The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.
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Modeling the Transient Rheology of a Polypropylene Melt Reinforced with Long And Short Glass Fibers
In this paper we investigate the transient shear rheology of a polypropylene containing long fibers (2.75 to 11 mm, L/D > 150) and short fibers (1 mm, L/D < 50). The objectives of this work are to determine the relationship between stress growth and relaxation behavior of fiber orientation and determine the feasibility of extending Doi's theory for the rheology of rod-like molecules to fiber reinforced materials.
Chemical Attack of UV-Cure Adhesives Involving Polycarbonate
UV-cure adhesives are commonly used to assemble a variety of devices molded out of polycarbonate. This paper investigates the effect of uncured or partially cured UV adhesives on elongation-to-break performance of polycarbonate samples, both stressed and unstressed. In addition, the effect of cure time and vapor exposure on elongation-to-break is also summarized.
The Effect of Orientation on Perfluorosulfonate Ionomer Based IPMC Actuation
This paper discusses recent findings in the enhancement of actuation properties in ionic polymer metal composites through systematic manipulations of molecular organization and morphology. The preliminary results showed that there is a direct correlation between the morphology of the material and the mechanical properties.
Enhanced Performance and Processing Considerations of Modified PMMA Capstocks for Weatherable PVC Building Products
There is a need for superior weathering PVC profiles and sheet with a variety of colors and appearance. Capping PVC profiles and sheet with MODIFIED-PMMA provides many enhancements to a multi-layered PVC system, not just enhanced weatherability. This paper reviews many of the performance changes encountered from the use of MODIFIED-PMMA capstocks with PVC substrates and the variables that influence the system performance. In addition, processing considerations required for existing PVC extrusion operations are detailed as well as fabrication adjustments.
Preparation and Characterization of Polymeric Capsules Containing Functional Additives
In attempts to develop novel functional additives for thermoplastic and thermoset polymer coatings, various sizes of microcapsules containing a silicone fluid which could facilitate the release of the coating from a metallic substrate were prepared by in-situ polymerization. Fill content, size of capsules, wall-thickness, and surface morphology were observed by TGA, TEM, SEM, EDX, optical and NMR microscopy. The capsules were dispersed in polymeric coatings and the release of their content through mechanical means was followed microscopically.
Scratch Behavior of Model Polypropylene Thin Sheets
The effects of molecular weight (MW) and surface morphology on scratch behavior of model polypropylenes (PP) were investigated. The results suggest that scratch performance is improved when the MW and surface crystallinity of PP are high. Correlation between surface properties and scratch resistance of PP is established and discussed.
Stresses, Adhesion and the Mechanics of Polymer Coatings
Novel and powerful methods of characterizing the state of stress, the orthotropic elastic coefficients and the energy of adhesion of thin coatings are described. These methods were developed by my research group to help understand the mechanical behavior of coating materials. The systems studied include epoxies, polyimides, photoresists and even some paints and metals. The techniques address issues such as the origin of coating stresses, the influence of the degree of constraint, determining anisotropic elasticity coefficients, and problems associated with adhesion testing.
Mechanical Properties of Soy Protein Isolate/Soy Hydrolysate Plastics
Biodegradable plastics based on soy protein isolate were prepared with soy hydrolysate as a plasticizer via different methods, and the mechanical properties of the samples from the different processing methods were tested and compared. The results indicated that the tensile strength and the elongation at break of the samples with soy hydrolysate were enhanced when the preparation process consisted of extrusion followed by injection molding or compression molding, but no improvement was noticed in the case of the compression molding without prior extrusion.
Laser Transmission Welding of Colored Thermoplastic Elastomers and Hard Plastics
Automobile and other part manufacturers have looked for ways to join dissimilar materials. Welding different kinds of resin together has been looked at for this purpose.Olefin thermoplastic elastomers colored with a transparent black colorant can be welded with polypropylene while keeping higher welding strength compared to the case of non-colored elastomers. Laser welding using black-colored thermoplastic elastomers has a variety of potential applications in the manufacture of automotive parts and electronic components.
A New TPU Featuring Low Tackiness
Thermoplastic polyurethanes are relatively tacky compared to other thermoplastic elastomers. The general practice in the plastic industry is to add waxes, lubricants or inorganic fillers to reduce the tackiness. Unfortunately, these additives have negative impact on final product performance and aesthetic property.A series of new TPU products featuring low tackiness, contact transparency and process efficiency that can be used in applications requiring low coefficient of friction in film, sheet, tubing etc. This paper will illustrate the features of the new products and their mechanical properties.
