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The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.

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Conference Proceedings
COMPARISON OF SERVO-DRIVEN ULTRASONIC WELDER TO STANDARD PNEUMATIC ULTRASONIC WELDER
Miranda Marcus , Paul Golko , Steve Lester , Leo Klinstein, May 2010
Ultrasonic welding is one of the most widely used processes for bonding polymers valued for its speed flexibility and low cost. Recently there has been a call for more controlled and consistent welding processes especially in the medical field. Dukane has worked to meet this demand through the development of a new iQ series Servo-Driven Ultrasonic Welder with MeltMatch™ technology. Careful comparison detailed here has shown that the servo-driven welder can provide more consistent results than the standard pneumatic welder can. The newly developed welder also offers a number of user friendly ergonomic features superior Graphic User Interface with Ethernet connectivity (iQ Explorer) as well as more accurate process control capabilities.
COMPARISON OF SERVO-DRIVEN ULTRASONIC WELDER TO STANDARD PNEUMATIC ULTRASONIC WELDER
Miranda Marcus , Paul Golko , Steve Lester , Leo Klinstein, May 2010
Ultrasonic welding is one of the most widely used processes for bonding polymers, valued for its speed, flexibility, and low cost. Recently there has been a call for more controlled and consistent welding processes, especially in the medical field. Dukane has worked to meet this demand through the development of a new iQ series Servo-Driven Ultrasonic Welder with MeltMatchƒ?› technology.Careful comparison, detailed here, has shown that the servo-driven welder can provide more consistent results than the standard pneumatic welder can. The newly developed welder also offers a number of user friendly ergonomic features, superior Graphic User Interface with Ethernet connectivity (iQ Explorer) as well as more accurate process control capabilities.
FLOW INDUCED CRYSTALLIZATION OF POLYMERS IN EXTENSION
Martin Sentmanat , Savvas G. Hatzikiriakos, May 2010
In this paper the effect of uniaxial extension on the crystallization of a linear low-density polyethylene is examined by using rheometry with differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Uniaxial extension experiments were performed at temperatures below and above the peak melting point of the polyethylene in order to characterize its flow induced crystallization behavior at extensional rates relevant to processing. The?ÿ degree of crystallinity of the stretched samples was quantified by DSC i.e. by analyzing the thermal behavior of samples after stretching. Analysis of the tensile strain hardening behavior very near the peak melt temperature revealed that crystallization depends on temperature, strain and strain rate. In addition it was revealed that a very small window of temperatures spanning just 1-2 degrees Celsius can have a dramatic effect on polymer crystallization.
EFFECT OF ANNEALING ON FAILURE BEHAVIOR OF A TRANSPARENT NYLON UNDER HIGH SPEED IMPACT
John W. Song , Nicholas Tsantinis , Roy Paulson, May 2010
The effects of temperature exposure as well as annealing TROGAMID CX-7323 (CX) on its mechanical and ballistic impact properties were examined. CX generally exhibits ductile failure upon ballistic impact. However upon complete penetration the impact failure behavior occasionally changes depending on the projectile type and size. Notched izod impact test results revealed that annealing CX significantly increased the notch sensitivity. However it was concluded that the notch sensitivity does not directly influence the ballistic impact resistance. This is attributed to the improvement of molecular perfection via reduction in the free volume of the polymer molecule during the annealing process.
EFFECT OF ANNEALING ON FAILURE BEHAVIOR OF A TRANSPARENT NYLON UNDER HIGH SPEED IMPACT
John W. Song , Nicholas Tsantinis , Roy Paulson, May 2010
The effects of temperature exposure as well as annealing TROGAMID CX-7323 (CX) on its mechanical and ballistic impact properties were examined. CX generally exhibits ductile failure upon ballistic impact. However, upon complete penetration, the impact failure behavior occasionally changes depending on the projectile type and size. Notched izod impact test results revealed that annealing CX significantly increased the notch sensitivity. However, it was concluded that the notch sensitivity does not directly influence the ballistic impact resistance. This is attributed to the improvement of molecular perfection via reduction in the free volume of the polymer molecule during the annealing process.
