SPE Library

The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.

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Conference Proceedings

PVC Manufacturing
Peeples, October 2019

What Is a Mono-mer? A single compound from which a polymer is made. Ethylene, propylene, styrene, and vinyl chloride are examples of monomers.

Process Technology for PVC Compounding
T. Schelling, October 2019

Blending vs. Melt Mixing. Blending - the intimate intermingling of ingredients without phase change; Melt Mixing - the intimate intermingling of ingredients with a phase change.

Rigid PVC Stabilization
B. Smith, October 2019

PMC Organometallix: • Sn Heat Stabilizers • Catalysts and Fine Chemicals • PMC Biogenix • Fatty Amides and isamides • Fatty Acids • Glycerol Esters • Stearates • PMC Crystal • Paraffin based blends

Formulating Rigid / Semi-rigid PVC: Acrylic Modifiers
K. Yocca, October 2019

Acrylic Impact Modifiers: ● Core / Shell impact modifier design ● Modes of failure and formulation ● Processing and impact performance; Acrylic Process Aids: ● Process aid chemistry and functionality ● Selecting process aid technology ● Applications in semi-rigid and flexible PVC; PVC Formulation by market segment: ● Rigid weatherable ● Substrate ● Cellular PVC.

Sustainability within PVC Stabilization – A Systematic Approach
T. Seibel | S. Cockett | A. Eichholzer | S. MacDonald, October 2019

What is sustainability? the ability to be maintained at a certain rate or level; avoidance of the depletion of natural resources in order to maintain an ecological balance; Sustainability is most often defined as meeting the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet theirs. It has three main pillars: economic, environmental, and social. These three pillars are informally referred to as people, planet and profits.

PVC Additives 102
J. Scott, October 2019

Mixed Metal Heat Stabilizers • Tin Stabilizers • Organic Stabilizers • UV Stabilizers • Processing Aids • Biocides • Copolymers • Epoxy Plasticizers/Stabilizers • Fillers • Flame Retardants • Antioxidants • Lubricants • Copolymers • Pigments • Pigment Extenders • Plasticizers • Secondary Plasticizers • Bonding Agents; Under the Hood of Mixed Metal Heat Stabilizers • Primary and secondary metals • Phosphites and hydrotalcite • Stabilizer Shelf Life • Water blushing • Antioxidants • Mechanisms of primary and secondary • Quinoidal color bodies • NOX testing and discoloration • Epoxy Plasticizers • Types / Properties / Applications • Effect of oxirane on compatibility and stability • Cross linking and metal catalyzed cross linking • Spew testing

Determination of Fusion by Differential Scanning Calorimetry
G. Walrath, October 2019

Determining the Fusion of PVC Standard methods include: • ASTM D2152 – Standard Test Method for Adequacy of Fusion of Extruded Poly(Vinyl Chloride) (PVC) Pipe and Molded Fittings by Acetone Immersion; • ISO 9852 Unplasticized poly(vinyl Chloride) (PVC-U) pipes – Dichloromethane resistance at specified Temperature; • No ASTM Standard for use of Differential Scanning Calorimetry to determine Degree of Fusion of PVC; • Numerous papers have been published on the use of DSC to determine the degree of fusion of PVC ( Gilbert & Vyvoda "Thermal Analysis Technique for investigating the Gelation of Rigid PVC Compounds" 1981) (Vanspeybroeck & Dewilde "Determination of the Degree of Gelation of Rigid PVC Compounds" 2007) and others.

Intellectual Property (IP) - An Integral Part of Your Business
Ng Chong Yuan, August 2019

What is Intellectual Property (IP)? IP commonly refers to creations of the human mind: New discoveries, New product designs, Original pieces of art, music, drama and literary work (including software codes) and Recognizable brands. When IP is protected by law, it gives rise to IP rights and IP assets: IP rights give IP owners control over the use of their IP: (i) for themselves and their licensees; and (ii) for a specific period of time.

Plasticizer Migration Assessment in Medical Applications
Jezz Lim, August 2019

Migration of Plasticizer: Diffusion rate = diffusion coefficient .concentration gradient; Diffusion coefficient –molecular weight, property of the diffusing medium (density, crystallinity, glass transition temperature), plasticizer -diffusing medium interaction, temperature, pressure etc.; Plasticizer migration can compromise the mechanical strength and aesthetic appearance of plastics.

