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The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.

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Conference Proceedings
LONG TERM POLYURETHANE CATHETER ALCOHOL COMPATIBILITY I, PHYSICAL AND RHEOLOGICAL STUDIES
W. Michaeli, Sebastian Hessner, Fritz Klaiber, May 2010
Thermoplastic urethanes (TPU) offer broad property range, processing flexibility, and biocompatibility for medical applications. Alcohol based disinfectants have a long history of effective and safe use. Expanding on earlier rheology molecular weight data indicating minimal reduction, we conducted a long term compatibility study covering all known urethane types in a hemo-dialysis setting with a simulated clinical exposure protocol for 90 days. After 90 days exposure, minor changes in physical properties on the catheter body and components were detected, often similar to the saline control. Most importantly, resultant properties far exceeded ISO requirements for catheters.
QUALITY ANALYSIS OF INJECTION-COMPRESSION MOULDED OPTICAL LENSES
W. Michaeli , Sebastian Hessner , Fritz Klaiber, May 2010
The manufacturing of optical components by injection moulding and injection-compression moulding is a serious challenge for mould and machine technology as well as for process control. Polymer lenses were manufactured with a modularly designed injectioncompression mould base thus different injectioncompression moulding technologies could be examined. To evaluate the quality of optical parts the accuracy of the moulded geometry as well as the resulting optical performance has been analysed. At present a geometrical moulding accuracy in the lower micron range has been achieved. Overall injection-compression moulded lenses showed a better optical performance than injection moulded lenses.
QUALITY ANALYSIS OF INJECTION-COMPRESSION MOULDED OPTICAL LENSES
W. Michaeli , Sebastian Hessner, May 2010
The manufacturing of optical components by injection moulding and injection-compression moulding is a serious challenge for mould and machine technology as well as for process control. Polymer lenses were manufactured with a modularly designed injection-compression mould base, thus different injection-compression moulding technologies could be examined. To evaluate the quality of optical parts the accuracy of the moulded geometry as well as the resulting optical performance has been analysed. At present a geometrical moulding accuracy in the lower micron range has been achieved. Overall injection-compression moulded lenses showed a better optical performance than injection moulded lenses.
UTILIZING ADVANCED SIMULATION AND MELT MANAGEMENT TECHNOLOGIES TO RE-DEFINE THE INDUSTRY STANDARD
Eric D. Bowersox, May 2010
Plastic products are occasionally designed in such a way that due to required injection locations and polymer flow traits the product will inherit certain quality defects. Two specific defects that if generated could often constitute a non-conforming product are weak weld lines and burn marks. Initial process alterations can be utilized in order to minimize or eliminate defects; however more costly mold or product alterations are often necessary. This paper presents a case study of how plastic flow simulation and the latest in melt management technologies can be utilized in order to create products that re-define the industries approach to handling these specific product defects.
UTILIZING ADVANCED SIMULATION AND MELT MANAGEMENT TECHNOLOGIES TO RE-DEFINE THE INDUSTRY STANDARD
Eric D. Bowersox, May 2010
Plastic products are occasionally designed in such a way that, due to required injection locations and polymer flow traits, the product will inherit certain quality defects. Two specific defects that if generated could often constitute a non-conforming product are weak weld lines and burn marks. Initial process alterations can be utilized in order to minimize or eliminate defects; however more costly mold or product alterations are often necessary. This paper presents a case study of how plastic flow simulation and the latest in melt management technologies can be utilized in order to create products that re-define the industries approach to handling these specific product defects.
A METHOD TO OBTAIN BALANCED FLOW IN PROFILE EXTRUSION DIES
Oktay Yilmaz , KadirKirkkopru, May 2010
One of the problems encountered in the extrusion of complex profiles is the unbalanced flow of polymer melt as it leaves the die. In this study a systematic method to obtain balanced flow is proposed by using a CFD tool. First the results of a production test that is performed for a profile and the results of the CFD simulation compared and it is seen that the velocity distribution at the die exit is similar indicating an unbalanced flow. For the profile to be produced a new die geometry which provides balanced flow at the die exit is proposed by use of numerical simulations. A balanced exit flow is achieved by using flow separators.