NUMERICAL ANALYSIS OF THE MELTING PROCESS FOR BARRIER-FLIGHTED SINGLE-SCREW EXTRUDERS USING SCREW ROTATION PHYSICS
Kazumi Tada, Daisuke Fukuzawa, Ayako Watanabe, May 2010
The focus of this investigation was to develop a new model for the melting dynamics of the solid bed for barrier melting sections in single-screw extruders. This analysis is an extension of the screw rotation melting model presented earlier for conventional screws. In this paper we present a new physical concept for melting in a barrier screw for single-screw extruders that is consistent with more rapid loss of solid material in the cross-channel direction when compared to conventional screw melting discussed previously. We developed a dynamic melting model and then simulated this first-order theory. The simulation qualitatively fits the literature observations for melting in a barrier-flighted melting section of a screw.
COMPUTER SIMULATION FOR FLOW BEHAVIOR ON MICRO- AND NANO-MOLDING
Kazumi Tada , Daisuke Fukuzawa , Ayako Watanabe, May 2010
3-dimensional FEM simulation was performed to clarify the mechanism on surface replication in micro-injection molding and thermal nano-imprinting. Especially the filling behavior into micro- and nanosurface features was discussed in comparison with the experimental results. The simulation results and the experimental results of injection molding show possibility of the generation of air traps in the filling stage and it is considered that those air traps have a strong relation with replication shape and replication rate. The simulation results of thermal imprinting clarified penetration behavior of polymer melt into nano-surface feature and show that the aspect ratio of the cavity and imprinting pressure influenced flow behavior in thermal imprinting.
COMPUTER SIMULATION FOR FLOW BEHAVIOR ON MICRO- AND NANO-MOLDING
Kazumi Tada , Daisuke Fukuzawa , Ayako Watanabe , Hiroshi Ito, May 2010
3-dimensional FEM simulation was performed to clarify the mechanism on surface replication in micro-injection molding and thermal nano-imprinting.Especially the filling behavior into micro- and nanosurface features was discussed in comparison with the experimental results. The simulation results and the experimental results of injection molding show possibility of the generation of air traps in the filling stage and it is considered that those air traps have a strong relation with replication shape and replication rate. The simulation results of thermal imprinting clarified penetration behavior of polymer melt into nano-surface feature and show that the aspect ratio of the cavity and imprinting pressure influenced flow behavior in thermal imprinting.
ELASTIC RECOVERY BEHAVIOR OF THREE LAYER FILM STRUCTURES COMPRISED OF TPO AND VARIOUS ETHYLENE COPOLYMERS
Christopher Shelley , Nicolas Kokel, May 2010
Stretch hood films used to protect and unitize pallet loads are becoming more sophisticated structures that combine the unique properties of several advanced polymers. The combined properties of reactor TPO resins and ethylene copolymers will continue to expand the envelope of application and performance possibilities for film engineers delivering enhanced strength and pallet security heat resistance extensibility elastic recovery and material use reduction. This paper will discuss the relationships between film formulation and degree of orientation on the elastic and physical properties of a three-layer stretch hood film structure.
ELASTIC RECOVERY BEHAVIOR OF THREE LAYER FILM STRUCTURES COMPRISED OF TPO AND VARIOUS ETHYLENE COPOLYMERS
Christopher Shelley , Nicolas Kokel, May 2010
Stretch hood films used to protect and unitize pallet loads are becoming more sophisticated structures that combine the unique properties of several advanced polymers. The combined properties of reactor TPO resins and ethylene copolymers will continue to expand the envelope of application and performance possibilities for film engineers, delivering enhanced strength and pallet security, heat resistance, extensibility, elastic recovery, and material use reduction. This paper will discuss the relationships between film formulation and degree of orientation on the elastic and physical properties of a three-layer stretch hood film structure.
IMPROVEMENT OF THE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF THERMOPLASTIC FOAMS THROUGH MODIFICATION OF THE FOAM STRUCTURE
Walter Michaeli , Laura Flórez , Dominik Obeloer , Markus Brinkmann, May 2010
Foaming an injection molded thermoplastic part can reduce its weight warpage and the associated processing costs but it also results in a loss of mechanical performance. This loss can however be mitigated through specific modifications of the foam structure while at the same time the material consumption is minimized. This paper analyzes the changes that are induced by foaming in the mechanical performance of thermoplastic materials and demonstrates the gain in mechanical strength that can be achieved by inducing modifications of the foam structure for example in the skin thickness the mean cell size and the foam density.
