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Conference Proceedings

STRACTURE AND INTERFACIAL ADHESION OF PP/PBS SANDWICH INJECTION MOLDINGS
Yuji Fujita , Toshihiro Yoshida , Hironari Sano , Naoya Aoki , Masaya Kotaki , Hiroyuki Hamada, May 2008

Polypropylene (PP) based sandwich injection moldings with biomass based polymers (PBS) in the core were studied. In order to obtain superior surface properties such as high chemical resistance and anti-scratch resistnce improvement of interfacial strength between skin and core parts is important which can be controlled by the additional PP component in the PBS core part. The selection of additional PP and injection conditions were found to be important to improve the interfacial strength of which phenomena was understood by the melt rheology at the injection condition.Scratch tests according to ASTM method was performed to investigate the relationship between scratch behavior and skin/core adhesion. Poor skin/core adhesion caused the skin/core delamination upon the scratch tests.

STRACTURE AND INTERFACIAL ADHESION OF PP/PBS SANDWICH INJECTION MOLDINGS
Yuji Fujita , Toshihiro Yoshida , Hironari Sano , Naoya Aoki , Masaya Kotaki , Hiroyuki Hamada, May 2008

Polypropylene (PP) based sandwich injection moldings with biomass based polymers (PBS) in the core were studied. In order to obtain superior surface properties such as high chemical resistance and anti-scratch resistnce, improvement of interfacial strength between skin and core parts is important, which can be controlled by the additional PP component in the PBS core part. The selection of additional PP and injection conditions were found to be important to improve the interfacial strength, of which phenomena was understood by the melt rheology at the injection condition. Scratch tests according to ASTM method was performed to investigate the relationship between scratch behavior and skin/core adhesion. Poor skin/core adhesion caused the skin/core delamination upon the scratch tests.

ON-LINE OPTICAL MONITORING OF NANOCOMPOSITE COMPOUNDING
Marion McAfee , Wai-Chow Chang, May 2008

On-line monitoring of compounding of PA6 with nanoclay is examined to investigate the level of exfoliation and degradation under a variety of conditions in real-time. On-line rheological and optical reflectance measurements are compared with off-line analyses of compounded samples to investigate the relationship between these readings and exfoliation/intercalation and/or degradation of the nanocomposite. The effect of the processing (twinscrew/ single-screw temperature and screw speed) on the resulting melt quality and the ability to assess this quality in real-time is discussed.

ON-LINE OPTICAL MONITORING OF NANOCOMPOSITE COMPOUNDING
Marion McAfee, Wai-Chow Chang, May 2008

On-line monitoring of compounding of PA6 with nanoclay is examined to investigate the level of exfoliation and degradation under a variety of conditions in real-time. On-line rheological and optical reflectance measurements are compared with off-line analyses of compounded samples to investigate the relationship between these readings and exfoliation/intercalation and/or degradation of the nanocomposite. The effect of the processing (twinscrew/ single-screw, temperature and screw speed) on the resulting melt quality and the ability to assess this quality in real-time is discussed.

RESPONSIVE STARCH-BASED MATERIALS
J. L. Willett, May 2008

Starch a low-cost annually renewable resource is naturally hydrophilic and its properties change with relative humidity. Starchƒ??s hygroscopic nature can be used to develop materials which change shape or volume in response to environmental changes (eg humidity). For example starch-based graft copolymers have been produced using reactive extrusion for potential superabsorbent and hydrogel applications. Besides absorbing large quantities of water some of these copolymers display large volume changes in aqueous alcohol depending on solvent quality. Other examples include starch-poly(methyl acrylate) graft copolymer films which shrink at high humidities. Various levels of shrinkage can be triggered in response to changes in relative humidity. (AAm) and varying amounts of 2-acrylamido-2-methyl- 1-propane sulfonic acid (AMPS) display various degrees of swelling in aqueous solutions and approximately discontinuous volume changes in aqueous ethanol solutions over narrow ethanol concentrations. Blown films of starch-PMA graft copolymers display controlled shrinkage in response to increases in relative humidity.

