The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.
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Honeycombs Impregnation by Polymers with Nanofillers
Main mechanical properties of honeycombs are improved by impregnation of their walls by polymers containing nanofillers. Maximal effect is achieved by carbon nanofibers application. Structure of walls becomes of sandwich-like, what is increasing the effective stiffness and especially compression and shear strength of honeycombs, which is determined by walls buckling.
Confinement in Layered Silicate Modified Thin Films
In this paper we have studied the effect of montomorillonite layered silicate (MLS) nanoclay in polymer thin films by considering the effect of concentration and different film thickness on linear coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) and glass transition temperature (Tg). CTE and Tg of thin polymer and nanocomposite films were calculated by using ellipsometry. They were also correlated with the interaction between the substrate and film and their chain mobility.
TPU/Nanoclay Composites Produced via Reactive Extrusion
In this study, reactive extrusion was used to polymerize a typical thermoplastic polyurethane in situ with an organically modified layered silicate. Depending on the incorporation method, varying degrees of nanoclay dispersion were achieved. However, even with good nanoclay exfoliation, significant improvements in tensile and barrier properties were not achieved. Compared to analogous composites produced via melt compounding, composites produced via reactive extrusion exhibited superior properties.
Recycling Non-Halogen FR-PC/ABS
PC/ABS composites used extensively for laptop housings have grown significantly in the plastic waste stream. For these systems, required flame retardancy is done either through system design or composite formulations. Many manufacturers opt for non-halogen FRs such as triaryl phosphates. This paper will look at these options, measuring properties relative to recycling issues and using common industrial practices, present performance in a realistic recycling program. This study also considers additives found useful as stabilizers.
Designing with TPO for Innovative High Gloss Mold-In-Color Automotive Applications
Thermoplastic Polyolefins (TPO) are used extensively in interior and exterior automotive applications due to their various advantages. The ultimate goal, to replace a painted part with high gloss mold-incolor (MIC) plastic, is now within reach with a new line of TPO products. Design Challenges, performance, system cost and colorability of this new technology are reviewed in this paper.
Supramolecular Polymers at Interfaces
When macromolecular superstructures are defined by very specific chemical interactions, their properties are likely to be very sensitive to the steric constraints of interfaces. Modular systems of molecules, constructed for the purpose of obtaining structure-activity relationships, provide extremely useful molecular tools for probing polymer physics in two regimes: (1) linear polymers reversibly assembled along their main chains, and (2) covalent polymer brushes reversibly crosslinked by thermodynamically similar, but kinetically dissimilar, intermolecular interactions.
Outgassing Behavior of E Beam Irradiated HDPE and ETFE
Electron Beam irradiated high density polyethylene (HDPE) and ethylene tetra fluoro ethylene (ETFE) was studied by performing organic outgassing studies.Effects of radiation levels and aging are beyond the scope of this work.It was found that the outgassing in HDPE and ETFE increased with increased exposure to E Beam, decreased with time, and increased with temperature. ETFE, due its unique combination of tetra fluoro ethylene and ethylene, showed greater outgassing as a function of temperature.This work is limited to total outgassing analysis. Analysis of the species within the total is beyond the scope.
Modeling the Morphology Development of Ethylene Copolymers in Rotational Molding
Morphology development was modeled using the phase field theory. The model successfully captures variations caused by changes in material formulation and molding conditions. Since morphological features are contributing factors to product performance, the model will be useful for process optimization.
Polymer Nanocomposites Fibers and Applications
Different polymer nanocomposite (polypropylene-clay and polyethylene terephthalate-hydroxyapatite) fibers were produced by melt blowing. Fibers exhibit interesting mechanical properties attributed to polymer and nanoparticle orientation. Fibers could be organized and consolidated into 3D structures with retained improved mechanical properties. Structural and biomedical of these structures are presented.
Cool Colors in Plastics
Reference to cool colors are those that either absorb a minimum of solar energy or are transparent to solar energy. Last year we presented a paper showing work on colorants that were used in plastics that would meet TSR ratings in coatings applications. We have extended this work into PP, HDPE, PS and TPO.
Structure Development of Polypropylene/Ethylene-Butene Copolymer Blends in Melt Spinning
Polypropylene/ethylene-butene copolymer blends have been melt-spun into filaments. The morphology and orientation of the filaments are studied by SEM, WAXD, and birefringence.
