The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.
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Structure and Properties of Biaxially Oriented Polypropropylenes (BOPP)
The solid state structure, mechanical properties, and gas transport of biaxially oriented polypropylenes are investigated. Specifically, the effect of chain architecture on processing conditions and resulting properties of the oriented films is probed. Relationships between the process, solid state structure, and properties are described.
Matrix-Free Polymer Composites: Process-Structure-Property Relationship
High-temperature high-pressure sintering coupled with thermoforming is a novel process to make shapeable matrix-free polymer composites by consolidating and molding UHMWPE fabric. The process-structure-property relationship was studied to provide a profound understanding of this creative method.
Partially Oxidized Graphite in Polypropylene Grafted Maleic Anhydride
Natural graphite flakes (NGF) were partially oxidized with potassium permanganate (KMnO4) in order to increase their dispersion during melt mixing in polypropylene (PP) grafted maleic anhydride (MA) (PPg- MA). Electrical conductivity of the composite, as well as X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectrometry, and rheological properties were assessed against the level of oxidation.
Influence of Hybridization of Glass-Fiber and Talc on the Mechanical Performance of Polypropylene Composites
Polypropylene composites with glass fibers or talc are widely used in various technical applications. In many applications weld lines are formed in injection molding and reduce mechanical performance. When large aspect ratio reinforcements are used this detrimental effect is more pronounced. This results from the preferential orientation of reinforcements in the plane of weld line. In this paper, the hybridization of two different aspect ratio reinforcements is shown to be beneficial to the weld resistance.
A See-Through" Extruder to Teach Principles of Polymer Melt Extrusion"
The design and construction of a simple and inexpensive single screw extruder with a transparent quartz barrel is presented. The utility of such an extruder as an effective teaching tool to visually portray the mechanisms of polymer melting and mixing during extrusion is outlined.
Characterizing Surface Orientation Caused by Shear-Induced Flow
The effect of the near-exterior, oriented layer on the mechanical properties and related behavior of plastic injection-molded parts was studied. Standard tensile test specimens were molded from two different melt flow rate variations of Dow Magnum ABS: a 12.0 g/10-min MFR (347EZ), and a 5.0 g/10-min MFR (9555). Four families of specimens were investigated: as molded, as molded then annealed, machined, and machined then annealed. Results showed that very similar reductions in tensile strength occurred when samples were either annealed, or machined.
Ethylene-Octene Based Foam-Film Structures via Microlayer Coextrusion Technology
Prevention of gas escape during foam sheet extrusion has been a challenge, particularly in the manufacture of elastomer foams. It has been demonstrated for the first time that coextrusion of multiple alternating layers of foam and film is a means to achieve low density elastomer based foam structures. Materials with soft touch and high toughness have been obtained with the appropriate choice of layer structure, constituent materials, and fabrication conditions.
Effects of Shear-Induced Flow on Impact Strength
The effects of shear induced orientation were studied. IZOD impact tests were performed on a high and low molecular weight Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS) polymer. Oriented samples were compared against unoriented samples to quantify the effects of orientation on impact strength. It was discovered that the outer orientated layers contribute significantly to the impact strength of the molded parts.
The Influence of Wall Thickness on the Creep Rupture Performance of Polyethylene (PE) Pipe
A thermal gradient is inherent to the solidification of extruded profiles such as pipes. Depending on the magnitude of the gradient, varying levels of residual stresses are frozen-in during the pipe fabrication step. In this investigation, the residual stress state of a polyethylene (PE) pipe was altered by changing its wall thickness. Creep rupture testing of the subject pipes provided an insight on how residual stresses influences both ductile and brittle fracture processes.
Development of Silver Based PE-Nanocomposites for Antimicrobial Applications
An approach to develop PE nanocomposite containing Ag nanoparticles to have an antimicrobial effect is presented. PE was compounded with TiO2 decorated with Agnanoparticles. Morphology of the compound, diffusion of Ag ions and antimicrobial properties for different Ag concentrations were investigated.
