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Conference Proceedings
WELDABILITY OF BIOPLASTICS
S.B. Tan, P.R. Hornsby, M. McAfee, M.P. Kearns, M. McCourt, P.R. Hanna, May 2010
The cooling process in conventional rotational moulding has a relatively long cycle time. It is normally accomplished by external forced air convection and external water spray cooling. In some instances, an evaporative cooler is employed to create atomised fog external to the mould during the cooling cycle. Internal water spray cooling is an attractive approach to reduce the cycle time and enhance the product properties in rotational moulding. It is shown that water spray cooling of polymers is affected by water droplet size and water droplet velocity. This paper outlines an introduction to the characterisation of water droplets. The effects of these parameters on water spray cooling of polymers are also presented, using a purpose built experimental test rig. With the growing demand for environmentally friendly biorenewable resources, there has been a parallel growth in the development of bioplastics. These include commercially available starch-derived plastics and plastics derived from renewable oil and proteins. As with any plastic, these new materials must often be joined to produce final products. This paper reviews impulse and ultrasonic welding of PLA as well as friction welding of plant protein-based plastics. It was found that each of these plastics can be welded with weld strengths matching the parent material strengths.
THE EFFECTS OF WATER DROPLET SIZE AND VELOCITY ON SPRAY COOLING OF POLYMERS DURING ROTATIONAL MOULDING
S.B. Tan , P.R. Hornsby , M. McAfee , M.P. Kearns , M. McCourt , P.R. Hanna, May 2010
The cooling process in conventional rotational moulding has a relatively long cycle time. It is normally accomplished by external forced air convection and external water spray cooling. In some instances, an evaporative cooler is employed to create atomised fog external to the mould during the cooling cycle. Internal water spray cooling is an attractive approach to reduce the cycle time and enhance the product properties in rotational moulding. It is shown that water spray cooling of polymers is affected by water droplet size and water droplet velocity. This paper outlines an introduction to the characterisation of water droplets. The effects of these parameters on water spray cooling of polymers are also presented, using a purpose built experimental test rig.
MEASUREMENT AND MANAGEMENT OF PERFORMANCE OF COMPANIES USING BENCHMARKING TOOLS
Wantinee Viratyaporn, Richard L. Lehman, May 2010
The paper deals with methods of measurement of company performance and identification of key factors that influence it. It is based on the results from a research involving managers of selected companies, which took place within the scope of cooperation of the university with a cluster of plastic processing companies. Further in the contribution is presented the possibility of increasing performance of companies using benchmarking tools for the identification of strengths and weaknesses, which affect the company performance. This is shown on a practical example of a cluster activity.
HYDROXYAPATITE- POLYLACTIDE COMPOSITE FOR BONE REPAIR
Shih-Po Sun , Montgomery T. Shaw , Mei Wei , James Olson, May 2010
The aim of this study was to investigate the interealtions between the design processing and properties of hydroxyapatite-poly(lactide) composites intended?ÿ as biodegradable bone grafts for joining fractured bone tissues.?ÿ Poly(lactide) fibers were employed to increase the axial strength and toughess of the composite.?ÿ The hydroxyapatite nano rods are also aligned in the axial direction during the pultrusion process to increase the low-strain modulus of the composite.?ÿ The resulting composite with a composition of HA: PCL:?ÿ PLA= 3: 34: 63 (vol%) had a tensile modulus of 6.6 GPa.
EFFECT OF NANO FILLERS IN HYBRID BIO DEGRADABLE THERMOPLASTIC CORNSTARCH MATERIALS
Spencer Seung Kim , Bok Hee Kim , Joshua Knies, May 2010
There is a global interest in replacing petroleum based synthetic composites with biodegradable hybrid materials in order to use renewable resources and to reduce the amount of persistent non-biodegradable plastics waste. Fillers (or reinforcements) play an important role to improve various characteristics in biodegradable hybrid composites. Various types of inorganic fillers are used to modify the properties of biodegradable composites in industrial applications. This paper attempts to investigate the effects of inorganic fillers (such as halloysite nano clay and calcium carbonate (CaCO3)) on the mechanical properties (tensile testing) and microstructures of hybrid thermoplastic cornstarch (TPS) material systems.
