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The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.

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Conference Proceedings
TOUGHENING OF EPOXY USING PEP-PEO BLOCK COPOLYMER NANOPARTICLES
Jia (Daniel) Liu , Hung-Jue Sue , Zachary J. Thompson , Frank S. Bates , Marv Dettloff , George Jacob , Nikhil Verghese , Ha Pham, May 2008
A block copolymer (BCP) toughening agent, which forms self-assembled spherical micelle particles (15 nm), was utilized to toughen epoxy. The nano-sized BCP at 5 wt% concentration can significantly improve the fracture toughness of epoxy without deterioration in modulus and with only a slight reduction in glass transition temperature (Tg). The major toughening mechanisms are found to be BCP nanoparticle cavitation-induced matrix shear banding. Possible reasons responsible for the remarkable mechanical property improvements due to the BCP modification are discussed.
CHARACTERIZATION OF PROCESSING EFFECTS IN HIPS-CNF COMPOSITES USING THERMOGRAVIMETRIC ANALYSIS
Arun K. Kota , Rachel Kerzner , David Bigio , Hugh Bruck, May 2008
Using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) the effectof solvent processing and twin-screw extrusion (TSE) onthe weight loss rates and the corresponding temperatureswas investigated. Extruded composites exhibited higherthermal stability than the solvent processing ones. Highershear rates in extrusion also led to higher thermalstability. Furthermore it was observed that thenormalized weight loss of CNFs can provide a means ofcharacterizing the degree of dispersion resulting from theprocessing of the composites that complementsconventional microscopy techniques.
AN ALTERNATIVE ANALYSIS OF SINGLE-SCREW MELTING
Gregory A. Campbell , Mark A. Spalding , Zirong Tang, May 2008
The focus of this investigation was to develop a new alternative model for the melting dynamics of the solid bed in single-screw extruders. Re-analysis of literature single-screw melting data has determined the rate of loss of material in the cross channel (x) direction and the solid bed thickness direction (y) of several melting data sets. The new analysis demonstrates that the polymer solid bed goes to zero dimension in the thickness direction well before the solid bed width is consumed. This observation is contrary to the historical assumption that the crosschannel width of the solid bed dominates the melting rate. In this paper we present a new physical concept for melting in single-screw extruders that is consistent with the new data analysis. We developed a dynamic melting model and then simulated this first-order theory. The simulation qualitatively fits the literature observations for melting.
AN ALTERNATIVE ANALYSIS OF SINGLE-SCREW MELTING
Gregory A. Campbell , Mark A. Spalding , Zirong Tang, May 2008
The focus of this investigation was to develop a new alternative model for the melting dynamics of the solid bed in single-screw extruders. Re-analysis of literature single-screw melting data has determined the rate of loss of material in the cross channel (x) direction and the solid bed thickness direction (y) of several melting data sets. The new analysis demonstrates that the polymer solid bed goes to zero dimension in the thickness direction well before the solid bed width is consumed. This observation is contrary to the historical assumption that the crosschannel width of the solid bed dominates the melting rate. In this paper we present a new physical concept for melting in single-screw extruders that is consistent with the new data analysis. We developed a dynamic melting model and then simulated this first-order theory. The simulation qualitatively fits the literature observations for melting.
IMPROVED IMPACT PROPERTIES OF TPO/TPE SYSTEMS CONTAINING SCRATCH AND MAR ADDITIVES; EFFECT OF THE RESIN COMPOSITION ON THE EFFICACY OF THE ADDITIVES
Nikolas Kaprinidis , Johanne Wilson, May 2008
Very often plastics manufacturers utilize scratch and maradditives to reduce the occurrence of surface defects. Theefficacy and performance of these anti-scratch additivesmay vary based upon the composition and type of theresin. In this study the effect of elastomer and fillercontent of the TPO resin was investigated in relationshipto scratch and mar additive SM1 (Ciba Irgasurf SR 100).It was found that at 19-30% elastomer content the effectof SM1 on increasing the impact strength is maximizedand in some cases could exceed the 50% mark.Consequently the scratch resistance at this particularrange was also found to be optimized. Fillers such talcare known to affect negatively the scratch resistance ofTPOs based upon their increasing content typically inthe range of 20-30%. The substantially increased scratchresistance of the resin at this range due to the presence ofSM1 will be discussed herein.
