The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.
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Improvements in Material Characterization by Uniaxial Hot Tensile Test
Due to its simplicity, uniaxial hot tensile tests are widely used to obtain the mechanical properties of materials. Several difficulties of this type of tests are frequently reported in the literature, especially when high temperatures are employed. This work describes a new device developed to enhance the degree of reliability of uniaxial hot tensile tests; confining the specimen stretching to its neck-down portion and minimizing the grip-slip, the grip extrusion and/or the specimen-grip adhesion that may occur.
Eco-Design of Plastics Products
An unintended consequence of the growing consumption of plastics is the increase in amount of plastics products discarded daily by consumers worldwide contributing to growing share of plastics in municipal waste streams. With the product life cycle of most products getting shorter each day, product designers have a responsibility to minimize the negative impacts of their designs on the environment. This paper describes best practices for incorporating environmental impact considerations during various stages of plastics product development, and provides specific guidelines to assist designers for eco-design of plastics products.
Microcellular Open-Cell Foams for Noise Control in Automotive Body Structures
Foaming process is controlled for production of novel foams with various microcellular structures and morphologies. The objective is to produce lighter weight sound insulation packages with superior acoustical performance for passive noise control in automotive structures using microcellular foams. This was achieved through the control of the foaming process for production of variable microcellular structures and morphologies for the novel foams under investigation.
Understanding Today's Alphabet Soup in Packaging Regulations?
Global packaging regulations are changing. A review and update of toxicological and regulatory changes made in United States and EU packaging laws along with an outline of the applicable regulations relating to coloring packaging and its effects on colorant selection will be discussed.
The Performance of PVDF in Fuel Handling Applications
PVDF was immersed in automotive fuel constituents at various temperatures ranging from 4°C to 60°C. The mass uptake, swelling, changes in the mechanical properties as well as glass transition temperature and storage modulus were also recorded during the immersion period. Large differences in permeation rates and mechanical properties were observed in certain solvents, particularly at temperatures above 40°C. The changes to the glass transition and the storage modulus were less pronounced, with only minor decreases to the Tg and the storage modulus being observed.
Using Rapid Prototyping and Reverse Engineering to Grow Jobs in Western North Carolina
This paper will describe the development of a prototype for a thermoforming mold that will be used by a promising organization in Western North Carolina. Based upon a flimsy sample, WCU faculty and students reverse-engineered the product, generated a 3D parametric model, produced a working prototype mold, and delivered it to the organization in less than three weeks. The partnership illustrates an excellent industry-education collaboration, and its effect on growing jobs in the region.
Extruded Open-Cell Foams Using Brittle Polymers with CO2
This paper presents an extrusion-based, open-cell foaming process using thermoplastic polymers such as polystyrene (PS) and polycarbonate (PC) with supercritical CO2. The effects of CO2 content, surface quenching, die geometry, and temperature on foam morphologies were investigated. Low-density, microcellular, open-cell foams were successfully produced. The large intercellular pores were observed from micrographs for both PS and PC foams at optimum processing conditions.
Modification of Acrylic Coatings with Nanofillers
This work focuses on modifying the properties of waterborne acrylic coatings by incorporating nanofillers of different structure, aspect ratio, hydrophilicity and purity. The composites were characterized by SEM for morphology, WAXD for filler dispersion, water permeability and mechanical properties.
The Use of Non-Polar Processing Aids to Improve Efficiencies
The addition of non-polar processing aids has been shown to widen the processing window for manufacturers of film and other extruded products. Opportunities exist to stably run lines at faster speeds with power savings. The benefits of using a non-polar processing aid in blown film are discussed.
On the Design of a Strong Contour Laser Weld Joint Geometry for Closed Hollow Chambers
A combined mechanical-thermal stress analysis of the welding process and further FEA analysis of the subsequent hydraulic pressure failure behaviour was used to create a very strong joint geometry in a simple hollow vessel. The pressure test results exceeded those of vibration welds for the same part.
