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The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.

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Conference Proceedings
POLYMER PACKAGING SOLUTION TO INCREASE PHOTOVOLTAIC SOLAR MODULE POWER OUTPUT
Walter Michaeli, Fritz Klaiber, May 2010
Silicon solar cells lose 0.45% of power for every 1oC increase in temperature. If solar modules could dissipate heat more efficiently, the operating cell temperature would be lowered, increasing the module power output. In this paper, we present findings in using encapsulants with improved thermal conductivity to increase the heat transfer from solar cells into the environment. The outdoor performance of solar modules built with the improved encapsulant shows that 1-2% power gain can be achieved compared with the standard encapsulant. Further, modules with the improved encapsulant are anticipated to have better long-term reliability as compared with the standard encapsulant.
INVESTIGATION OF LASER-ASSISTED MOULDING OF MICRO- AND NANOSTRUCTURES
Walter Michaeli , Fritz Klaiber, May 2010
Biotechnology, information and medical industries have a high growth potential. A key technology for those industries is the replication of micro- and nanostructures. Precise micro- and nanostructured parts with functional surfaces can be produced economically by injection moulding. The whole process chain (thermal mould condition, moulding, demoulding) must be analysed carefully. To enable the precise production of such structures a new technique for variothermal injection moulding was developed at the IKV. An innovative laser heating unit was designed and built. The laser unit was implemented into an injection mould. Using this technique selective parts of the cavity could be heated with high temperature gradients of up to 300K/s. Preliminary measurements were done to correlate the laser power and the temperature change on the mould surface. A pyrometer and a laser control unit were implemented to realise a precise temperature profile on the mould surface without a temperature overshoot.
EFFECT OF THE DEGREE OF SUBSTITUTION OF CARBOXYMETHYLATED CASSAVA STARCH TESTED AS GREEN CORROSION INHIBITOR OF CARBON STEEL
O. Y. Alothman, May 2010
The effect of the degree of substitution (DS) of carboxymethylated starch (CMS) as green corrosion inhibitor of carbon steel on 200 mgL-1 NaCl solution was investigated. Physical/chemical structure of CMS was studied by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (13C-NMR). DS of this bio-polymer was determined by back-titration. Its inhibitive properties were evaluated using polarization curves and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. CMS acts as corrosion inhibitor and the protection level is highly dependent on the degree of substitution. The formation of a chelate between carboxylate groups and ferrous cations allows the inhibition mechanism of CMS to be explained.
STRUCTURE AND PROPERTIES OF MULTI-LAYER MELT BLOWN MICROFIBER NON-WOVENS
Walter Michaeli, Henning Seidel, May 2010
Melt blowing is an extrusion process that produces nonwoven webs with fine fibers that are approximately 1 to 10 microns in diameter and find applications in filtration, sound and liquid absorbency and thermal insulation. We have introduced multiple layers within each microfiber and shown that novel web properties can be obtained. The number of layers within each micro fiber was varied from 2 to 27, although layers as high as a thousand can be achieved. We have shown that synergistic mechanical properties can be obtained in a controlled manner. The processing-structure-property behavior of multilayer melt blown webs will be discussed.
CLOSED LOOP QUALITY CONTROL OF THE PROCESSING OF UNDRIED POLYCONDENSATES USING MELT DEGASSING SINGLE SCREW EXTRUSION
Walter Michaeli , Henning Seidel, May 2010
Processing undried polycondensates as PET or PA using a melt degassing single screw extruder is a real alternative to the conventional energy- time- and cost-consuming pre-drying process. Due to the industrial demand of processing recycled and low priced materials the moisture content or/and the resin mixture can substantially vary from batch to batch. This leads to a deviant molecular weight degradation and an unsteady final product quality. The paper presents an approach to compensate these variations in the feedstock in a closed-loop control. It is based on the direct influence of the degassing pressure on the moisture evaporation of the melt. The product quality is estimated online in the extrusion process e.g. via melt viscosity and is controlled by the degassing pressure in the extruder.