DEVELOPMENT OF ANTIMICROBIAL PLA NANOCOMPOSITES WITH SILVER CONTAINING LAYERED NANOCLAYS FOR PACKAGING AND COATING APPLICATIONS
M.A. Busolo , M.J. Ocio , J. M. Lagaron, May 2008

This paper presents the development and characterization of the antimicrobial activity of a novel family of commercial food contact compliant silver-modified nanolayered clays and of their nanobiocomposites with polylactic acid. The antimicrobial nanolayered clays showed an antimicrobial effectiveness of 99.99% against Gram-negative Salmonella spp. In addition the PLA-clay nanocomposite also showed a significant antimicrobial activity and a synergistic water vapour permeability reduction of 32% with respect to neat PLA. The results indicate that these novel active nanolayered fillers can potentially exhibit numerous applications in plastic and bioplastic packaging and coatings where simultaneous barrier and antimicrobial performance are desirable.

DEVELOPMENT OF ANTIMICROBIAL PLA NANOCOMPOSITES WITH SILVER CONTAINING LAYERED NANOCLAYS FOR PACKAGING AND COATING APPLICATIONS
M.A. Busolo , M.J. Ocio , J. M. Lagaron, May 2008

This paper presents the development and characterization of the antimicrobial activity of a novel family of commercial food contact compliant silver-modified nanolayered clays and of their nanobiocomposites with polylactic acid. The antimicrobial nanolayered clays showed an antimicrobial effectiveness of 99.99% against Gram-negative Salmonella spp. In addition, the PLA-clay nanocomposite also showed a significant antimicrobial activity and a synergistic water vapour permeability reduction of 32% with respect to neat PLA. The results indicate that these novel active nanolayered fillers can potentially exhibit numerous applications in plastic and bioplastic packaging and coatings where simultaneous barrier and antimicrobial performance are desirable.

OPTIMIZATION OF A PET PREFORM DESIGN FOR BETTER BOTTLE BARRIER PROPERTIES
Dinu Chettiar , S.H. Masood , D.U. Erbulut, May 2008

This paper presents an investigation on the optimization of the preform design to produce PET bottles with uniform thickness distribution and better barrier properties using a blow moulding simulation software. The barrier properties were studied by calculating the blow up ratio (BUR) of the initial and the final bottles. The bottle blown up using the new preform design had a higher value of BUR indicating that it had better barrier properties due to increased molecular orientation. Results from the simulation were also used to study the mechanical strength and the internal pressure variations on the bottle using the Pro/Mechanica finite element analysis (FEA).

POLYMER ORIENTATION IN POLYPROPYLENE-TALC COMPOSITES STRETCHED BELOW THE MELTING TEMPERATURE
Rahul H. Rane , K. Jayaraman , T. R. Bieler , K. L. Nichols , M. H. Mazor, May 2008

Solid-phase die-drawing of composites with semicrystalline polyolefins and particulate filler is a new process for producing expanded and oriented structural materials1-2. The objective of this work was to investigate the maximum draw ratio attained with composites of isotactic polypropylene and talc and the polymer chainaxis orientation obtained over various draw ratios at 10°C below the melting temperature. The maximum attainable draw ratio with the PP-talc composite was considerably greater than with the neat PP. The extent of debonding and void growth was well advanced before significant orientation was developed in the crystalline lamellae of the polypropylene matrix.

POLYMER ORIENTATION IN POLYPROPYLENE-TALC COMPOSITES STRETCHED BELOW THE MELTING TEMPERATURE
Rahul H. Rane , K. Jayaraman , T. R. Bieler , K. L. Nichols , M. H. Mazor, May 2008

Solid-phase die-drawing of composites with semicrystalline polyolefins and particulate filler is a new process for producing expanded and oriented structural materials1-2. The objective of this work was to investigate the maximum draw ratio attained with composites of isotactic polypropylene and talc and the polymer chainaxis orientation obtained over various draw ratios at 10?øC below the melting temperature. The maximum attainable draw ratio with the PP-talc composite was considerably greater than with the neat PP. The extent of debonding and void growth was well advanced before significant orientation was developed in the crystalline lamellae of the polypropylene matrix.

