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MODELING THREE-DIMENSIONAL VISCOELASTIC FLOW AROUND A CLOSELY-SPACED LINEAR PERIODIC ARRAY OF CYLINDERS
David Adrian , Scott Phillips , Robert Armstrong, May 2010
A framework and code are being developed to simulate fiber and film processes; currently the code can handle three-dimensional, enclosed, isothermal, incompressible, creeping flow of a Giesekus fluid. The code is an extension of the parallel methods developed by Caola et al from two- to three-dimensional flows. The code has been tested on a benchmark problem that shows an elastically-driven flow transition from a twodimensional, steady flow to a three-dimensional, time periodic flow: flow around a closely-spaced linear periodic array of cylinders in a rectangular channel, a flow studied experimentally by Liu. Numerical simulations have been conducted in this geometry with the Oldroyd-B model, ?ý=0.67, wall separation distance 8-32 radii, and Deborah number from 0.1 to 1.1. The range of bounding wall edge effects on the flow field is shown to be 4 radii, and a small-magnitude overshoot in the primary velocity component near the wall can be observed, similar to the cat's ears observed by Poole et al in planar gradual-contraction expansion flow. The expected critical Weissenberg number of the flow transition has not yet been reached; the time integration to steady state diverges at moderate Weissenberg number. However, the velocity profile shows oscillatory behavior similar to what is reported at the flow transition.
RELIABILITY OF INKJET PRINTED AG TRACES SUBMITTED TO HIGH CURRENT DENSITY TEST
Joseph Dooley, Gary Oliver, Karen Xiao, May 2010
Printable electronics is a new emerging technology with capabilities of producing high volumes, low price and flexible electronics. However, a number of questions, mainly related reliability of such devices, are still pending. In this paper, metal nanoparticles based ink was printed on flexible polyimide substrates. Samples were submitted to high current density electrical test. Samples were tested until failure generating reliability curves. Printed traces presented low reliability probably due to the large amount of pores and grain boundaries in its microstructure and also because of the trace inhomogeneity. Thus, the application of this technology depends on process improvements.
BREAKTHROUGH INVENTIONS AND INNOVATIONS IN DIE DESIGN FOR POLYMER PROCESSING
Joseph Dooley , Gary Oliver , Karen Xiao, May 2010
After a polymer has been converted from a solid to a molten state it must be processed into a final shape to have value to a customer. This final shape may be a pellet a film a sheet a profile or many other final geometries. This paper will discuss some of the breakthrough inventions and innovations in die design that are used to produce this vast array of final polymer product shapes. ?ÿ ?ÿ The objective of this work was to develop an impactmodifier to improve the impact strength of poly(L-lactide)(PLLA). Graft copolymers of PLLA and polyethylene(PE) were synthesized via the ring-openingpolymerization of L-lactide initiated by PE modified withhydroxyl groups (macroPE). The macroPE was preparedvia the metallocene catalyzed copolymerization ofethylene and 5-hexen-1-ol. DSC and DMA on thecopolymers and PLLA blends indicated a two-phasepolymer system. The blends exhibited significantlyincreased loss moduli and maximum tan ƒ?? s whencompared to virgin PLLA indicating a high probability ofincreased impact toughness while the storage moduli ofthe blends remained approximately constant.
CORN (SUGARS) BASED CHEMISTRIES FOR THE POLYMER INDUSTRY
Michael Jaffe , George Collins , Anthony J. East , Willis Hammond , Zohar Ophir , Xianhong Feng , Paul Friedhoff, May 2010
Corn (sugars) may be viewed as a chemical feedstock to produce new monomers polymers and additives for a broad range of chemical intensive industries. Corn based chemicals are attractive because they as generally regarded as safe (GRAS) are a renewable resource and can be made readily available at competitive pricing. Interest is focused on isosorbide which offers molecular geometry and chemical functionality compatible with many existing commercial chemistries. Applications ranging from the creation of new polymer backbones for use as thermoplastics or thermosets to the identification of low molar mass compounds that can act as plasticizers stabilizers or compatiblizers are under investigation. Of special interest is the impact of asymmetric reactivity chirality and controlled stereochemistry in the design and performance of new cost-effective structures with commercial potential. As petroleum becomes more expensive and the assurance of long range cost-effective supply questionable creation of alternative chemistries from renewable resources such a corn (glucose) becomes more attractive.