CLOSED LOOP QUALITY CONTROL OF THE PROCESSING OF UNDRIED POLYCONDENSATES USING MELT DEGASSING SINGLE SCREW EXTRUSION
Walter Michaeli , Henning Seidel, May 2010
Processing undried polycondensates as PET or PA using a melt degassing single screw extruder is a real alternative to the conventional energy-, time- and cost-consuming pre-drying process. Due to the industrial demand of processing recycled and low priced materials, the moisture content or/and the resin mixture can substantially vary from batch to batch. This leads to a deviant molecular weight degradation and an unsteady final product quality. The paper presents an approach to compensate these variations in the feedstock in a closed-loop control. It is based on the direct influence of the degassing pressure on the moisture evaporation of the melt. The product quality is estimated online in the extrusion process, e.g. via melt viscosity, and is controlled by the degassing pressure in the extruder.
DEVELOPMENT OF AN ACTIVE AGENT CARRYING, BIODEGRADABLE IMPLANT FOR THE INTRAVESICAL THERAPY OF THE OVERACTIVE BLADDER SYNDROME
Walter Michaeli , Ina Michaelis , Joachim Grosse , Matthias von Walter , Erich Wintermantel , Nina Laar, May 2010
The overactive bladder syndrome (OAB) is defined as a symptom complex which is characterized with frequent urination, urinary incontinence and a strong, sudden urge to urinate even when the bladder is not full. About 10% of the total population have OAB and it occurs in every age group. Apart from the medical, oral therapy, the so called intravesical instillation is used as well. In order to minimise the numerous side effects of the oral therapy like dry mouth, dizziness or depressions a biodegradable, active agent carrying implant for the intravesical therapy of the OAB was aspired. After a project period of two years a biodegradable, active agent carrying polymer implant could be developed.
NEW NON-FLUORO PROCESS AID ADDITIVES FORMULATIONS FOR PC AND PP
Liu Bin, Liu Qinghui, Feng Yanhong, Qu Jinping, May 2010
New non-fluoro process aid additives performance to improve flow properties of polycarbonate (PC) and polypropylene (PP) are discussed. The new formulations provide increased output and reduce torque during processing of the polymers by improving the flow properties while maintaining stability as indicated by measurement of melt flow index. It was found that in the case of their use in PC, the effect is achieved without causing hydrolysis of the polymer. The new additives are effective at very low addition levels (0.05%) and one of the formulations can be used for clear PC or FDA applications.
RESEARCH ON DYNAMIC INJECTION MOLDING FOR METAL POWDER GREEN PART
Liu Bin , Liu Qinghui , Feng Yanhong , Qu Jinping, May 2010
A new injection molding for metal powder green part was put forward in detail in this paper. Vibration force field generated by electromagnetic field in the whole process of plasticization, injection and packing, implementing dynamical plasticization metering, injection and packing was introduced. An in-depth experiment study on the effect of vibration force field on metal powder 316L/binder under steady and dynamic injection conditions was carried out with an experiment equipment and dynamic injection machine. Experimental results show that the filling pressure will be reduced when the vibration is introduced, the flow of melts becomes more uniform and the distribution of different components is also more uniform in the green parts during the dynamic injection molding. The mixing dispersion and distribution effect are better and the density is also larger than the green part's with traditional injection molding. The existing of vibration can effectively promote not only the microcosmic structure and also quality of metal powder green part.
INSTANT BONDING OF PLASTICS
Yasuo Kurosaki, Kimitoshi Satoh, Hiroshi Koyanagi, Hiroshi Miyahara, May 2010
In an ongoing search for ways to design lower cost, lighter weight, more durable products, appliance and subcomponent manufacturers are increasingly substituting plastic components for parts once made of metal or glass. By nature, plastics are highly corrosion resistant and require no surface treatment to withstand exposure to corrosive materials. Plastics can be easily formed into complex shapes, allowing designers to reduce the number of parts in an assembly; however, many times these components need to be connected in the final assembly. Whether bonding plastic to plastic or plastic to another material, adhesives offer several major benefits. Whereas mechanical fastening methods concentrate the stress in one spot, with adhesives, the load is spread over a wide area, reducing the amount of concentrated stress on the joint. Mechanical fasteners such as rivets, nuts, and bolts require holes to be drilled into the assembly, and frequently interfere with the aesthetic styling of the product. Neither ultrasonic nor solvent welding can bond plastic to metals or glass ƒ?? only adhesives can provide such a bond. In many cases, adhesives are the low cost fastening method compared to mechanical fasteners, which must be inventoried, require pre-assembly preparation, and are labor intensive. Adhesives are one-size-fitsall, and can be easily automated in a production environment. The newest and fastest growing adhesive technology for instant plastic bonding applications are enhanced Cyanoacrylates (CAs) (Instant adhesives, often referred to as super glues) and ultraviolet (UV) and visible light curing adhesives, CAs and Light curing adhesives are ideally suited for in-line, automated dispensing and curing. These adhesives can cure rapidly, while providing long open time.