Measuring the Depth of Penetration of the Laser Beam in the Absorbing Material for Through-Transmission Welding Processes
The numerical modeling of various TTLW processes has the potential to be very useful for predicting laser welding results. However these models must assume either an absorption coefficient, or a depth of penetration in which the beam is absorbed. Accurately measuring the coefficient is not generally convenient, and is sensitive to small changes in carbon black concentration from batch to batch. A simpler test procedure for estimating the depth of penetration in the absorbing layer is described in this paper.
A Novel Isobutylene-Based TPV
A fully crosslinked Isobutylene-based TPV has been developed with exceptional gas and moisture barrier properties. Other property benefits are improved, compression set and service temperature, compared with thermoplastic alternatives.
Flow and Cure Modelling of RIM Mouldings -Thermal and Flow Validation
The RIM process involves simultaneous flow and exothermal curing reactions. The optimisation of these events enables to produce parts with better quality and improved properties. The integration of appropriate mathematical models simulating the thermal and flow aspects is experimentally verified.
Ultrasonic Bonding of 3M™ Dual Lock™ Reclosable Fasteners to Polypropylene Substrates
Polypropylene (PP) is becoming the plastic of choice for many industrial and automotive applications. There are a limited number of methods to attach a 3M™ Dual Lock™ reclosable fastener to a low surface energy (LSE) polypropylene substrate. Pressure sensitive adhesive and pop-in attachment methods have some limitations. Ultrasonic bonding of Dual Lock reclosable fasteners to polypropylene substrates is a new method that overcomes many of these limitations.
Heat Deflection and Mechanical Properties of PVC/PMMA/Clay Composites
PVC/PMMA/clay composites were prepared by melt mixing. Heat deflection temperature and flexural properties of the PVC/PMMA/clay composites were higher than for PVC/clay or neat PVC. XRD showed that PMMA improves the dispersion of the clay in PVC. Clay particles were measured to be 1 ?m.
The Effect of Fiber Contents on the Ejection Force of Deep Tubular Mouldings
The knowledge of the ejection force is useful for optimizing the design of ejection system in injection moulds. The effect of mould temperature and fiber weight fraction on the ejection force required for deep tubular moldings is studied. The ejection force increases with the fiber weight fraction and decreases with the mould temperature.
Effect of Temperature on Creep and Tensile Properties of LLDPE Nanocomposites
Creep and tensile properties of LLDPE and LLDPE nanocomposite balloon films are studied. Tensile and creep tests were conducted at a range of temperatures. Creep results were fit to the Burgers model. The results indicate that nanocomposites based on the use of maleated polyethylene incorporation into the base polyethylene and montmorillonite layered silicate (MLS) composite have higher mechanical properties.
Absorption and Permeation Properties of Composite Proton Exchange Membranes (PEM)
The properties of PEMs with SXLPS particles dispersed and aligned in a crosslinked PDMS matrix were examined. Included in this study was the influence of SXLPS quantity and size on the water and methanol uptake, and on methanol permeability. In addition, the state of water linked with the SO3H groups was examined.
Crystallization Dynamics in Polypropylene-Clay Nanocomposites
This study explores the crystallization dynamics of polypropylene-clay nanocomposites. Calorimetry and optical microscopy tools are employed to study the effect of nanoclay on quiescent crystallization kinetics. While a mini-extruder, designed to apply a shear pulse, is used with turbidity and birefringence measurements to explore the flow-induced crystallization dynamics in nanocomposite systems. Data presented indicates that clay can act as a nucleating agent in both flow and quiescent cases, and subsequently cause enhanced crystallization kinetics.
Thin-Film Thermosiphon Solar Collector Design
A very low cost, unglazed Thermosiphon Solar Collector constructed from polyethylene film and having an internal heat exchanger has been developed. The collector operates at relatively low temperature and low material stress, decreasing thermal degradation, material creep, and weight. Prototype systems have been built and tested, and processing equipment designed.
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