THE INJECTION MOLDING OF NANOSTRUCTURED POLYSTYRENE TEMPLATES TO INVESTIGATE THE CONTROL OF HUMAN MESENCHYMAL STEM CELL DIFFERENTIATION
Israd H. Jaafar , John. P. Coulter , Sabrina S. Jedlicka, May 2008

The injection molding of nano-structured polystyrene (PS) surfaces and its application in the stimulation of stem cell differentiation is described. PS was selected as a base substrate for in vitro human mesenchymal stem cell (hMSC) culturing due to its bio-compatibility and wide use as a cell culturing medium. The approach was adopted to improve upon current biochemical differentiation methods. A customized mold was designed where a nanopatterned silicon wafer served as the insert for injection molding. The effect of a nano-pillared PS surface in comparison to planar control on hMSC cell response was observed.

THE INJECTION MOLDING OF NANOSTRUCTURED POLYSTYRENE TEMPLATES TO INVESTIGATE THE CONTROL OF HUMAN MESENCHYMAL STEM CELL DIFFERENTIATION
Israd H. Jaafar , John. P. Coulter , Sabrina S. Jedlicka, May 2008

The injection molding of nano-structured polystyrene (PS) surfaces and its application in the stimulation of stem cell differentiation is described. PS was selected as a base substrate for in vitro human mesenchymal stem cell (hMSC) culturing due to its bio-compatibility and wide use as a cell culturing medium. The approach was adopted to improve upon current biochemical differentiation methods. A customized mold was designed where a nanopatterned silicon wafer served as the insert for injection molding. The effect of a nano-pillared PS surface in comparison to planar control on hMSC cell response was observed.

REACTION KINETICS STUDYUSING SPECIALIZED BATCH MIXER
Marios Avgousti , Mark D. Wetzel , Fred Best, May 2008

Although reactive extrusion is an important process component in many industrial applications no convenient method to determine reaction kinetics exists in extrusion literature. Batch mixer torque versus time" relationship reflecting reaction kinetic contributions at various melt tem- peratures and shear rates can be used to study reactive sys- tems. This work aims at developing a rapid batch mixer test to differentiate reaction kinetic mechanisms. In order to demonstrate the validity of the test we will be presenting experimental studies of PET polymer degradation model system. Reaction kinetic information obtained from batch system will be linked to previously-reported continuous extrusion process characterization studies."

INTEGRATION OF FORMING AND INJECTION MOLDING PROCESSES ON IN-MOLD DECORATION PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT
Chao-Chang Tang , Jian-Hong Lin , Kin-Fu Lu , Meng-Chih Chen , Chao-Tsai Huang , Chau-Kai Yu, May 2008

Decoration processing for injection molded parts such as painting printing hot stamping electroplating and so on is commonly applied to enhance the surface quality and product value. Due to extra processes cost and pollution problems increase. One of great solutions which is performed in-mold decoration has been utilized to minimize the processes for years. However since it is so complicated from film forming to injection molding how to realize the process mechanism is the crucial factor. In this study the integration of forming and injection molding processes is proposed and performed both experimentally and numerically.

MORPHOLOGY AND PROPERTIES OF EXFOLIATED GRAPHITE/THERMOPLASTIC POLYURETHANE NANOCOMPOSITES
Hyunwoo Kim , Christopher Macosko, May 2008

Functionalized graphite sheets (FGS) and isocyanate treated graphite oxide (iGO) were incorporated into thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) via melt compounding solvent blending and in-situ polymerization. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) indicated that FGS is exfoliated while iGO forms mixed morphology of partial intercalation and exfoliation. Their dispersion into TPU resulted in noticeable enhancements in electrical conductivity stiffness and gas barrier. Average aspect ratios of graphitic additives determined by fitting properties with composite theories agree well with values from direct TEM imaging.

