP based TPO, via supercritical assisted foam injection molding. The study investigates the effect of foam injection molding processing conditions (e.g., melt temperatures, injection speed, etc.) on the microscale part performance level (e.g., mechanical properties, cellular morphology, etc.).
Hybrid Process Of Forming-Injection Molding ‚Äì Investigation Of Polymer Melt Behavior On The Final Injected Part
Due to global competition, manufacturing firms must target innovation in production processes and technologies that allow the mass manufacturing of customized products through highly efficient processes. Motivated by the concept of the hybrid production system, an innovative platform technology, known as Polymer Injection Forming (PIF), was recently developed. In the PIF process, the best-in-class manufacturing technologies in polymers and metals, viz., injection-molding and sheet metal forming, are integrated to manufacture sheet metal-polymer hybrids in a single operation. In this process, the polymer melt serves as a forming medium and deforms the inserted sheet metal during the filling phase of the injection molding process. So far, most studies have focused on the influence of the injection molding process parameters on blank deformation and specification of the final deformed sheet metal part. While doing so, these studies have either totally neglected the polymer part or have only considered its rheological characterization as a forming medium. In this work, for the first time, the melt flow development of the PIF process is investigated, and a schematic flow field is presented. Subsequently, this investigation is extended to the online process parameters which are acquired with a set of in-mold instrumentations. Finally, morphology and crystallinity of cross-section of the samples produced by this process is investigated and compared with the sample produced via conventional injection molding condition.
Failure Analysis Of Automotive Air Conditioning Connectors
Failures occurred within automotive air conditioning system connectors. The cracking was observed within connectors that had been installed in automobiles, which were part of a durability testing program. The focus of this investigation was a determination of the nature and cause of the failures. The results obtained during the evaluation of the cracked connectors indicated that the failures occurred through a brittle fracture, slow crack initiation creep rupture mechanism of the material. However, the cause of the failure was severe molecular degradation as a result of the durability test program conditions. This paper will review the testing performed to characterize the failure mode and identify the cause of the cracking, while demonstrating the analytical procedures used in the investigation.
Investigation Of The Foamability And Resulting Mechanical Properties Of Foamed Thermooplastic Elastomers
Thermoplastic foam injection molding offers various advantages in regard of processing and product design. Due to the foamed core structure, the mechanical part properties differ from the compact references and can be significantly influenced by the processing parameters. At IKV, different thermoplastic elastomers (TPE) with different molecular structures were foamed to investigate the impact of processing parameters on the foam structure and the mechanical properties. Both static and dynamic behavior of the foamed TPE parts was determined. It was found that the mechanical properties of foamed TPE parts change significantly in comparison to compact references.
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