IMPACT RESISTANCE OF POLY(ETHYLENE TEREPHTHALATE) TEXTILE INSERT MOLDING
Yew Wei Leong , Hiroyuki Hamada, May 2010
The textile insert molding technique has been proven to be effective in enhancing the impact resistance of predominantly brittle materials such as poly(lactic acid). In this study, knitted fabrics produced from two different grades of polyester fibers (i.e. amorphous and crystalline fibers) were used as inserts for injection-compression molded poly(ethyelene terephthalate) (PET) substrates. It was found that the textile inserts made from amorphous fibers disintegrated during molding as a result of the high resin temperature.Inserts made from crystalline fibers, however, maintained their integrity and appeared to be more resistant to the resin temperature. Without textile inserts, the neat PET moldings exhibited high impact resistance and yielded considerably without any evidence of radial crack propagation upon fracture.Contrary to expectations, however, the presence of textile inserts did not enhance but instead reduced the impact resistance of the bulk significantly. It is thought that the insertion of textiles had induced notches onto the surface of the moldings, which acted as stress concentrators. This highlights the sensitivity of PET to notches and surface irregularities.
SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF STARCH-BASED IONIC COMPLEXES
Xiangsong Kong, Xi Chen, Zhijiang Shao, May 2010
Ionic complexes were prepared by reacting cassava starch (S) or carboxymethyl starch (CMS) with alkyltrimethyl ammonium bromides with different alkyl chain lengths (12, 14, and 18) in aqueous medium. Degrees of substitution (DS) between 0.06 and 0.72 were obtained as the length of the alkyl chain was increased. Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and Wide angle X-Ray Difraction (WAXS) experiments showed the crystallization of the grafted lateral chain having 18 carbon atoms and it was shown that the introduction of this lateral chain leads to a reduction of water absorption of up to 50% in comparison with the corresponding CMS precursor.
NON-ISOTHERMAL CRYSTALLIZATION OF PLLA/SWCNT COMPOSITES
E. Lizundia , P. Landa J.J. González , J. R. Sarasua, May 2010
The non-isothermal crystallization kinetics of poly (Llactide) (PLLA) from the melt was studied in presence and absence of single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and polarized light optical microscopy (PLOM). The results indicate that SWCNT acting as nucleation sites for PLLA crystallization have a significant effect on all the crystallization parameters studied: crystallinity index (Xc) crystallization temperature (Tc) spherulite growth rate (G) morphology and Avrami’s kinetics parameters (n k and t1/2). The existence of a critical concentration of SWCNT that provides the maximum changes in crystallization behavior of PLLA was determined.
NON-ISOTHERMAL CRYSTALLIZATION OF PLLA/SWCNT COMPOSITES
E. Lizundia , P. Landa , J.J. González , J. R. Sarasua, May 2010
The non-isothermal crystallization kinetics of poly (L-lactide) (PLLA) from the melt was studied in presence and absence of single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and polarized light optical microscopy (PLOM). The results indicate that SWCNT acting as nucleation sites for PLLA crystallization have a significant effect on all the crystallization parameters studied: crystallinity index (Xc), crystallization temperature (Tc), spherulite growth rate (G), morphology, and Avramiƒ??s kinetics parameters (n, k and t1/2). The existence of a critical concentration of SWCNT that provides the maximum changes in crystallization behavior of PLLA was determined.
EFFECT OF COMPATIBILIZATION ON CRYSTALLIZATION OF RPET/RPP/CaCO3 BLEND
Supaphorn Thumsorn , Yew Wei Leong , Hiroyuki Hamada, May 2010
Recycled polyethylene terephthalate (RPET) recycled polypropylene (RPP) and CaCO3 were blended and compatibilized with SEBS copolymer. The effects of compatibilization on morphological thermal and mechanical properties were investigated. The results indicated that the dispersed phase in compatibilized blends is significantly smaller in size as compared to uncompatibilized blends. The crystallization temperature and crystallinity of the blends were affected by the incorporation of compatibilizers while tensile and impact properties depended on the content of CaCO3 and compatibilizer.