CO2 LASER WELDING OF THE PFA DISK TOP ON A CIRCULAR TUBE ASSISTED BY A TRANSPARENT SOLID HEAT SINK
Yasuo Kurosaki , Kimitoshi Satoh , Hiroshi Koyanagi , Hiroshi Miyahara, May 2010
There has been no adequate laser welding method for fluorocarbon polymer such as PFA and PTFE. An innovative CO2 laser welding method [1] is applied for overlapped PFA polymer film sheet. The features of the welding procedure are: to use a solid heat sink transparent to CO2 laser beam to use no pigmentation or dye for radiation absorption enhancement and to sustain thermal damage on the surface. The feasibility of the procedure was confirmed to be usable for joining of thinner PFA film sheet than 0.3 mm. The laser welding machine in a production line was manufactured to weld the top of the circular tube of variable area flow-meters with film disk.
C02 LASER WELDING OF THE PFA DISK TOP ON A CIRCULAR TUBE ASSISTED BY A TRANSPARENT SOLID HEAT SINK
Yasuo Kurosaki , Kimitoshi Satoh , Hiroshi Koyanagi , Hiroshi Miyahara, May 2010
There has been no adequate laser welding method for fluorocarbon polymer such as PFA and PTFE. An innovative CO2 laser welding method is applied for overlapped PFA polymer film sheet. The features of the welding procedure are: to use a solid heat sink transparent to CO2 laser beam, to use no pigmentation or dye for radiation absorption enhancement, and to sustain thermal damage on the surface. The feasibility of the procedure was confirmed to be usable for joining of thinner PFA film sheet than 0.3 mm. The laser welding machine in a production line was manufactured to weld the top of the circular tube of variable area flow-meters with film disk.
MODIFICATION AND CHARACTERIZATIONS OF CELLULOSE MICROFIBRIL BY ATOM TRANSFER RADICAL POLYMERIZATION FOR BIOCOMPOSITES
Shuzhao Li , Wilailak Chanklin , Miaomiao Xiao , Huining Xiao, May 2010
Hydrophobic-modified cellulose microfibril (CMF) grafted by poly(butyl acrylate) (CMF-g-PBA) was prepared by atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) of butyl acrylate. The CMF-g-PBA obtained was analyzed using FT-IR, TG, contact angle and SEM. The results from FT-IR and SEM indicated that PBA was indeed grafted onto the surface of CMF. TGA measurements further confirmed that the amount of grafted PBA on CMF was approximately 55% (wt). Contact angle measurement demonstrated that the hydrophobicity of CMF was increased substantially after the grafting. The findings imply that the compatibility between CMF-g-PBA and polypropylene (PP) would be improved, thus allowing CMF-g-PBA as an effective reinforcements for biocomposites.
ADHESIVES FOR ASSEMBLY
Edward A.Y. Fisher, May 2010
Industrial adhesives are fast becoming pivotal to the assembly of everything from white goods to automobiles. Adhesives perform well on glass, metal, ceramic and most plastic substrates, provide excellent chemical and solvent resistance, act as an electrical insulator, and may be used in high speed production environments. Due to these benefits and their ability to bond dissimilar materials quickly and efficiently adhesives have enabled the cost effective production of many components that would have been impossible using mechanical fastening methods. By choosing the correct adhesive manufacturers can espediate the manufacturing process, lower costs and even improve and enhance reliability and performance. By their very nature adhesives allow goods to be made stronger, faster, and more costeffectively living up to the most basic demands of the marketplace.