A QUANTITATIVE COMPARISON AND VALIDATION OF CAE SOFTWARES SIMULATION THE INJECTION MOLDING PROCESS
Brendan A. Zarechian, May 2008
This paper investigates two well known Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) softwares that simulate the plastics injection molding process. All aspects of the simulation were taken into account from mesh to material data and feed system design. For validation purposes two different parts with varying geometries and with two different materials were used to reach further into the spectrum of the simulations. Typical results were examined such as fill time and part temperature but also flow patterns flow leading behavior and other special interest results. Although the approach was quite different for each software results showed very similar outcomes. One software had more accurate results whereas the other having a less average variance from experimentally found results.
A QUANTITATIVE COMPARISON AND VALIDATION OF CAE SOFTWARES SIMULATION THE INJECTION MOLDING PROCESS
Brendan A. Zarechian, May 2008
This paper investigates two well known Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) softwares that simulate the plastics injection molding process. All aspects of the simulation were taken into account, from mesh to material data and feed system design. For validation purposes two different parts with varying geometries and with two different materials were used to reach further into the spectrum of the simulations. Typical results were examined, such as fill time and part temperature, but also flow patterns, flow leading behavior, and other special interest results. Although the approach was quite different for each software, results showed very similar outcomes.One software had more accurate results, whereas the other having a less average variance from experimentally found results.
STUDY OF THE MORPHOLOGY AND PROPERTIES OF THE PP/EPOXY BLENDS
Xueliang Jiang, May 2008
In this paper effects of dynamical cure and compatibilization on the morphology and properties of the PP/epoxy blends were studied. The addition of maleic anhydride-grafted polypropylene (MAH-g-PP) and dynamical cure of epoxy by dicyanamide give rise to decrease the average diameter of epoxy particles in the PP/epoxy blends. Dynamical cure of the epoxy resin leads to an improvement in the modulus and strength of the PP/epoxy blends and the addition of MAH-g-PP results in an increase in the impact strength. Wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD) analysis shows that the PP/epoxy blends have the same crystalline structure as pure PP indicating dynamical cure and compatibilization do not disturb the crystalline structure of the PP/epoxy blends.
STUDY OF THE MORPHOLOGY AND PROPERTIES OF PP/EXOPY BLENDS
Xueliang Jiang, May 2008
In this paper, effects of dynamical cure and compatibilization on the morphology and properties of the PP/epoxy blends were studied.The addition of maleic anhydride-grafted polypropylene (MAH-g-PP) and dynamical cure of epoxy by dicyanamide give rise to decrease the average diameter of epoxy particles in the PP/epoxy blends. Dynamical cure of the epoxy resin leads to an improvement in the modulus and strength of the PP/epoxy blends, and the addition of MAH-g-PP results in an increase in the impact strength. Wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD) analysis shows that the PP/epoxy blends have the same crystalline structure as pure PP, indicating dynamical cure and compatibilization do not disturb the crystalline structure of the PP/epoxy blends.
AUTOMATIC MOLD DESIGN WITH KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT
Wen-Ren Jong , Tai-Chih Li , Shia-Chung Chen , Chun-Jen Shih , Po-Jung Lai , Chun-Hsien Wu , Ming-Yan Li, May 2008
With the flourishing development of 3C industry the products are becoming more and more diversified and the life cycle keeps reducing. Nowadays in order to maintain and enhance competitiveness it is important for enterprises to shorten the time of mold design and manufacturing train new engineers in the shortest time and upgrade the quality of products. This paper presents a mold-design navigating system with knowledge management; especially for some automatic design capabilities of core-cavity separation interference detection and cooling-line design safety. Not only do these functions save design time and prevent man-made errors but they also accumulate enterprise knowledge to provide consistent transparent systematic and reasonable mold-design. Each function is executed in a navigated process with built-in knowledge to offer the capabilities of automatic design.