Effect of Shear on the Phase Diagram and Morphology of PC/LCP Blends
A number of studies have considered the effect of temperature on phase separation of polycarbonate (PC)/liquid crystalline polymer (LCP). In this work, the effects of shear on the morphology and phase separation temperatures of the blends at different compositions are studied. A polarized light microscope was used in conjunction with a shear cell to observe the phase separation temperatures and to monitor the development of the phase-separated structures.
The Draw Characteristics of Polyethylene and its Controlling Factors
Cast films were prepared from a range of commercially available conventional and metallocene catalysed linear low-density polyethylenes (LLDPE). Drawdown characteristics were compared to both shear and extensional behaviour of the polymers, which was controlled by molecular characteristics. Minimized neck-in and reduced edge beading can be attributed to polymers with low extensional viscosity and extensional thickening behaviour at low extension rates.
Influence of PC-Oligomer Content in PC/ABS Blend Injection Moldings
Effect of PC-oligomer content on morphology and mechanical properties including tensile, flexural, izod impact properties of PC/ABS blend injection moldings were investigated. Different content of PC-oligomer up to 20wt% was blended. Strain at break in tensile tests was found to be significantly increased with only 1wt% PC-oligomer.
Acid and Alkali Resistance Properties of Compatibilized Elastomers
A blend with good mechanical properties and high resistance to chemical substances is prepared using styrene/butadiene rubber (SBR) and acrylonitrile/butadiene rubber (NBR) and silica as filler. They are studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and mechanical properties. High retention of tensile properties after treatment with H2SO4, NaOH and mineral oil is detected.
Use of UV Cured Coatings on Plastics
As plastics fill more roles, they must offer the same physical properties as the materials they replace. Radically reducing VOC emissions and hazardous waste is now mandatory in many areas. Specialized formulation of resins can meet these needs to some degree. Coating the molded parts addresses all these concerns. UV cured coatings meet the most stringent environmental standards, while duplicating the physical properties of glass, wood, light metal and high VOC printing and finishing inks.
Degradation of Aliphatic Polyesters in the Presence of Inorganic Fillers
Aliphatic polyesters were melt mixed with bioactive fillers in order to compare their degradation behavior in a phosphate buffer saline solution as a function of polymer type and crystallinity and type of filler. The samples were tested for weight, pH, IV, and thermal property changes as a function of time.
Assessment of Weld Line Performance of PP/Talc Mouldings Produced in Hot Runner Injection Moulds
Weld lines in injection mouldings are regions of low mechanical strength. The compounding with talc intensifies this effect. In this work it was possible to find a correlation between the processing conditions, the morphology and tensile-impact properties of box type mouldings of PP / talc composites with weld lines.
Assessment of Bioactivity of Aliphatic Polyester Composites
Composites for bone regeneration were produced from polycaprolactone with selected fillers. The fillers were screened for bioactivity using simulated body fluid, and then melt mixed with the polyester. The composites were then characterized by SEM, EDX, XRD, and AA spectroscopic methods and showed different degrees of bioactivity depending on the filler structure.
Estimation of Melt Temperature from In-Mold Temperature Sensor Data
An analytical approach for estimating melt temperature using data from in-mold temperature sensors is presented. The estimated melt temperature obtained by this approach is compared to other process data obtained via the mold temperature sensor data, including the peak mold temperature and the maximum mold temperature increase which is sensed during a molding cycle. The estimated melt temperature was found to be the most reliable means of detecting changes in the actual melt temperature and the injection velocity.
A New Methodology for Measuring Flammability Parameters of Plastics
A methodology that separately reproduces the gas and condensed phase processes of flaming combustion in a single laboratory test is described. Anaerobic pyrolysis of solid plastics under controlled heating conditions and thermal oxidation (nonflaming combustion) of the volatile products provides the rate and amount of heat released by the solid during burning. The physical basis for the methodology, the measurement of flammability parameters, and their relationship to fire response and flame resistance of plastics are described.
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