MORPHOLOGY AND PROPERTIES OF EXFOLIATED GRAPHITE/THERMOPLASTIC POLYURETHANE NANOCOMPOSITES
Hyunwoo Kim , Christopher Macosko, May 2008

Functionalized graphite sheets (FGS) and isocyanatetreated graphite oxide (iGO) were incorporated intothermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) via melt compounding,solvent blending and in-situ polymerization. Transmissionelectron microscopy (TEM) indicated that FGS isexfoliated while iGO forms mixed morphology of partialintercalation and exfoliation. Their dispersion into TPUresulted in noticeable enhancements in electricalconductivity, stiffness and gas barrier. Average aspectratios of graphitic additives determined by fittingproperties with composite theories agree well with values from direct TEM imaging.

ADVANCED RESULTS OF A PROSPECTIVE STUDY ON FLEXIBLE PLASTIC PACKAGING IN ANDEAN COUNTRIES: SCENARIOS AND STRATEGIES FOR THE PERIOD 2003 ƒ?? 2013
María del Pilar Noriega , Juan Diego Sierra, May 2008

A prospective study on flexible plastic packaging was carried out in Andean Countries with the participation of two plastic research institutes and 20 companies including raw material manufacturers processors converters and end users.The inputs of this prospective study were a review of the state of the art on flexible packaging a benchmarking study considering the 10 most important companies a study using the Delphi method with national and international experts who identified the key variables to the development and progress of the flexible packaging in the region and workshops.This study generated new projects and products on the field of barrier smart and active packaging biodegradable materials among others; it shows that the Andean region is applying R&D and technological alliances in its industrial processes.

TRITAN™ COPOLYESTERS
Emmett Crawford, May 2008

Tritan™ copolyesters are tough transparent copolyesters recently developed by Eastman Chemical Company. These new copolyesters have higher glass transition temperatures than Eastman’s heritage copolyesters of PETG PCTG and PCTA. The properties of Tritan™ copolyesters allow it to be used in applications in a variety of markets from housewares to signs. The unique properties of Tritan™ copolyesters are achieved by modifying poly(1 4-cyclohexylenedimethylene terephthalate) or PCT with 2 2 4 4-tetramethyl-1 3- cyclobutanediol (TMCD) . The properties of Tritan™ copolyesters can be tuned to meet the demands of applications by changing the level of TMCD modification. This paper describes the basic chemistry and structureproperty relationships of Tritan™ copolyesters. In addition this paper describes the properties for some of the commercial Tritan™ copolyesters grades available.

TRITAN COPOLYESTERS
Emmett Crawford, May 2008

Tritan copolyesters are tough, transparent copolyesters recently developed by Eastman Chemical Company. These new copolyesters have higher glass transition temperatures than Eastmanƒ??s heritage copolyesters of PETG, PCTG, and PCTA. The properties of Tritanƒ?› copolyesters allow it to be used in applications in a variety of markets from housewares to signs. The unique properties of Tritanƒ?› copolyesters are achieved by modifying poly(1,4-cyclohexylenedimethylene terephthalate), or PCT, with 2,2,4,4-tetramethyl-1,3- cyclobutanediol (TMCD) . The properties of Tritanƒ?› copolyesters can be tuned to meet the demands of applications by changing the level of TMCD modification.This paper describes the basic chemistry and structure-property relationships of Tritanƒ?› copolyesters. In addition, this paper describes the properties for some of the commercial Tritanƒ?› copolyesters grades available.

EVALUATION OF MOLECULAR ORIENTATION OF WELDLINE BY POLARIZED LASER-RAMAN SPECTROSCOPY
Koji Yamada , Kiyotaka Tomari, May 2008

Molecular orientation in weldline region of injection molded polypropylene was investigated by polarized laser-Raman spectroscopy. The intensity ratio of two intrinsic peaks in a Raman spectrum of weldline was considered to be a molecular orientation index. By setting the angle of incident laser beam in two ways so as to be parallel and perpendicular to the weldline the molecular orientation around the weldline was able to be clarified in detail. It was found that the molecules in weldline region oriented along the interface of the weldline even inside the moldings. Moreover the orientation degree of the area 0.3 mm away from the interface was higher than that of the interface itself. These findings are much different from our expectation obtained from the former experiments using polystyrene moldings in a similar method which suggests that the orientation parallel to the weldline is limited to the area beneath the surface. Although the cause of this difference has yet to be identified there is little doubt that crystallinity of polypropylene deeply plays an important role on it.







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