EFFECT OF COMPATIBILIZATION ON CRYSTALLIZATION OF RPET/RPP/CaCO3 BLEND
Supaphorn Thumsorn , Yew Wei Leong , Hiroyuki Hamada, May 2010
Recycled polyethylene terephthalate (RPET),recycled polypropylene (RPP) and CaCO3 were blendedand compatibilized with SEBS copolymer. The effects of compatibilization on morphological, thermal and mechanical properties were investigated. The results indicated that the dispersed phase in compatibilized blends is significantly smaller in size as compared to uncompatibilized blends. The crystallization temperature and crystallinity of the blends were affected by the incorporation of compatibilizers while tensile and impactproperties depended on the content of CaCO3 and compatibilizer.
VARIATION OF TEAR PROPERITES OF POLYETHYLENE BLOWN FILMS DUE TO HAZE BANDS
Byoung-Ho Choi, Rajen Patel, A. Willem deGroot, Mehmet Demirrors, Kenneth Anderson, May 2010
There is very severe difference of tear property of polyethylene blown films observed depending on the location of tear sampling sometimes. Tear values of some polyethylene blown films are very scattered, and those data are statistically meaningless. Especially, it is known that the formation of haze bands can affect the tear property of polyethylene blown films. So, in this study, for understanding of the variation of tear property of polyethylene blown films, various scientific analyses based on both of fracture mechanics (for macroscale) and materials science (for microscale) are used to analyze the effect of haze bands of polyethylene blown films.
MICROSTRUCTURE OF EXPANDED PP-TALC COMPOSITES FROM SOLID-PHASE DIE DRAWING
Bernard Chukwuemeka Ogazi-Onyemaechi, Masanori Okano, Yew Wei Leong, Hiroyuki Hamada, May 2010
Talc filled polypropylene (PP) composites filled with different loadings of talc were die-drawn at 15?øC below the melting temperature using different draw rates. The objective was to study the effect of draw rate on polymer orientation and flexural modulus achieved in the presence of particles, along with void growth and deformation. A lower extent of crystalline orientation was achieved in the drawn PP-talc composite with 7.8 vol% of talc than in the drawn composite with 3.5 vol% of talc and in the drawn neat PP. The crystalline c-axis orientation was independent of draw rate over the range studied while the void volume fraction, the mean void aspect ratio and the flexural modulus leveled off only at higher draw rates. The effect of voiding in drawn composites appeared to be offset by the increased orientation in amorphous polymer regions.
EFFECT OF HAIRLINE CRACK ON THE TOUGHNESS OF POLYETHYLENE TEREPHTHALATE
Bernard Chukwuemeka Ogazi-Onyemaechi , Masanori Okano , Yew Wei Leong , Hiroyuki Hamada, May 2010
The effect of notches was investigated by introducing single-edge hairline cracks and V-shaped notches of different depths on dumbbell samples to ascertain the fracture behavior at the skin and core parts of virgin and recycled poly(ethylene terephthalate) (V-PET/R-PET) injection-moldings. Investigation shows that the fracture behavior of the materials responded differently to both hairline crack and V-shaped notch. Results revealed that a mere 5?m deep critical hairline crack caused a drastic change in the fracture behavior of the materials. In contrast a standard V-shaped notch would only cause drastic change in toughness at a much higher critical notch depth of 600?m. V-shaped notch also provided a gradual transition in fracture behavior from the skin to the core regions which suggests that the fracture behavior can be dependent on the skin and core sizes of PET injection moldings.
EFFECT OF HAIRLINE CRACK ON THE TOUGHNESS OF POLYETHYLENE TEREPHTHALATE
Bernard Chukwuemeka Ogazi-Onyemaechi , Masanori Okano , Yew Wei Leong , Hiroyuki Hamada, May 2010
The effect of notches was investigated by introducing single-edge hairline cracks and V-shaped notches of different depths on dumbbell samples to ascertain the fracture behavior at the skin and core parts of virgin and recycled poly(ethylene terephthalate), (V-PET/R-PET), injection-moldings. Investigation shows that the fracture behavior of the materials responded differently to both hairline crack and V-shaped notch. Results revealed that amere 5?¬m deep critical hairline crack caused a drasticchange in the fracture behavior of the materials. In contrast, a standard V-shaped notch would only cause drastic change in toughness at a much higher critical notch depth of 600?¬m. V-shaped notch also provided a gradual transition in fracture behavior from the skin to the core regions, which suggests that the fracture behavior can be dependent on the skin and core sizes of PET injection moldings.