A METHOD TO OBTAIN BALANCED FLOW IN PROFILE EXTRUSION DIES
Oktay Yilmaz , KadirKirkkopru, May 2010
One of the problems encountered in the extrusion of complex profiles is the unbalanced flow of polymer melt as it leaves the die. In this study, a systematic method to obtain balanced flow is proposed by using a CFD tool. First, the results of a production test that is performed for a profile and the results of the CFD simulation compared and it is seen that the velocity distribution at the die exit is similar, indicating an unbalanced flow. For the profile to be produced, a new die geometry which provides balanced flow at the die exit is proposed by use of numerical simulations. A balanced exit flow is achieved by using flow separators.
ENHANCED RESIN FOR METAL INSERT MOLDING APPLICATIONS
Nicolas J. Sunderland , William F. Thorne , XY Li, May 2010
OEMs that manufacture cellular phones and portable music players require thin, stiff, structural parts. Until now, the main approach has been the use of die casting and glass-filled plastic. The use of metal insert molding (where plastic is injected around a thin metal insert) enables manufacturers to have ultra thin designs, reduce dependence on costly metal and die-cast parts, improve yield and tool life, and provide a superior surface finish for decoration. However, metal insert molding can lead to high molded-in stresses due to differential shrinkage of the plastic resin, which in turn can lead to stress cracking in the surrounding plastic, especially when exposed to various chemical environments and heat/humidity aging. Bayer MaterialScience has formulated a new Makroblend?? PC/PBT resin (UT5205) to successfully be used in the encapsulation of a sheet metal insert for cell phone and music player applications.
EFFECT OF ENVIRONMENTAL EXPOSURE ON MATERIALS BASED ON BLENDS OF PLASTICIZED STARCH AND POLYPROPYLENE
Michael J. Forbes , James T. Goetz , Brian A. Young, May 2010
Due to the recent demand for environmentally friendly polymers and the duty to take advantage of renewable natural resources when possible biopolymers have become an important alternative to synthetic polymers. Starch when using glycerol as a plasticizer has proven to be a processable “green” polymer additive when compounded with maleated polypropylene. In this study material was characterized based on its ability to perform over five months of exposure to natural conditions. The effects on modulus and elongation with the addition of plasticized starch in a polypropylene matrix were evaluated and are presented.
EFFECT OF ENVIRONMENTAL EXPOSURE ON MATERIALS BASED ON BLENDS OF PLASTICIZED STARCH AND POLYPROPYLENE
Michael J. Forbes , James T. Goetz , Brian A. Young, May 2010
Due to the recent demand for environmentally friendly polymers and the duty to take advantage of renewable natural resources when possible, biopolymers have become an important alternative to synthetic polymers. Starch when using glycerol as a plasticizer has proven to be a processable ƒ??greenƒ? polymer additive when compounded with maleated polypropylene. In this study, material was characterized based on its ability to perform over five months of exposure to natural conditions. The effects on modulus and elongation with the addition of plasticized starch, in a polypropylene matrix, were evaluated and are presented.
COCONTINUOUS BLENDS: CONNECTING RHEOLOGY TO MORPHOLOGY VIA 3D IMAGING.
Masanori Okano, Masaharu Nishiura, Makoto Sarata, Hidekazu Nakano, Akiko Odawara, Yuya Hidekuma, Tohru Morii, Asami Nakai, Hiroyuki Hamada, May 2010
The time evolution of the interfacial area (Q) and the elastic modulus (Gƒ??) in a 50/50 PS/SAN cocontinuous blends was analyzed during annealing. Two regimes of coarsening marked by different rates of growing of the characteristic length (1/Q) and by different power laws describing the decrease of Gƒ?? were identified. A simplification to Doi-Ohta rheological model for small deformations was proposed and its predictions were compared to experimental results. Good agreement was observed only for blends with relatively low interfacial tension.
FATIGUE PROPERTIES OF JUTE FABRIC REINFORCED SHEET MOLDING COMPOUND (SMC) MOLDING
Masanori Okano , Masaharu Nishiura , Makoto Sarata , Hidekazu Nakano , Akiko Odawara , Yuya Hidekuma , Tohru Morii , Asami Nakai , Hiroyuki Hamada, May 2010
Recent earth environmental concern requires easy recycle material system and the use of biodegradable polymer and natural fiber is noticed in composite materials. To apply the natural fiber for the structural parts the use as reinforcement of Sheet Molding Compound (SMC) is desirable because it is expected that SMC can be used in various fields in terms of high productivity and dimensional stability. Considering that fiber reinforced composite is used for structural part the design of the strength is very difficult because the failure mechanism is complicated considerably. In this study SMC that reinforcement was jute cloth was prepared. The low-cycle bending fatigue test and the cross sectional observation of fracture part were performed. As a result the brittle crack propagation in the interface around the fiber bundle was seen in the specimen of warp and weft direction and the phenomenon such as brittle crack propagation was not confirmed in the specimen of 45-degree direction.
