The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.
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Sharkskin and Melt Fracture of Some Biodegradable Polymers
Sharkskin and melt fracture phenomena have been investigated in two commercial biodegradable polyesters– aliphatic-aromatic co-polyester (AAC), poly(lactic acid) (PLA) and their blends. The study was conducted in a two bore capillary rheometer. It was observed that at high shear rates and stresses PLA exhibits sharkskin and gross melt fracture, while AAC exhibits only gross melt fracture. Experiments indicate that the blends exhibit both phenomena and that blending is beneficial for postponing the onset of flow instabilities to higher shear stresses.
Application of Tapping Mode Atomic Force Microscopy for Measuring Relative Interface Thickness in Multilayer Polyolefin Films
In any polymer blend system, the nature and thickness of the polymer interface can have a significant influence on the overall performance of the blend. AFM in tapping mode (TMAFM) was employed to establish a systematic methodology to quantitatively measure the relative interface thickness in coextruded multilayer films.
Wettability of Photografted Deep-Groove Polypropylene Fibers
This paper presents photografting as a surface modification method to provide permanent wettability improvement to deep-groove polypropylene (PP) fibers. We also describe approaches to evaluate the wettability of these fibers and the wicking performance of fiber bundles when polyacrylamide (PAAm) was grafted onto the fibers. In this study, the concentration of the monomer and the UV-exposure time were altered to examine the effects of those variables on fiber hydrophilicity. Results showed lower water contact angle and improved wicking capacity upon modification with PAAm.
Stabilizer Additives R&D for Polyesters: Their Incorporation Inpolymerization Versus Downstream Compounding
The development and incorporation of stabilizer additives for bottle resin polyesters is increasingly more challenging and sophisticated. The diversity of polyester production processes and applications provide many possible insertion points for new additive technologies (1-3). Depending on the polyester problem it may be more effective to incorporate an additive in-polymerization (‘upstream’) versus (‘downstream’) compounding or converting. This paper discusses strategies for protecting polyester properties like color & thermal stability.
Nanomechanical and Nanotack Properties of Polymer Composites
Joining and adhesive properties of polymeric composites are of critical importance for emerging applications in the aeronautical, aerospace and marine industries. Traditional macroscopic adhesion testing techniques evaluate macroscopic properties of materials, with limited information on the molecular level processes that control actual performance. Nanomechanical and nanotack evaluations utilizing advanced nanoprobe techniques of polymer/fiber composites reveal differences in performance at the molecular level.
Shear Rheology of Highly Filled Polymeric Suspension
Highly filled polymeric materials exhibit complex rheological properties. In this study the rheological characteristics of highly filled suspension based on ethylene octane copolymer binder and Dechlorane filler were studied. Steady shear and thixotropic behaviors are discussed.
Multiphysics Based Progressive Failure Analysis for Cryogenic Composite Fuel Tank Design
Thermal residual stresses, internal fuel pressure and acceleration stresses during launch stage were evaluated and quantified for cryogenic composite fuel tank design. Fuel leakage induced temperature variation through laminate thickness after initial cracking was applied to a progressive failure analysis. Comparison of the results with conventional failure analyses was performed. Critical temperature and pressure conditions for failure initiation and whole laminate cracking were found based on the failure analysis.
Luminance of Injection Molded V-Groove Light Guide Plate
The luminance of an injection molded V-groove light-guide plate (LGP) was found to be affected by the depth of melt filling of the grooves. Imperfections in filling are influenced by local pressure and temperature histories. The measurements of the depth of melt filling were carried out at different locations using two optical grade polycarbonate (PC) moldings obtained at various processing conditions.
Cavity Temperature Control during the Cooling Cycle in an Injection Molding Machine Using a Predictive Controller
An approach to controlling the cavity temperature of the molded part during the cooling cycle of an injection molding machine is developed. The controlled variable is chosen as the average cavity temperature which is used during the cooling cycle. The coolant flow rate in the mold is used as the manipulated variable. An adaptive predictive controller is used to maintain a given average cavity temperature setpoint with existing disturbances. The control strategy was simulated and tested in an industrial scale injection molding machine.
Surface and Interfacial Studies of Plant Biopolymers
The outermost surfaces of plants are covered by a cuticular membrane which modulates the interactions of the plant with its environment and provides a protective barrier to pathogens. As this interface is a composed primarily of a biopolymer, physical methodologies for their study of polymer mechanical behavior and chemical make-up can provide molecular level details of these systems. In this paper we will briefly describe so important questions in plant biology and the methodologies needed to address these problems which can be found in polymer and physical chemistry.