IMPROVING THE COMPATIBILITY OF POLY(?-CAPROLACTONE)/POLY(VINYL ALCOHOL) BLENDS
A. Lejardi , E. Meaurio , N. Monasterio , E. Zuza , A. Etxeberria , J. R. Sarasua, May 2010
Poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) has been esterified with lactic glycolic and butyric acids to modify its compatibility with poly (?-caprolactone) (PCL). The extent of the chemical reaction in PVA was followed by 13C NMR. The analysis of miscibility of the blends was conducted by differential DSC FTIR and AFM. Phase separation was observed by DSC and FTIR suggesting that auto-association of the H-donor counterpart is a key negative factor impairing its miscibility with polylactide. In addition AFM results show a finely dispersed phase of decreasing size as the extent of the modification of the PVA increases suggesting improved compatibility for the modified systems.
IMPROVING THE COMPATIBILITY OF POLY(?æ-CAPROLACTONE)/POLY(VINYL ALCOHOL) BLENDS
A. Lejardi , E. Meaurio , N. Monasterio , E. Zuza , A. Etxeberria , J. R. Sarasua, May 2010
Poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) has been esterified with lactic, glycolic and butyric acids to modify itscompatibility with poly (?æ-caprolactone) (PCL). Theextent of the chemical reaction in PVA was followed by13C NMR. The analysis of miscibility of the blends wasconducted by differential DSC, FTIR, and AFM. Phase separation was observed by DSC and FTIR, suggesting that auto-association of the H-donor counterpart is a key negative factor impairing its miscibility with polylactide.In addition, AFM results show a finely dispersed phase of decreasing size as the extent of the modification of the PVA increases, suggesting improved compatibility for the modified systems.
EFFECT OF LAYER SEQUENCING ON THE INTERFACIAL STABILITY OF COEXTRUDED MULTILAYERED FILMS INCORPORATING BALLISTIC RESISTANT MATERIALS
Wade DePolo , Ronald D. Moffitt , Frederick L. Beyer , James M. Sands, May 2010
Flow simulations and coextrusion experiments were employed to characterize layer sequencing effects on the interfacial stability of coextruded five-layered films incorporating ballistic-resistant materials. A simple model of coextrusion was able to rank the relative coextrusion stability of multilayered structures qualitatively in terms of viscosity matching and viscoelastic considerations. However thermal analyses and coextrusion experiments revealed that the overriding factor determining coextrusion performance was the thermal stability and degradation characteristics of the materials utilized to produce the multilayered films. Therefore any predictive analysis of coextrusion should also consider appropriate degradation mechanisms and their affect upon melt rheology.
EFFECT OF LAYER SEQUENCING ON THE INTERFACIAL STABILITY OF COEXTRUDED MULTILAYERED FILMS INCORPORATING BALLISTIC RESISTANT MATERIALS
Wade DePolo , Ronald D. Moffitt , Frederick L. Beyer , James M. Sands, May 2010
Flow simulations and coextrusion experiments were employed to characterize layer sequencing effects on the interfacial stability of coextruded five-layered films incorporating ballistic-resistant materials. A simple model of coextrusion was able to rank the relative coextrusion stability of multilayered structures qualitatively in terms of viscosity matching and viscoelastic considerations. However, thermal analyses and coextrusion experiments revealed that the overriding factor determining coextrusion performance was the thermal stability and degradation characteristics of the materials utilized to produce the multilayered films. Therefore, any predictive analysis of coextrusion should also consider appropriate degradation mechanisms and their affect upon melt rheology.
POLYMER GEL ELECTROLYTE OF PMMA AND IONIC LIQUID FOR APPLICATION IN ELECTROCHEMICAL DEVICES
Daniel Brittingham, Nicole Larson, May 2010
Polymer gel electrolyte is one of the most useful solid electrolytes for replacing conventional liquid electrolytes. To overcome the drawbacks from conventional electrolytes solvent, ion gels by in situ polymerization of methylmethacrylate (MMA) in hexafluorophosphate (BMIPF6) were developed with crosslinking agent. Ion gels were prepared with respect to weight ratio of MMA/BMIPF6. The transparent, self-standing and flexible ion gels with high ambient ionic conductivity and good thermal stability were obtained. The ion transfer behavior and its temperature dependency were investigated. The structure of crosslinked network of ion gels were observed by optical microscope and confirmed with swelling ratio test.


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