CORN (SUGARS) BASED POLYMER CHEMISTRIES FOR THE POLYMER AND COSMETICS INDUSTRIES
Michael Jaffe , George Collins , Anthony J. East , Willis Hammond , Zohar Ophir , Xianhong Feng , Paul Friedhoff, May 2010
Corn (sugars) may be viewed as a chemical feedstock to produce new monomers, polymers and additives for a broad range of chemical intensive industries. Corn based chemicals are attractive because they as generally regarded as safe (GRAS), are a renewable resource and can be made readily available at competitive pricing. Interest is focused on isosorbide which offers molecular geometry and chemical functionality compatible with many existing commercial chemistries. Applications ranging from the creation of new polymer backbones for use as thermoplastics or thermosets to the identification of low molar mass compounds that can act as plasticizers, stabilizers or compatiblizers are under investigation. Of special interest is the impact of asymmetric reactivity, chirality and controlled stereochemistry in the design and performance of new, cost-effective structures with commercial potential. As petroleum becomes more expensive and the assurance of long range, cost-effective supply questionable, creation of alternative chemistries from renewable resources such a corn (glucose) becomes more attractive.
KINETICS OF MICROEMULSION COPOLYMERIZATION FOLLOWED BY RAMAN SPECTROSCOPY
Miguel A. Corona-Rivera , Jorge Flores , Jorge E. Puig , Eduardo Mendizábal, May 2010
In this work the kinetics of microemulsioncopolymerization of styrene-methyl methacrylate usingdodecyltrimethylammonium bromide (DTAB) wasfollowed on line by low-resolution Raman spectroscopy.Reactions were carried out in a three-mouth reactor at 60oC. Raman spectra were taken every 30 seconds. Becausethe spectrophotometer has low resolution the C=C peakoverlaps with the aromatic ring stretch vibration and curve deconvolution was necessary. Overall conversion obtained by Raman spectroscopy agrees with that obtained by gravimetry. Because the overlap of the C=C peaks ofstyrene and methyl methacrylate it was not possible tofollow the individual monomer conversion by thistechnique.
WELDABILITY OF BIOPLASTICS
S.B. Tan, P.R. Hornsby, M. McAfee, M.P. Kearns, M. McCourt, P.R. Hanna, May 2010
The cooling process in conventional rotational moulding has a relatively long cycle time. It is normally accomplished by external forced air convection and external water spray cooling. In some instances, an evaporative cooler is employed to create atomised fog external to the mould during the cooling cycle. Internal water spray cooling is an attractive approach to reduce the cycle time and enhance the product properties in rotational moulding. It is shown that water spray cooling of polymers is affected by water droplet size and water droplet velocity. This paper outlines an introduction to the characterisation of water droplets. The effects of these parameters on water spray cooling of polymers are also presented, using a purpose built experimental test rig. With the growing demand for environmentally friendly biorenewable resources, there has been a parallel growth in the development of bioplastics. These include commercially available starch-derived plastics and plastics derived from renewable oil and proteins. As with any plastic, these new materials must often be joined to produce final products. This paper reviews impulse and ultrasonic welding of PLA as well as friction welding of plant protein-based plastics. It was found that each of these plastics can be welded with weld strengths matching the parent material strengths.
THE EFFECTS OF WATER DROPLET SIZE AND VELOCITY ON SPRAY COOLING OF POLYMERS DURING ROTATIONAL MOULDING
S.B. Tan , P.R. Hornsby , M. McAfee , M.P. Kearns , M. McCourt , P.R. Hanna, May 2010
The cooling process in conventional rotational moulding has a relatively long cycle time. It is normally accomplished by external forced air convection and external water spray cooling. In some instances, an evaporative cooler is employed to create atomised fog external to the mould during the cooling cycle. Internal water spray cooling is an attractive approach to reduce the cycle time and enhance the product properties in rotational moulding. It is shown that water spray cooling of polymers is affected by water droplet size and water droplet velocity. This paper outlines an introduction to the characterisation of water droplets. The effects of these parameters on water spray cooling of polymers are also presented, using a purpose built experimental test rig.
MEASUREMENT AND MANAGEMENT OF PERFORMANCE OF COMPANIES USING BENCHMARKING TOOLS
Wantinee Viratyaporn, Richard L. Lehman, May 2010
The paper deals with methods of measurement of company performance and identification of key factors that influence it. It is based on the results from a research involving managers of selected companies, which took place within the scope of cooperation of the university with a cluster of plastic processing companies. Further in the contribution is presented the possibility of increasing performance of companies using benchmarking tools for the identification of strengths and weaknesses, which affect the company performance. This is shown on a practical example of a cluster activity.