STRUCTURAL BONDING OF PLASTICS
Pao-Lin Su, Hsin-Shu Peng, May 2010
In mold decoration (IMD) has attracted attention for industrial applications in recent years. In this paper, PC films with thickness of 0.125 mm and 0.175 mm combined varied ink formulas were be utilized and the effects of processing conditions on Nylon6 nanocomposites and Nylon6 molding were investigated. Related processing conditions include melt temperature, mold temperature, injection speed and packing pressure. Plastics have become an integral part of everyday life. It would be difficult to identify a manufacturing process which does not use plastics in one form or another. Even products which appear to be composed exclusively of metals are usually coated, sealed, or adhesively joined using polymeric materials which improve the performance, appearance, and longevity of metal products. Plastics have achieved widespread acceptance due to the virtually limitless combinations of plastic types, fillers, and additives which can be compounded at relatively low costs and processed by a wide verity of methods. When designing assemblies made from or including plastics, it is often critical to structurally hold assemblies together with a reliable mechanism. Plastics can be reliably fastened to a wide verity of substrates using an engineered adhesive solution.
EFFECTS OF PROCESSING CONDITIONS ON PART MOLDABILITY OF IN MOLD DECORATION NYLON6 NANOCOMPOSITES MOLDING
Pao-Lin Su , Hsin-Shu Peng, May 2010
In mold decoration (IMD) has attracted attention for industrial applications in recent years. In this paper PC films with thickness of 0.125 mm and 0.175 mm combined varied ink formulas were be utilized and the effects of processing conditions on Nylon6 nanocomposites and Nylon6 molding were investigated. Related processing conditions include melt temperature mold temperature injection speed and packing pressure. It was found that high injection speed would increase shear stress leading to large printed ink will be washed out whereas high melt temperature would decrease shear stress. In addition Nylon6 nanocomposites can reduce 50% washout region than the IMD Nylon6 molding.
EFFECTS OF PROCESSING CONDITIONS ON PART MOLDABILITY OF IN MOLD DECORATION NYLON6 NANOCOMPOSITES MOLDING
Pao-Lin Su , Hsin-Shu Peng, May 2010
In mold decoration (IMD) has attracted attention for industrial applications in recent years. In this paper, PC films with thickness of 0.125 mm and 0.175 mm combined varied ink formulas were be utilized and the effects of processing conditions on Nylon6 nanocomposites and Nylon6 molding were investigated.Related processing conditions include melt temperature, mold temperature, injection speed and packing pressure.It was found that high injection speed would increase shear stress leading to large printed ink will be washed out whereas high melt temperature would decrease shear stress. In addition, Nylon6 nanocomposites can reduce 50% washout region than the IMD Nylon6 molding.
OPTICAL COATING APPLICATIONS FOR CONSUMER AND INDUSTRIAL POLYMER DISPLAYS
Brian Wilson , Daniel Fiore, May 2010
North American Coating Laboratories provides vacuum- and dip-applied thin film coatings to polymer manufacturers and suppliers across numerous market segments. These coatings are predominantly deposited on polycarbonate and acrylic substrates used in a wide variety of applications. In many cases such vacuum-applied coatings as broadband anti-reflective treatments and polysiloxane dip-applied treatments improve the optical quality of polymers as well as extend the lifecycle of polymers in the field. This presentation will focus on the full spectrum of thin-film coatings that are currently being applied to polymers resins and displays.
OPTICAL COATING APPLICATIONS FOR CONSUMER AND INDUSTRIAL POLYMER DISPLAYS
Brian Wilson , Daniel Fiore,, May 2010
North American Coating Laboratories provides vacuum- and dip-applied thin film coatings to polymer manufacturers and suppliers across numerous market segments. These coatings are predominantly deposited on polycarbonate and acrylic substrates used in a wide variety of applications. In many cases, such vacuum-applied coatings as broadband anti-reflective treatments and polysiloxane dip-applied treatments improve the optical quality of polymers as well as extend the lifecycle of polymers in the field. This presentation will focus on the full spectrum of thin-film coatings that are currently being applied to polymers, resins and displays.
RISING TO THE HALOGEN CHALLENGE IN FLAME-RETARDANT ENGINEERING PLASTICS
William J. Hassink , Gary P. Kozielski, May 2010
Halogenated additives have long been used toenhance the flame-retardant properties of plastics.Recently, after many years of growing concern over theenvironmental and human impact of the disposal ofcertain halogen-containing products and theirincompatibility with recycling operations, leading globalelectronics manufacturers have begun moving to eliminateor sharply reduce the use of certain halogen-containingingredients in their products. DuPont is meeting the needsof these and other environmentally consciousmanufacturers with a growing range of engineeringpolymer grades using non-halogenated flame retardantsystems. This paper shows that they can fulfilldemanding requirements for strength, toughness, hightemperature resistance and processing efficiency.


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