Mechanics of Foam-Filled Honeycombs
Foam-filled honeycombs are prospective core materials for sandwich structures used in cryogenic isolation, hydrogen storage, etc. Mechanical properties of such materials are calculated according the developed models and studied experimentally. Such core has better mechanical properties and resistance to leakage than conventional ones.
The Calorimetric Glass Transition of Free Standing Polystyrene Thin Films
The absolute heat capacity and the glass transition are measured for stacked polystyrene thin films using the step scan differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) method. We find that the absolute heat capacity in both the glass and liquid states decreases with decreasing film thickness and that the Tg also decreases with decreasing film thickness. The results indicate that an understanding of Tg at the nanoscale is elusive.
Measurement of the Bulk Modulus Using Pressurizable Dilatometry
A new piston-cylinder type pressurizable dilatometer controlled by a stepper motor has been developed to measure the time-dependent bulk modulus of viscoelastic materials. The PVT behavior and bulk modulus measurements for polystyrene are reported.
Solid State Structure and Properties of Novel High Performance Olefin Elastomers
Exciting new developments in polyolefin synthesis give rise to blocky olefin copolymers with properties typical of the thermoplastic-elastomers. This paper describes the materials science of these unique polymers including the microphase separated morphology and its relationship to elastomeric behavior.
Unique Material Properties and Potential Applications of Novel High Performance Olefin Elastomers
Polyolefin elastomers are one of the fastest growing product families within elastomers markets. One of the largest usages of polyolefin elastomers is thermoplastic elastomer (TPE) compounds replacing styrenic based TPEs, flexible PVC, TPVs and thermoset rubbers. Recent advancements in polyolefin synthesis have given rise to novel high performance olefin elastomers. Structure-property relationships and markets/applications of these novel high performance olefin elastomers will be discussed in this paper.
Measurement of Fuel Barrier Properties of Rotational Molded Materials
Future California Air Resources Board (CARB) and US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) fuel emission standards will change the rotational molding industry. This study outlines an apparatus and test method useful to screen various materials relative to these new standards. Quantification of permeation rate and the identification of individual permeating components were conducted on actual coupons from rotational molded parts. A correlation to rotomolded tanks is presented with the preferred material candidates being explained.
NIR Radiation Management Part III - Rational Design of Novel NIR Absorbers for Plastics
At ANTEC 2004 we presented a new class of highly efficient organic NIR absorbers based on the quaterrylenetetra-carboxylic diimide chromophore with a unique performance profile especially suited for laser transmission welding with 808 nm semiconductor lasers and other NIR radiation management applications where high absorptivities at a specific wavelength or in a narrow spectral band (so-called differential" absorptivities) are required.In the first part of this paper we present concepts on how to tune the absorption properties of this class of compounds by intelligent molecular design in order to access other common laser wavelengths. In the second part we will introduce a new class of broad band ("integral") inorganic NIR absorbers with absorption efficiencies hitherto reserved exclusively to organic materials in combination with photo- and thermostabilities typical for an inorganic plastics additive."
Rheological Modeling of Plug-Assist Thermoforming
Solving problems for thermoforming processes in production of axisymmetric thin walled plastics is investigated in this research work. A non-linear viscoelastic rheological model with a new strain energy function is suggested for improvement of physical properties of final product. For model validation, a quantitative relation between stress and technical parameters of plug-assist thermoforming is determined by comparison of theoretical and experimental results. This process with the proposed rheological model could be suggested for prevention from some technical defects such as wall thickness variations, physical instability during inflation-shrinkage, and warpage exhibited in the final part of a polymeric sheet thermoforming.
New Modification Technology for Polymer Composites
Using a unique reactive gas modification technology, new families of polyolefins can be manufactured that have highly oxidized and water-wetable surfaces (figure 1). These functionalized polyolefin particles can be used as performance additives in both thermoplastic and thermoset composites. The unique and highly modified surfaces enable non-polar polyolefins to become compatible with polar polymers. This is seen when the functionalized particles are used in melt blending with engineering plastics, when used as a dispersed solid phase in a thermoset such as polyurethane or epoxy, and when used in a latex paint formulation. When the polyolefin particle integrity is maintained, polymer-polymer composites are formed, which have unique physical properties that often have commercial value.The process of functionalizing the surface of polyolefin particles using reactive gases has many advantages. The process can be done at any scale and in batch or continuous configuration without many of the concerns associated with other unit operations, such as melt phase grafting or liquid processes. Further, the process of using highly reactive gas atmosphere processes, such as those using elemental fluorine initiation, are amenable to modifying most polymers except those that are already highly fluorinated, such as PTFE.
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