The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.
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Permeability of Polymer Nanocomposites
Permeability of the nylon and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) polymer and naocomposites, biaxially stretched and post fatigued film is measured. Both the tortuous path and crystallinity influence the barrier properties. Permeability is predicted taking into consideration the amorphous phase, crystalline phase and MLS content and compared with the experimental values. Keywords: Permeability, Nanocomposites, PET, Nylon-6
A Novel Fabrication Method and Optimum Tooling Design for Microlens Arrays
This study uses a simple and novel procedure for microlens arrays. The master is formed by room temperature imprint lithography and thermal reflow process. The electroforming is used to fabricate the metal mold insert from master. Finally, micro-hot embossing is used to replicate microlens arrays.
Mechanical Properties of PP/PA/GF Blend Thermoplastics
In order to improve mechanical properties of PP(Polypropylene) / GF(Glass fiber), PP/GF was injection molded with PA(Polyamide) through three procedures. Tensile and flexural test were conducted. The fractured surface of the etched specimens after testing was observed using a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). From the results, PP/PA/GF thermoplastics which were molded by using PP/GF pellet and PA showed higher strength than the other specimens.
Fracture Behavior of Heat-Sealed PP Films under Static and Creep Loadings
Effects of heat-sealing temperature and film direction on mechanical properties and fracture behavior of heat-sealed PP films were investigated. Peel tests were conducted under static and creep loadings. 170 °C heat-sealing specimens were slightly higher than that of the other specimens. Under creep loadings, 170 °C heat-sealing specimens in the transverse direction showed the highest creep property. The fracture mode of the specimens could be divided into 3 types.
Fracture Behavior of Heat-Sealed Poly(Lactic Acid) Films
Effect of heat-sealing temperature on fracture behavior of heat-sealed poly (lactic acid) (PLA) films was investigated according to the Essential Work of Fracture (EWF) technique. The EWF parameters obtained from heat-sealed PLA films that affected by heat-sealing temperature were investigated. The relationship between the EWF parameters and peel strength of heat-sealed PLA films was also discussed.
Novel Chitosan-Alginate Fibers for Wound Dressing Applications
Alginate is a well known bioactive wound-dressing material. Similarly, Chitosan shows potential but has not been commercialized mainly due to high costs. Both materials can be engineered and produced as fibers to improve specific properties. Properties, FTIR and SEM analyses indicate a superior fiber for chitosan hydrolyzed and extruded with alginate. This process leads to synergy of the constituents in the new chitosan-alginate complex. The process is both precise and economical.
Failures of Plastic Products Due to Not Adequately Replacing of Metals by Plastics
Replacing metals by plastics often results in unreliable products. The main failure causes will be presented. As a practical example mechanical and thermal failures of a waste water tank designed for metal and replaced by HDPE will be discussed in detail. The solution to a problem to design snap-fit assemblies on buckling ribs is outlined.
Optical Measurements of the Strain Field in Plastic Products
Experimental verification of FEM predictions is required for reliable predictions of the mechanical behavior of products. Examples of FEM predictions of flax fiber reinforced products and the experimental verification with an optical system (ARAMIS) will be presented.
Soft, High-Temperature-Resistant Blends of Poly(Ethylene Alkyl Acrylate) Copolymers and Polypropylene
Blends of low melt index ethylene alkyl acrylate copolymers with polypropylene give a good combination of low hardness and high upper service temperature. The PP is the minor component, but due to the viscosity ratio of the polymers approaches a co-continuous phase. Of particular advantage are acrylate copolymers produced on a tubular reactor due to the compositional heterogeneity which gives improved compatibility with PP.
The Processing and Performance of Nylon 12/PEBAX Blends
This work studied the effect of a polyether block amide (PEBA) on the rheological, mechanical and thermal properties of nylon 12 polymers. The results showed significant differences in melt viscosity, tensile properties and phase transition temperatures (tan ?) with varying PEBA concentration.
The Effect of Processing Conditions on the Properties of TPUs
In this study a range of thermoplastic polyurethanes were manufactured by various processing methods, temperatures and shear rates. The results indicate that these parameters had a significant effect on the morphological properties, especially at elevated temperatures and shear rates.
Strain Rate Dependent Failure of Plastic Materials
The response of plastic materials to mechanical stress is contingent on many variables. One very important characteristic is the rate at which the stress is applied, otherwise known as the strain rate. The effects of strain rate are reviewed and three case studies are used to illustrate failure resulting from rapid stress loading.
Phenomenon of Gas Fading in Thermoplastic Elastomer in Automotive Interior Applications
Thermoplastic Elastomers (TPE) are suitable materials for automotive interior applications. TPE can be adequately stabilized for protection against extended exposure to UV and heat during compounding, subsequent fabrication, and end use. Under certain environmental conditions, material discoloration can occur. We will explore the nature of this discoloration, and review the current technology to eliminate it.
Mechanisms and Alleviation of Polybenzoxazole Fiber Degradation
Mechanical properties of PBO make it appropriate for use in anti-ballistic applications but are degraded by exposure to moisture, sunlight and mild chemical environments. This work explores the mechanisms of degradation by these factors and proposes routes to preserving fiber properties.
Development of High Performance Energy Conversion Materials
High performance damping polymers were produced by the incorporation of special additives to the base polymer material. Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) with the new additives absorbs mechanical energy. The relaxation frequencies obtained by mechanical and dielectric methods lie on the same straight lines of Arrhenius plotting. The results show that the additives restrict the movement of the polymer molecules.
Impact of Silane-Treated Fillers on the Performance of Filled Polyolefins
Performance of reinforced polymers depends on the filler, and the polymer-filler interaction at the interface. As such, the filler dispersion is critical. Silanes are widely used as coupling agents, adhesion promoters but also as dispersing aid for fillers. We wish to review the dispersion mechanism and the effect of the silane treatment of fillers on the final performance of polymer composites.
Feed Screw Failure: How Carbide Coatings Protect Against Common Wear Modes
Feed screw failure can result from abrasive or adhesive wear, corrosion or a combination of these. The paper compares traditional wear protection with HVOF coatings of tungsten or chromium carbide. Standard ASTM test data are presented as well as field experience from installed equipment.
Evaluation of Fracture Toughness for Thin-Wall Injection Moulded Plastics
Evaluation of fracture toughness was studied by means of essential work of fracture (EWF), using 1mm thickness injection moulded double-edge notched tensile (DENT) specimens with two types of materials, ABS and PP. A round-robin result was discussed in order to improve the reproducibility of testing.
Enhanced Adhesive Characterizaton of Pressure Sensitive Adhesives
The adhesive behavior of a series of pressure sensitive adhesives (PSA) was studied using the Texture Analyzer, a probe-indentation based instrument. Specifically, the effects of the indentation conditions on the resulting load-deflection curves were studied. These curves offer insight into the performance of these materials that can not be obtained from ‘single-point’ type tests. The resulting load-time data have been used to complement conventional applications test data in the development of next generation adhesives.
Improvements in Material Characterization by Uniaxial Hot Tensile Test
Due to its simplicity, uniaxial hot tensile tests are widely used to obtain the mechanical properties of materials. Several difficulties of this type of tests are frequently reported in the literature, especially when high temperatures are employed. This work describes a new device developed to enhance the degree of reliability of uniaxial hot tensile tests; confining the specimen stretching to its neck-down portion and minimizing the grip-slip, the grip extrusion and/or the specimen-grip adhesion that may occur.
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