FATIGUE PROPERTIES OF JUTE FABRIC REINFORCED SHEET MOLDING COMPOUND (SMC) MOLDING
Masanori Okano , Masaharu Nishiura , Makoto Sarata , Hidekazu Nakano , Akiko Odawara , Yuya Hidekuma , Tohru Morii , Asami Nakai , Hiroyuki Hamada, May 2010
Recent earth environmental concern requires easy recycle material system, and the use of biodegradable polymer and natural fiber is noticed in composite materials. To apply the natural fiber for the structural parts, the use as reinforcement of Sheet Molding Compound (SMC) is desirable because it is expected that SMC can be used in various fields in terms of high productivity and dimensional stability.Considering that fiber reinforced composite is used for structural part, the design of the strength is very difficult because the failure mechanism is complicated considerably. In this study, SMC that reinforcement was jute cloth was prepared. The low-cycle bending fatigue test and the cross sectional observation of fracture part were performed. As a result, the brittle crack propagation in the interface around the fiber bundle was seen in the specimen of warp and weft direction, and the phenomenon such as brittle crack propagation was not confirmed in the specimen of 45-degree direction.
VISCOELASTICITY OF POLYMER/OLIGOMER ATHERMAL BLENDS
Zhigang Sun, Leszek A. Utracki, May 2010
The viscoelastic properties of poly(ñ-ethyl styrene), its hexamer, and their athermal blends at various concentrations are studied. Master curves for the dynamic shear responses, G' and G are successfully constructed for both the pure materials and the blends indicating the validity of the time-temperature superposition principle. The shift factors used to construct the master curves show weaker dependence in the blends. The segmental dynamics appear unchanged by concentration which is different from the calorimetric studies where mixtures show obviously broadened glass transitions and depressed enthalpy overshoots."
MODELING THREE-DIMENSIONAL VISCOELASTIC FLOW AROUND A CLOSELY-SPACED LINEAR PERIODIC ARRAY OF CYLINDERS
David Adrian , Scott Phillips , Robert Armstrong, May 2010
A framework and code are being developed to simulate fiber and film processes; currently the code can handle three-dimensional, enclosed, isothermal, incompressible, creeping flow of a Giesekus fluid. The code is an extension of the parallel methods developed by Caola et al from two- to three-dimensional flows. The code has been tested on a benchmark problem that shows an elastically-driven flow transition from a twodimensional, steady flow to a three-dimensional, time periodic flow: flow around a closely-spaced linear periodic array of cylinders in a rectangular channel, a flow studied experimentally by Liu. Numerical simulations have been conducted in this geometry with the Oldroyd-B model, ?ý=0.67, wall separation distance 8-32 radii, and Deborah number from 0.1 to 1.1. The range of bounding wall edge effects on the flow field is shown to be 4 radii, and a small-magnitude overshoot in the primary velocity component near the wall can be observed, similar to the cat's ears observed by Poole et al in planar gradual-contraction expansion flow. The expected critical Weissenberg number of the flow transition has not yet been reached; the time integration to steady state diverges at moderate Weissenberg number. However, the velocity profile shows oscillatory behavior similar to what is reported at the flow transition.
RELIABILITY OF INKJET PRINTED AG TRACES SUBMITTED TO HIGH CURRENT DENSITY TEST
Joseph Dooley, Gary Oliver, Karen Xiao, May 2010
Printable electronics is a new emerging technology with capabilities of producing high volumes, low price and flexible electronics. However, a number of questions, mainly related reliability of such devices, are still pending. In this paper, metal nanoparticles based ink was printed on flexible polyimide substrates. Samples were submitted to high current density electrical test. Samples were tested until failure generating reliability curves. Printed traces presented low reliability probably due to the large amount of pores and grain boundaries in its microstructure and also because of the trace inhomogeneity. Thus, the application of this technology depends on process improvements.