ZEISS Microscopy Solutions for Polymers and Chemicals Research
Sky Xie, August 2019

Improve performance of polymers and chemicals. Image beam sensitive materials. In situ solutions for polymers and chemicals. Multi modal microscopy. Correlative microscopy. Advanced microscopy in 3D

Circular Meterials for Single-Use Flexible Packaging
Yap Chin Chong | Leong Yew Wei, August 2019

Chemical solutions for a circular economy: Mechanical recycling (Re-use: PET/PP/PE); Plastic waste to fuel (Conversion: PP/PE); Plastic waste to fine chemical (PS); Dynamic reversible crosslinker; Self-immolative, polymers; Fully recycle monomer-polymer-monomer; Bioplastics

Design for Additive Manufacturing - Autodesk Generative Design
Leong Kok Heng, August 2019

Autodesk Generative Design: Multiple methods of Manufacturability (Additive, Subtractive, Formative); Multiple materials; Combinations of Loads; No defined Volume; Part Consolidation

XRF Analysis of Polymer
Bruker Corp., August 2019

What is XRF?A method for qualitative and quantitative analysis of the elemental composition by excitation of atoms and detection of their characteristic X-rays. Polymer analysis with XRF, how does it work? Minerals: Calcite CaCO3; XRF provide elemental information; Stoichiometry by calculation or user input (CaO or CaCO3); Evaluation based on 100% known matrix, i.e everything is measured; Polymer: matrix is balance (100-X) as {CxHyOz}.

An Extreme World Needs Extreme Materials
Wenda Chen, August 2019

6 research platforms dedecated to sustainable development: New energies; Biosourced materials; Water treatment; Home efficiency and insulation; Lightweight materials; Consumer electronics.

Aerogel from Food Waste
Zhang Xiwen, August 2019

What is Aerogel? Lightest but strong solid material with extreme low densities of 3 to 40 mg/cm3. Highly porous materials (> 99% of air) with large surface area. Objectives of the using coffee for aerogel: Repurpose food wastes into something useful while keeping environmental impacts to a minimum; Design a FULLY BIODEGRADABLE aerogel for various applications; Sustainable processing development for designed coffee aerogels; Functionalize the aerogels towards certain applications.

M Gulcur | B. R. Whiteside | P. D. Coates, March 2019

Ultrasonic microinjection moulding technology uses ultrasound energy for melting the standard pellet-shaped polymer feedstock used in the plastics industry to facilitate melting of the material prior to the flow into the mould cavity. During the melting phase, the pellets are compressed against the sonotrode surface by using appropriate forces applied by an injection plunger. The pellets act as conductors of the acoustic energy and the contact points between the pellets act as initiators of the melting due to an interfacial friction heating mechanism. Both the pellet geometries and contact areas vary from shot to shot (due to variations in the pellet manufacturing process and the random distribution of pellets as they fall into the melting chamber) which causes process variation and a lack of repeatability of final product quality.  In order to overcome these issues, a more regular feedstock geometry was adopted. Identical disc shaped preforms were used in an ultrasonic micromolding process and compared with the process using standard pellets. The temperature distribution within the material was monitored for each feedstock geometry using a high-speed infrared camera. Characteristic features of the temperature profiles were analyzed and compared together with the final part quality. Results suggest that the initial contact interfaces of the polymer feedstock play a significant role in ultrasonic micromolding for micro-feature replication. 

Numerical Optimization Of Advanced Mixing Elements On Single Screw Extruders
Marius Wittke, March 2019

In this paper, the simulation of multiple variations of mixing elements and their results are presented. It is intended to create reliable information on how rather unconventional mixing elements in comparison to standard mixing elements can help to improve melt homogeneity. Therefore, a post processing method is developed to indicate the mixing efficiency of each simulated geometry. Finally, a conclusion is given recommending certain geometry parameters to optimize individual mixing elements.

High Density Polyethylene Blends For Additive Manufacturing
Craig Gorin, March 2019

High density polyethylene is challenging to use in standard additive manufacturing methods today, but would provide desirable properties such as chemical resistance, lightweighting, and durability to enable applications beyond prototyping. In this work, we describe high density polyethylene blends with highly branched polyethylene or polyethylene copolymers that improve adhesion and reduce warpage, significantly improving printability in standard filament extrusion 3D-printing methods.

High Shear Capillary Rheometry Of Cellulose Nanomaterials For Industry Relevant Processing
Bradley Sutliff, March 2019

The effects of high-shear flow on cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) are studied to demonstrate potential impacts of industrial processing. A microcapillary rheometer was used to characterize the shear thinning characteristics of CNCs at diverse concentrations. Shear thinning characteristics follow the Sisko model which allows reduction of the data onto time-concentration superposition master curves. Shift factors follow a Williams-Landel-Ferry-like (WLF) relationship.

Crosshatch Tape-Adhesion Test For Multi-Layer Films Using Scratch Machine
Kwanghae Noh, March 2019

Each model film is made in machine direction orientation and consists of two types of polyolefin; For some model films, a different compatibilizer was used; Each model film has a structure of ‘ABCBA’. Here, B is a tie layer; The thickness of the model films is from 2 mil to 2.5 mil, and the thickness of the skin layer is from 5 to 10%.

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Brown, H. L. and Jones, D. H. 2016, May.
"Insert title of paper here in quotes,"
ANTEC 2016 - Indianapolis, Indiana, USA May 23-25, 2016. [On-line].
Society of Plastics Engineers
Available: www.4spe.org.

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