HYDROXYAPATITE- POLYLACTIDE COMPOSITE FOR BONE REPAIR
Shih-Po Sun , Montgomery T. Shaw , Mei Wei , James Olson, May 2010
The aim of this study was to investigate the interealtions between the design processing and properties of hydroxyapatite-poly(lactide) composites intended?ÿ as biodegradable bone grafts for joining fractured bone tissues.?ÿ Poly(lactide) fibers were employed to increase the axial strength and toughess of the composite.?ÿ The hydroxyapatite nano rods are also aligned in the axial direction during the pultrusion process to increase the low-strain modulus of the composite.?ÿ The resulting composite with a composition of HA: PCL:?ÿ PLA= 3: 34: 63 (vol%) had a tensile modulus of 6.6 GPa.
EFFECT OF NANO FILLERS IN HYBRID BIO DEGRADABLE THERMOPLASTIC CORNSTARCH MATERIALS
Spencer Seung Kim , Bok Hee Kim , Joshua Knies, May 2010
There is a global interest in replacing petroleum based synthetic composites with biodegradable hybrid materials in order to use renewable resources and to reduce the amount of persistent non-biodegradable plastics waste. Fillers (or reinforcements) play an important role to improve various characteristics in biodegradable hybrid composites. Various types of inorganic fillers are used to modify the properties of biodegradable composites in industrial applications. This paper attempts to investigate the effects of inorganic fillers (such as halloysite nano clay and calcium carbonate (CaCO3)) on the mechanical properties (tensile testing) and microstructures of hybrid thermoplastic cornstarch (TPS) material systems.
IMPACT RESISTANCE OF POLY(ETHYLENE TEREPHTHALATE) TEXTILE INSERT MOLDING
Yew Wei Leong , Hiroyuki Hamada, May 2010
The textile insert molding technique has been proven to be effective in enhancing the impact resistance of predominantly brittle materials such as poly(lactic acid). In this study, knitted fabrics produced from two different grades of polyester fibers (i.e. amorphous and crystalline fibers) were used as inserts for injection-compression molded poly(ethyelene terephthalate) (PET) substrates. It was found that the textile inserts made from amorphous fibers disintegrated during molding as a result of the high resin temperature.Inserts made from crystalline fibers, however, maintained their integrity and appeared to be more resistant to the resin temperature. Without textile inserts, the neat PET moldings exhibited high impact resistance and yielded considerably without any evidence of radial crack propagation upon fracture.Contrary to expectations, however, the presence of textile inserts did not enhance but instead reduced the impact resistance of the bulk significantly. It is thought that the insertion of textiles had induced notches onto the surface of the moldings, which acted as stress concentrators. This highlights the sensitivity of PET to notches and surface irregularities.
SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF STARCH-BASED IONIC COMPLEXES
Xiangsong Kong, Xi Chen, Zhijiang Shao, May 2010
Ionic complexes were prepared by reacting cassava starch (S) or carboxymethyl starch (CMS) with alkyltrimethyl ammonium bromides with different alkyl chain lengths (12, 14, and 18) in aqueous medium. Degrees of substitution (DS) between 0.06 and 0.72 were obtained as the length of the alkyl chain was increased. Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and Wide angle X-Ray Difraction (WAXS) experiments showed the crystallization of the grafted lateral chain having 18 carbon atoms and it was shown that the introduction of this lateral chain leads to a reduction of water absorption of up to 50% in comparison with the corresponding CMS precursor.
NON-ISOTHERMAL CRYSTALLIZATION OF PLLA/SWCNT COMPOSITES
E. Lizundia , P. Landa J.J. González , J. R. Sarasua, May 2010
The non-isothermal crystallization kinetics of poly (Llactide) (PLLA) from the melt was studied in presence and absence of single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and polarized light optical microscopy (PLOM). The results indicate that SWCNT acting as nucleation sites for PLLA crystallization have a significant effect on all the crystallization parameters studied: crystallinity index (Xc) crystallization temperature (Tc) spherulite growth rate (G) morphology and Avrami’s kinetics parameters (n k and t1/2). The existence of a critical concentration of SWCNT that provides the maximum changes in crystallization behavior of PLLA was determined.
NON-ISOTHERMAL CRYSTALLIZATION OF PLLA/SWCNT COMPOSITES
E. Lizundia , P. Landa , J.J. González , J. R. Sarasua, May 2010
The non-isothermal crystallization kinetics of poly (L-lactide) (PLLA) from the melt was studied in presence and absence of single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and polarized light optical microscopy (PLOM). The results indicate that SWCNT acting as nucleation sites for PLLA crystallization have a significant effect on all the crystallization parameters studied: crystallinity index (Xc), crystallization temperature (Tc), spherulite growth rate (G), morphology, and Avramiƒ??s kinetics parameters (n, k and t1/2). The existence of a critical concentration of SWCNT that provides the maximum changes in crystallization behavior of PLLA was determined.