AUTOMATIC MOLD DESIGN WITH KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT
Wen-Ren Jong , Tai-Chih Li , Shia-Chung Chen , Chun-Jen Shih , Po-Jung Lai , Chun-Hsien Wu , Ming-Yan Li, May 2008
With the flourishing development of 3C industry, the products are becoming more and more diversified and the life cycle keeps reducing. Nowadays, in order to maintain and enhance competitiveness, it is important for enterprises to shorten the time of mold design and manufacturing, train new engineers in the shortest time, and upgrade the quality of products.This paper presents a mold-design navigating system with knowledge management; especially for some automatic design capabilities of core-cavity separation, interference detection, and cooling-line design safety.Not only do these functions save design time and prevent man-made errors, but they also accumulate enterprise knowledge to provide consistent, transparent, systematic, and reasonable mold-design. Each function is executed in a navigated process with built-in knowledge to offer the capabilities of automatic design.
INTEGRATION OF MOLD DESIGN AND MOLD MANUFACTURING
Wen-Ren Jong , Tzu-Chun Lin , Po-Jung Lai , Tai-Chih Li , Chun-Hsien Wu , Ming-Yan Li, May 2008
In recent years mold manufacturing and development has become more and more complex because of the diversity of market demand and the time reduction of product manufacturing. Due to the diversities of the product it is almost impossible to manage and arrange all mold components effectively during the process of manufacturing. Therefore this research utilizes the embedded functions of CAD (Pro/E Wildfire) to combine mold-manufacturing planning system with CAD tool. The personnel of production management only need to go through the interface of planning system and the standardized process step by step. Then it reduces the chances of errors occurring during operation and improves the efficiency of production as well. Mold-manufacturing planning system can be integrated with mold-design navigating system. The design can be arranged directly through planning system and it makes the system consistent and efficient so that the personnel of production management are able to arrange schedule easily.
INTEGRATION OF MOLD DESIGN AND MOLD MANUFACTURING
Wen-Ren Jong , Tzu-Chun Lin , Po-Jung Lai , Tai-Chih Li , Chun-Hsien Wu , Ming-Yan Li, May 2008
In recent years, mold manufacturing and development has become more and more complex because of the diversity of market demand and the time reduction of product manufacturing. Due to the diversities of the product, it is almost impossible to manage and arrange all mold components effectively during the process of manufacturing. Therefore, this research utilizes the embedded functions of CAD (Pro/E Wildfire) to combine mold-manufacturing planning system with CAD tool. The personnel of production management only need to go through the interface of planning system and the standardized process step by step. Then, it reduces the chances of errors occurring during operation and improves the efficiency of production as well. Mold-manufacturing planning system can be integrated with mold-design navigating system. The design can be arranged directly through planning system, and it makes the system consistent and efficient so that the personnel of production management are able to arrange schedule easily.
THE DEPENDENCE OF WALL THICKNESS ON CHANGES IN MATERIAL AND PROCESS CONDITIONS IN PLUG ASSIST THERMOFORMING
Christina Sabine Härter , Hans-Gerhard Fritz, May 2008
The European Commission 6th Framework Program Cooperative Research Project “Plug Materials Influence on Final Part Quality in the Thermoforming Process” with Project acronym “PlugIn” has as its goal to improve the understanding of plug assist thermoforming to increase productivity and competitiveness of the European thermoforming industry. This paper presents the PlugIn project work investigating the dependence of part wall thickness due to changes in plug-sheet material combination plug geometry plug velocity plug depth and forming temperature.
THE DEPENDENCE OF WALL THICKNESS ON CHANGES IN MATERIAL AND PROCESS CONDITIONS IN PLUG ASSIST THERMOFORMING
Christina Sabine Härter , Hans-Gerhard Fritz , Noel Tessier , Karel Kouba, May 2008
The European Commission, 6th Framework Program, Cooperative Research Project ƒ??Plug Materials Influence on Final Part Quality in the Thermoforming Processƒ? with Project acronym ƒ??PlugInƒ? has as its goal to improve the understanding of plug assist thermoforming to increase productivity and competitiveness of the European thermoforming industry. This paper presents the PlugIn project work investigating the dependence of part wall thickness due to changes in plug-sheet material combination, plug geometry, plug velocity, plug depth and forming temperature.