IMPROVEMENT OF THE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF THERMOPLASTIC FOAMS THROUGH MODIFICATION OF THE FOAM STRUCTURE
Walter Michaeli , Laura Flórez , Dominik Obeloer , Markus Brinkmann, May 2010
Foaming an injection molded thermoplastic part can reduce its weight, warpage and the associated processing costs, but it also results in a loss of mechanical performance. This loss can, however, be mitigated through specific modifications of the foam structure, while at the same time the material consumption is minimized. This paper analyzes the changes that are induced by foaming in the mechanical performance of thermoplastic materials and demonstrates the gain in mechanical strength that can be achieved by inducing modifications of the foam structure, for example in the skin thickness, the mean cell size and the foam density.
APPLICATIONS OF HIGH-FREQUENCY INDUCTION HEATING TO HIGH-QUALITY INJECTION MOLDING
Nathan Tortorella, Charles L. Beatty, May 2010
High-frequency induction heating is an efficient way to rapidly heat mold surface by utilizing a high-frequency skin effect. Because the procedure allows for the rapid heating and cooling of mold surfaces, it has been recently applied to the injection molding in various purposes. The present work introduces various industrial applications of high-frequency induction heating to high-quality injection molding including: (i) moldability improvement in thin-wall injection molding, (ii) improvement of replication ratio of micro-features, and (iii) remove of weldlines for a mobile phone cover which contains multiple holes.
UNIQUE CRYSTALLINE NATURE OF A HIGH IMPACT STRENGTH POLYPROPYLENE ALLOY
Nathan Tortorella , Charles L. Beatty, May 2010
Isotactic polypropylene (PP) has been reactivelyblended with an ethylene-octene copolymer (EOC) in atwin screw extruder. Free radical polymerization ofstyrene and a multifunctional acrylate during meltextrusion has resulted in an enhancement of mechanicalproperties and discovery of unique features in bothamorphous and crystalline phases. DSC indicates thatsmall lamellar crystals are present in the reacted blends which melt and recrystallize in a much different mannercompared to ungrafted PP. XRD reinforces DSC resultsin that the size and perfection of the alpha crystallinephase are reduced by grafting. SEM shows a uniquecross-hatch structure as indicated by XRD. Polarizedlight microscopy gives evidence that grafting andbranching within the reacted blend causes a gelation-likerecrystallization.
DURABILITY OF NATURAL FIBER SHEET MOLDING COMPOUND (ECO-SMC)
Masaharu Nishiura , Makoto Sarata , Yuya Hidekuma , Masanori Okano , Asami Nakai , Hiroyuki Hamada, May 2010
Recent earth environmental concern requires easy recycle material system and the use of biodegradable polymer and natural fiber is noticed in composite materials. To apply the natural fiber for the structural parts the use as reinforcement of Sheet Molding Compound (SMC) is desirable because it is expected that SMC can be used in various fields in terms of high productivity and dimensional stability. Considering that fiber reinforced composite is used for structural part the use of long-span must be possible. Therefore the evaluation of the durability such as degradation is very important subject. In this study SMC (Sheet Molding Compound) that reinforcement was jute cloth were prepared. The jute cloth reinforced SMC was immersed in hot water to promote the degradation. And after immersion an increase ratio of water and bending properties were compared with that of jute cloth reinforced SMC without immersion. As a result the fracture mechanism changed from the combination of crack propagation in matrix area and delamination in the interface around the fiber bundle to only crack propagation in matrix area by water immersion.