Effects of Drying Conditions on the Morphology and Performance of Sulfonated Poly(Arylene Ether Sulfone) Copolymer Films for Proton Exchange Membranes
Sulfonated poly (arylene ether sulfone) copolymer has been shown to be a promising material for proton exchange membranes for fuel cell via a lab-scale batch solution casting followed by a mild radiation drying. The effects of the conditions of intense forced convection air on the morphology and performance of this copolymer film have been investigated for industrial production.
Industrial Applications of Heat Sealing Modeling
A mathematical model and computer simulation describing the constant heat sealing process for linear, semi-crystalline polymer films has been applied to heat sealing process optimization. Among the applications explored are the identification of a sealant resin melt index range that ensures maximum heat strength achievement for a prescribed dwell time, the development of sealing conditions for controlled frangibility seals, and heat sealing equipment specification and selection.
Continuous Film Casting and Evaluation of Novel Polymer Membranes for Fuel Cells
A continuous solution film casting process was studied for manufacturing novel polymer membranes for PEM fuel cells. A lab reverse roll casting machine was built and used to cast membranes with typical thickness of 25 micron to 50 micron. Investigation was made to establish the casting and drying conditions to produce voids-free, uniform membranes with desired thickness. The proton conductivity, mechanical properties and morphology of the membranes were evaluated.
Permeability of Flake-Filled Barrier Membranes: A Numerical Evaluation
Direct numerical simulations are conducted in two dimensions to compute the permeability of membranes filled with aligned flakes. The effects of flake aspect ratio, volume fraction, spatial distribution and size dispersion are examined. Lots of simulations have been carried out using a fast multipole-accelerated boundary element method, and the results are compared to some of the existing models.
Injection Molding of Thermoplastic Elastomer on Etched Aluminum: Taguchi Optimization
Aluminum and thermoplastic elastomer (TPE) hybrids are prepared by insert injection molding. No pre-heating or macroscopical mechanical bonding are needed. The key step is an appropriate etching of the aluminum surface giving a porous surface for melt penetration. In this work, the effect of injection molding parameters on bond strength is studied using Taguchi optimization. Mechanical strength is determined by peel test. Also, the effect of insert/TPE thickness ratio is studied.
Evaluating Thermal Uniformity with Pulse Cooling
Pulse cooling is a method where mold temperatures are monitored, and cold water is introduced to control the steel temperature. A variation of this technique delivers water immediately after mold closing for variable pulse times. Using this approach, better distribution of surface temperature on injection molded parts may be achieved compared to traditional cooling with a thermolator. Thermocouples and a thermal camera were used to evaluate mold and part surface temperatures respectively.
Impact of Metallizer Process Controls on Optical and Gas Barrier Uniformity
A process study of vacuum metallizer was performed and the results in terms of optical density uniformity, metal adhesion and barrier uniformity were studied. Gas barrier was found to be a complex function of the process parameters studied while adhesion was determined to be sensitive to testing materials as well as process parameters. Visual uniformity was found to depend primarily on metallization pressure.
Effect of Nano-Clay on Foaming of WF/HDPE Composites
This paper investigates the foaming behavior of wood fiber/HDPE composites with small amounts of nano-clay. The nano-clay dispersion was characterized by XRD and TEM. An extrusion foaming experiment blown with N2 was conducted. The cell nucleation and growth of composite foams were studied with varying processing parameters, such as temperature, pressure and clay content. The effect of nano-clay on the final cell morphologies and foam density of wood fiber/clay/HDPE nanocomposite foams were identified.
Strategy for a Selectable Performance Colored Capstock Offering Scheme with Regards to Weatherability and Cost
This presentation will discuss the considerations made when selecting a range of products for use in a Good Better and Best" scheme of weather resistant and cost effective extrudable coating (capstock) offerings. Specifically this paper will discuss creating a consumer offering of varied formulations of materials which provide increasingly better weathering performance with direct trade-offs to cost. As a result the consumer is able to select a specific formulation of material which will satisfy their requirements for performance and budget."
Using Dynamic Mechanical Analyses to Probe the Glassy State Response of a Sub-Tg Annealed Model Epoxy Network
Using dynamic mechanical analyzers the relaxation behavior of a loosely cross-linked model epoxy resin was investigated before and after room temperature aging. Preliminary results indicate a stiffening of the storage moduli occurs below –50 °C, the ? relaxation temperature of the epoxy network, with a subsequent softening of the network above room temperature and a drop in the apparent glass transition temperature (Tg ). of the material with aging.
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