ASSESSING THE THERMOFORMABILITY OF HIGH-PERFORMANCE POLYMERS FOR USE IN MEDICAL PACKAGING APPLICATIONS
T.P. O’Brien , G.M. McNally , W.R. Murphy , B.G. Millar , G.S. Garrett , A.H. Clarke, May 2008
A considerable number of polymers are available for usein medical and pharmaceutical packaging applications.Polymers such as polypropylene glycol modifiedpoly(ethylene terephthalate) polyacrylonitrile cyclicolefin copolymer and polychlorotrifluoroethylene exhibitdifferent mechanical and thermal properties therebyrequiring different processing conditions. Thethermoformability of these different polymers can beassessed in order to establish relative performance metricsprior to full scale production trials. This paper presentsmethods and analyses for assessing thermoformability.
THE ROLE OF GRAFTING DEGREE IN THE DISPERSION OF SILICA/POLYACRYLATE NANOCOMPOSITE PARTICLES INTO POLYACRYLATE MATRIX
He-ming Lin , Zhi-Qi Cai , Yan Yuan , Lin Lei , Dong-ming Qi, May 2008
A series of ‘guava-like’ silica/polyacrylate nanocomposite particles with different grafting degrees were prepared via mini-emulsion polymerization. The silica/polyacrylate composite particles were melt-mixed with unfilled polyacrylate resin to prepare the corresponding silica/polyacrylate molded composites and the dispersion mechanism of these silica particles from the ‘guava-like’ composite particles into polyacrylate matrix was studied by the section transmission electron microscope (TEM) micrographs of silica/polyacrylate molded composites. It was found that the grafting degree of silica particles played a crucial role in the dispersion of silica/polyacrylate composite particles into the polyacrylate matrix.
THE ROLE OF GRAFTING DEGREE IN THE DISPERSION OF GUAVA-LIKE SLICE/POLYACRYLATE MATRIX
He-ming Lin , Zhi-Qi Cai , Yan Yuan , Lin Lei , Dong-ming Qi, May 2008
A series of guava-like silica/polyacrylate nanocomposite particles with different grafting degrees were prepared via mini-emulsion polymerization. The silica/polyacrylate composite particles were melt-mixed with unfilled polyacrylate resin to prepare the corresponding silica/polyacrylate molded composites, and the dispersion mechanism of these silica particles from the ƒ??guava-likeƒ?? composite particles into polyacrylate matrix was studied by the section transmission electron microscope (TEM) micrographs of silica/polyacrylate molded composites. It was found that the grafting degree of silica particles played a crucial role in the dispersion of silica/polyacrylate composite particles into the polyacrylate matrix.
NEW PERSPECTIVE ON HEAT DEFLECTION TEMPERATURE OF GLASSY POLYCARBONATE
Xiangyang Li , James Mason, May 2008
For polycarbonate the HDT values can vary over 20±C. Many factors a®ect the test results. Among these ther- mal dilatation and creep were discussed in detail. Quan- titatively the contribution from thermal dilatation to HDT values varies little with physical aging time but the contribution from creep to HDT values changes greatly. When creep is insigni¯cant the HDT values can be cal- culated from an elastic beam de°ection equation and are close to the Tg values. This paper qualitatively disputes the claims of the e®ect of residual stress on HDT values. It is argued that changes in residual stress level and HDT values with physical aging are symptoms of the structural relaxation but no causal e®ect exists between these two symptoms. As a test method for amorphous polymers Vicat or Tg can provide more reliable results than HDT.
NEW PERSPECTIVE ON HEAT DEFLECTION TEMPERATURE OF GLASSY POLYCARBONATE
Xiangyang Li, May 2008
For polycarbonate, the HDT values can vary over 20?øC. Many factors affect the test results. Among these, thermal dilatation and creep were discussed in detail. Quantitatively, the contribution from thermal dilatation to HDT values varies little with physical aging time, but the contribution from creep to HDT values changes greatly. When creep is insignificant, the HDT values can be calculated from an elastic beam deflection equation and are close to the Tg values. This paper qualitatively disputes the claims of the effect of residual stress on HDT values. It is argued that changes in residual stress level and HDT values with physical aging are symptoms of the structural relaxation, but no causal effect exists between these two symptoms. As a test method for amorphous polymers, Vicat or Tg can provide more reliable results than HDT.


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