BREAKTHROUGH INVENTIONS AND INNOVATIONS IN DIE DESIGN FOR POLYMER PROCESSING
Joseph Dooley , Gary Oliver , Karen Xiao, May 2010
After a polymer has been converted from a solid to a molten state it must be processed into a final shape to have value to a customer. This final shape may be a pellet a film a sheet a profile or many other final geometries. This paper will discuss some of the breakthrough inventions and innovations in die design that are used to produce this vast array of final polymer product shapes. ?ÿ ?ÿ The objective of this work was to develop an impactmodifier to improve the impact strength of poly(L-lactide)(PLLA). Graft copolymers of PLLA and polyethylene(PE) were synthesized via the ring-openingpolymerization of L-lactide initiated by PE modified withhydroxyl groups (macroPE). The macroPE was preparedvia the metallocene catalyzed copolymerization ofethylene and 5-hexen-1-ol. DSC and DMA on thecopolymers and PLLA blends indicated a two-phasepolymer system. The blends exhibited significantlyincreased loss moduli and maximum tan ƒ?? s whencompared to virgin PLLA indicating a high probability ofincreased impact toughness while the storage moduli ofthe blends remained approximately constant.
CORN (SUGARS) BASED CHEMISTRIES FOR THE POLYMER INDUSTRY
Michael Jaffe , George Collins , Anthony J. East , Willis Hammond , Zohar Ophir , Xianhong Feng , Paul Friedhoff, May 2010
Corn (sugars) may be viewed as a chemical feedstock to produce new monomers polymers and additives for a broad range of chemical intensive industries. Corn based chemicals are attractive because they as generally regarded as safe (GRAS) are a renewable resource and can be made readily available at competitive pricing. Interest is focused on isosorbide which offers molecular geometry and chemical functionality compatible with many existing commercial chemistries. Applications ranging from the creation of new polymer backbones for use as thermoplastics or thermosets to the identification of low molar mass compounds that can act as plasticizers stabilizers or compatiblizers are under investigation. Of special interest is the impact of asymmetric reactivity chirality and controlled stereochemistry in the design and performance of new cost-effective structures with commercial potential. As petroleum becomes more expensive and the assurance of long range cost-effective supply questionable creation of alternative chemistries from renewable resources such a corn (glucose) becomes more attractive.
CORN (SUGARS) BASED POLYMER CHEMISTRIES FOR THE POLYMER AND COSMETICS INDUSTRIES
Michael Jaffe , George Collins , Anthony J. East , Willis Hammond , Zohar Ophir , Xianhong Feng , Paul Friedhoff, May 2010
Corn (sugars) may be viewed as a chemical feedstock to produce new monomers, polymers and additives for a broad range of chemical intensive industries. Corn based chemicals are attractive because they as generally regarded as safe (GRAS), are a renewable resource and can be made readily available at competitive pricing. Interest is focused on isosorbide which offers molecular geometry and chemical functionality compatible with many existing commercial chemistries. Applications ranging from the creation of new polymer backbones for use as thermoplastics or thermosets to the identification of low molar mass compounds that can act as plasticizers, stabilizers or compatiblizers are under investigation. Of special interest is the impact of asymmetric reactivity, chirality and controlled stereochemistry in the design and performance of new, cost-effective structures with commercial potential. As petroleum becomes more expensive and the assurance of long range, cost-effective supply questionable, creation of alternative chemistries from renewable resources such a corn (glucose) becomes more attractive.
KINETICS OF MICROEMULSION COPOLYMERIZATION FOLLOWED BY RAMAN SPECTROSCOPY
Miguel A. Corona-Rivera , Jorge Flores , Jorge E. Puig , Eduardo Mendizábal, May 2010
In this work the kinetics of microemulsioncopolymerization of styrene-methyl methacrylate usingdodecyltrimethylammonium bromide (DTAB) wasfollowed on line by low-resolution Raman spectroscopy.Reactions were carried out in a three-mouth reactor at 60oC. Raman spectra were taken every 30 seconds. Becausethe spectrophotometer has low resolution the C=C peakoverlaps with the aromatic ring stretch vibration and curve deconvolution was necessary. Overall conversion obtained by Raman spectroscopy agrees with that obtained by gravimetry. Because the overlap of the C=C peaks ofstyrene and methyl methacrylate it was not possible tofollow the individual monomer conversion by thistechnique.


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