Durability of Natural Fiber Sheet Molding Compound (Eco-SMC)
Masaharu Nishiura , Makoto Sarata , Yuya Hidekuma , Masanori Okano , Asami Nakai , Hiroyuki Hamada, May 2010
Recent earth environmental concern requires easy recycle material system, and the use of biodegradable polymer and natural fiber is noticed in composite materials. To apply the natural fiber for the structural parts, the use as reinforcement of Sheet Molding Compound (SMC) is desirable because it is expected that SMC can be used in various fields in terms of high productivity and dimensional stability. Considering that fiber reinforced composite is used for structural part, the use of long-span must be possible. Therefore, the evaluation of the durability such as degradation is very important subject. In this study, SMC (Sheet Molding Compound) that reinforcement was jute cloth were prepared. The jute cloth reinforced SMC was immersed in hot water to promote the degradation. And after immersion, an increase ratio of water and bending properties were compared with that of jute cloth reinforced SMC without immersion. As a result,the fracture mechanism changed from the combination of crack propagation in matrix area and delamination in the interface around the fiber bundle to only crack propagation in matrix area by water immersion.
HYDROPHOBIC-MODIFIED CELLULOSE FIBERS AND CELLULOSE MICROFIBRILAS REINFORCEMENTS FOR BIOCOMPOSITES
Wilailak Chanklin , Shuzhao Li , Huining Xiao, May 2010
The hydrophobic modification of cellulose fiber (CF) and cellulose microfibril (CMF) was conducted by grafting 1'Octadecanol using TDI as a coupling agent. The optimum reaction conditions obtained for grafting were: molar ratio of cellulosic materials:1'Octadecanol:TDI 1:1:1 (molar ratios of OH groups in fibers and reactive groups in reagents), temperature of reaction 120?øC and reaction time 3 h. The grafting was confirmed by FT-IR; and TGA measurement indicated that the amounts of grafting were 16.9wt% and 13.9wt% for CF and CMF,, respectively. Moreover, the surface morphology and hydrohphobicity of the grafted fibers were investigated by SEM and static contact angle measurement.
FOAMING OF LDPE/SILICA NANOCOMPOSITES: IMPROVING THE CELLULAR STRUCTURE AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES
M.A. Rodriguez-Perez , P. Garcia de Acilu Laa , J. Arevalo-Guiterrez , C. Saiz-Arroyo , E.Solorzano , J.A. de Saja, May 2010
Low density polyethylene/nano-silica nanocomposites has been foamed using an improved compression molding process. Different amounts of nanosilica (from 1 to 9 % by weight) were used. A high level of particle dispersion was achieved both in the solid precursor and in the foams. It was found a significant increment of the mechanical properties both in solids and foams; being the increase in properties more significant in the foams. A reduction in cell size has been observed with the addition of nanosilica. Cell sizes in the microcellular range were obtained.
FOAMING OF LDPE/SILICA NANOCOMPOSITES: IMPROVING THE CELLULAR STRUCTURE AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES
M.A. Rodriguez-Perez , P. Garcia de Acilu Laa , J. Arevalo-Guiterrez , C. Saiz-Arroyo , E.Solorzano , J.A de Saja, May 2010
Low density polyethylene/nano-silica nanocomposites has been foamed using an improved compression molding process. Different amounts of nanosilica (from 1 to 9 % by weight) were used. A high level of particle dispersion was achieved both in the solid precursor and in the foams. It was found a significant increment of the mechanical properties both in solids and foams; being the increase in properties more significant in the foams. A reduction in cell size has been observed with the addition of nanosilica.Cell sizes in the microcellular range were obtained.
MECHANICAL HOLE BURNING SPECTROSCOPY IN POLYMERIC SYSTEMS - A NOVEL TECHNIQUE TO CHARACTERIZE DYNAMIC HETEROGENEITY
Philip Jacoby, May 2010
Mechanical Spectral Hole Burning (MSHB) is a novel rheological technique to probe dynamic heterogeneity for polymeric materials, which exhibit relatively weak dielectric responses. In the present work, mechanical spectral hole burning (MSHB) was applied to a block copolymer and a series of polystyrene solutions in order to investigate its capability of detecting the heterogeneity and the possible relationship between the length scale of heterogeneity and hole properties. The results illustrate the power of MSHB to probe the dynamic heterogeneity of polymeric systems as evidenced by the presence or absence of mechanical holes in the vicinity of the order-disorder transition of a block copolymer. The results also suggest the hole properties are not governed by the length scale of the heterogeneity, rather they are dominated by the dynamics, i.e., whether the MSHB is performed in close to Rouse regime, rubbery plateau regime, transition regime from plateau to terminal region or the terminal flow regime.


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