Working with Organic Pigments in Yellow Color Space
Formulators coloring plastics and synthetic fibers can select from a variety of organic colorants in order to achieve a final desired color. The choices can be confusing unless the colorants are previously specified or are well known to the formulator. This paper will deal with a subset of the colorants in yellow color space while clarifying the selection process with respect to some of the most important properties of the colorants for plastics and fibers.
What Every Plastics Professional Should Know About Patents and Patenting - Part 2: Important Considerations in Invention Patenting
Deciding on what to claim in a patent application and targeting the claims for specific business objectives are very important legal and business decisions. In this article, important considerations influencing such decisions are discussed, including the prior art, patentability of the claimed invention and defining claim terms. Relevant examples are given to illustrate such considerations.
Statistical Tools for Predicting Flame Resistance of PC/ABS Blends
Flame-retarded products must pass the requirements of UL94 testing. Only a pass/fail type of data is obtained which makes it difficult to predict longterm capability. This paper describes statistical tools to predict UL94 V and 5V capability of PC/ABS blends for robust design of such products. In particular, use of parameters such as probability of first-time-pass, p(FTP), for V-testing, and time-to-drip (TTD) and time-to-hole (TTH) for 5V-testing is described.
Design for Six Sigma and Product Development in the Plastics Industry
Developing a product that meets the customer’s requirements requires a collaborative effort from marketing, technology, manufacturing and other functions across the organization. Customer’s requirements should be translated to specific product properties and specifications. The designed product must be robust during manufacturing and should be shipped to the customer on time and with the right quality. This paper describes the value of critical parameter management using Design for Six Sigma rigor with a case study.
Study on Mechanical Properties of Dynamically Cured Novolac/PP Blends
In this paper, the dynamic vulcanization process was applied to polypropylene (PP) and novolac type phenolic resin blends compatibilized with maleic anhydride-grafted PP (MAH-g-PP). The influences of dynamic cure and novolac content on mechanical properties of the PP/novolac blends were investigated. The results showed that the dynamically cured PP/MAH-g-PP/novolac blends had better mechanical properties and thermal stability than that of uncured PP/novolac blends, uncured PP/MAH-g-PP/novolac and dynamically cured PP/novolac blends.
High Strength Cellulose Triacetate Fibers
Sign (+/-) of birefringence observations are shown to be a powerful tool for development of high strength cellulose triacetate and regenerated cellulose fibers. These simple observations provide a means to monitor both the extent and uniformity of reaction in the preparation of cellulose triacetate using heterogeneous acetylation conditions. Possible deacetylation of the triacetate during liquid crystalline fiber processing from trifluoroacetic acid solvent systems, and relationship to fiber strength are also described.
Recycling Thermosets: The Use of High-Pressure High-Temperature Sintering (HPHTS) and Degraded Material as Means of Producing New Products
High-Pressure High-Temperature Sintering (HPHTS) of waste thermosets allowed for the production of new parts from 100% recycled material. This technique along with utilizing degraded material as filler has resulted in the successful recycling of thermosetting materials at high recycle levels. Finally, Chemicals Stress Relaxation experiments offered excellent insight into the mechanism of HPHTS and the degradation process.
Mechanical Properties of Injection-Molded Fiber-Reinforced Parts Theory and Verification
Mechanical properties of fiber-reinforced plastic parts largely depend on fiber orientation obtained from flow simulation to calculate anisotropic properties. This paper describes theoretical and experimental studies which showed the effects of linking process simulation and structural mechanical analysis to optimize the design process.
True 3D Numerical Simulation for Micro Injection Molding
The demand for miniature molded parts has been growing over last decade. The filling in micro structure regions are primarily 3D and hence cannot be properly modeled by the 2.5D approach. A 3D model is developed to simulate the micro molding. The numerical results are compared with the experiment.
True 3D CAE Visualization of Intra-Cavity" Filling Imbalance in Injection"
The intra-cavity flow imbalanced phenomena have been discovered in either a single cavity or a multi-cavity mold, and result in the uneven product quality within one cavity. In this paper, 3D numerical simulation method is applied to realize this imbalanced phenomenon and its physical mechanism.
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