EFFECT OF COMPATIBILIZATION ON CRYSTALLIZATION OF RPET/RPP/CaCO3 BLEND
Supaphorn Thumsorn , Yew Wei Leong , Hiroyuki Hamada, May 2010
Recycled polyethylene terephthalate (RPET) recycled polypropylene (RPP) and CaCO3 were blended and compatibilized with SEBS copolymer. The effects of compatibilization on morphological thermal and mechanical properties were investigated. The results indicated that the dispersed phase in compatibilized blends is significantly smaller in size as compared to uncompatibilized blends. The crystallization temperature and crystallinity of the blends were affected by the incorporation of compatibilizers while tensile and impact properties depended on the content of CaCO3 and compatibilizer.
EFFECT OF COMPATIBILIZATION ON CRYSTALLIZATION OF RPET/RPP/CaCO3 BLEND
Supaphorn Thumsorn , Yew Wei Leong , Hiroyuki Hamada, May 2010
Recycled polyethylene terephthalate (RPET),recycled polypropylene (RPP) and CaCO3 were blendedand compatibilized with SEBS copolymer. The effects of compatibilization on morphological, thermal and mechanical properties were investigated. The results indicated that the dispersed phase in compatibilized blends is significantly smaller in size as compared to uncompatibilized blends. The crystallization temperature and crystallinity of the blends were affected by the incorporation of compatibilizers while tensile and impactproperties depended on the content of CaCO3 and compatibilizer.
VARIATION OF TEAR PROPERITES OF POLYETHYLENE BLOWN FILMS DUE TO HAZE BANDS
Byoung-Ho Choi, Rajen Patel, A. Willem deGroot, Mehmet Demirrors, Kenneth Anderson, May 2010
There is very severe difference of tear property of polyethylene blown films observed depending on the location of tear sampling sometimes. Tear values of some polyethylene blown films are very scattered, and those data are statistically meaningless. Especially, it is known that the formation of haze bands can affect the tear property of polyethylene blown films. So, in this study, for understanding of the variation of tear property of polyethylene blown films, various scientific analyses based on both of fracture mechanics (for macroscale) and materials science (for microscale) are used to analyze the effect of haze bands of polyethylene blown films.
MICROSTRUCTURE OF EXPANDED PP-TALC COMPOSITES FROM SOLID-PHASE DIE DRAWING
Bernard Chukwuemeka Ogazi-Onyemaechi, Masanori Okano, Yew Wei Leong, Hiroyuki Hamada, May 2010
Talc filled polypropylene (PP) composites filled with different loadings of talc were die-drawn at 15?øC below the melting temperature using different draw rates. The objective was to study the effect of draw rate on polymer orientation and flexural modulus achieved in the presence of particles, along with void growth and deformation. A lower extent of crystalline orientation was achieved in the drawn PP-talc composite with 7.8 vol% of talc than in the drawn composite with 3.5 vol% of talc and in the drawn neat PP. The crystalline c-axis orientation was independent of draw rate over the range studied while the void volume fraction, the mean void aspect ratio and the flexural modulus leveled off only at higher draw rates. The effect of voiding in drawn composites appeared to be offset by the increased orientation in amorphous polymer regions.
EFFECT OF HAIRLINE CRACK ON THE TOUGHNESS OF POLYETHYLENE TEREPHTHALATE
Bernard Chukwuemeka Ogazi-Onyemaechi , Masanori Okano , Yew Wei Leong , Hiroyuki Hamada, May 2010
The effect of notches was investigated by introducing single-edge hairline cracks and V-shaped notches of different depths on dumbbell samples to ascertain the fracture behavior at the skin and core parts of virgin and recycled poly(ethylene terephthalate) (V-PET/R-PET) injection-moldings. Investigation shows that the fracture behavior of the materials responded differently to both hairline crack and V-shaped notch. Results revealed that a mere 5?m deep critical hairline crack caused a drastic change in the fracture behavior of the materials. In contrast a standard V-shaped notch would only cause drastic change in toughness at a much higher critical notch depth of 600?m. V-shaped notch also provided a gradual transition in fracture behavior from the skin to the core regions which suggests that the fracture behavior can be dependent on the skin and core sizes of PET injection moldings.


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