The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.
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Structural, Thermal, and Mechanical Properties of Miscanthusderived Biocomposites
Miscanthus, a high yield, fast growing perennial grass with low mineral content, was put under a microscope to explore its potential as a source of natural and environmentally friendly fibers and polymers for composite manufacturing. The manipulation of miscanthus’ structural and thermal properties at 25°C < T < 550°C, as probed by SEM, DSC, TGA, and in situ diffuse reflectance-FTIR, suggested that composites with flexural strength as high as ~ 65 MPa could be formulated without the addition of external polymers.
Orientation Structure and Properties of a Propylene-Based Elastomer
An orientation process to enhance the elastic recovery and stiffness of propylene-based elastomers is described. Elastomers fabricated during this process have virtually complete elastic recovery, and are up to ten times stiffer than unoriented controls. The structural development during orientation is explored with WAXS. A relationship between crystal structure, strain recovery, and modulus is described.
Polypropylene (PP) and polysulfone (PSU) were successfully blended despite viscosity and processing temperature variations. These blends showed structure-property improvements with the addition of functional polyolefins. A series of membranes were made using an environmentally-friendly process.
Comparison of Block and Random Ethylene-Octene Copolymers Based on the Structure and Elastomeric Properties
The structure and elastomeric properties of the novel olefinic block copolymers (OBCs) were studied by DSC, WAXS, AFM combined with stress-strain, and strain recovery measurement. Their structure and properties were compared with the conventional statistical ethylene-octene (EO) copolymers. The OBCs showed higher strain recovery than the statistical EO copolymers, which is attributed to their unique crystalline morphology. AFM and WAXS studies revealed the elastic" spherulites in OBCs."
Miscibility of Novel Block Copolymers
The miscibility of novel olefinic block copolymers (OBCs) with random ethylene-octene (EO) copolymers was studied using blends of two homogeneous random EO copolymers as a model system. The critical comonomer content difference for miscibility between OBC and random EO blend was observed to be lower than that for the blend of two random EO copolymers. The OBC and random EO blend also exhibited a broader partial miscibility window. Interaction parameters for blends of two EO copolymers were extracted from partially miscible blends.
Crystallization Kinetics of Olefinic Block Copolymers
The effect of the blocky chain architecture on spherulite growth rate and bulk crystallization kinetics of novel ethylene-octene block copolymers is described. These copolymers form space-filling spherulites even when the crystallinity is as low as 7 %. Spherulite growth rates were analyzed by Lauritzen-Hoffman theory and the bulk crystallization kinetics were subjected to Avrami analysis. Comparison with random copolymers showed that the blocky architecture imparts a substantially higher crystallization rate.
Polyethylene Nanocomposites Based on High Thermal Stability Organoclays
In this work, alkyl pyridinium, imidazolium and phosphonium cationic surfactants were used to produce highly thermally stable organoclays. The volatile products issued from the thermal decomposition of those organoclays were analyzed by mass spectroscopy (MS). The organoclays were compounded with LLDPE and an appropriate compatibilizer. The micro- and nanodispersions were investigated through X-ray diffraction (XRD) and electron microscopy (SEM, TEM). The thermal stability of the nanocomposites was evaluated by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA).
Utilizing the Power of Three to Enhance Student Learning
Considering a class to comprise three parts: introduction of fundamental principles during the lecture; assignment of a practical problem, requiring application of these principles; provision of a detailed solution at the beginning of the subsequent class, student involvement and learning has been significantly improved.A typical polymer processing class would consist of deriving the equations for steady-state, pressure-driven flow of a Newtonian fluid through a circular cross-section, allowing assignment of a melt-spinning problem.
Study on Crystal Structures of Isotactic Polypropylene Processed by Injection Molding
The crystallinity and crystallite size of injection molded isotactic polypropylene was measured by wide angle X-ray diffraction(WAXD) and the distinct skin-core morphology was visible under a polarizing optical microscope. The results show that the crystal structures are dependent on the injection molding processing conditions. The crystallinity and crystallite size decreases with the distance from the gate. The skin layer thickness is thinner with the higher injection temperature.
In-Mold Part Shrinkage Rate Measurement
An on-line technique for quantifying part shrinkage rate in the mold has been developed. The technique consists of measuring post-hold cavity pressure decay rate inside the mold during the injection molding process. A comparison of the technique as applied to amorphous and semi-crystalline polymers will be presented.
Determination of Shear Viscosity and Shear Rate from Pressure Drop and Flow Rate Relationship in a Rectangular Channel
In this study, we present a unique approach to calculate the shear viscosity and shear rate with the pressure drop and flow rate data from a channel having a rectangular cross-section with a height-to-width ratio (H/W) of close to one. The derived equation was verified with experimental data from rectangular dies whose height-to-width ratio (H/W) ranges from 0.1 to 1. It was confirmed that the proposed approach is reliable for calculation of the shear viscosity and shear rate from the flow data in a rectangular channel.
Improvement of Transparency and Processing Properties of Hard TPU Materials
A statistical model is discussed which will help to understand the sequence length distribution of thermoplastic polyurethane block copolymers. Using this model processing range and transparency of some TPU materials were correlated to the theoretical segment length distribution.Considering this analysis some new Elastollan® 1200 materials (E 1200 materials) were developed. Due to the wide processing range and the high transparency of these new materials they are suitable to an increased number of applications.
Excimer Laser Ablation of Polystyrene-Clay Nanocomposites
The ablation behavior of injection molded polystyrene (PS)-Organically modified montmorillonite (OMMT) nanocomposites by 248 nm KrF excimer laser irradiation were investigated for different OMMT concentration and melt-blending conditions. The surface structures induced by excimer laser ablation were also studied using SEM. Results indicate that PS-OMMT nanocomposites show improved or decreased resistance to excimer laser irradiation depending on the OMMT concentration. The dispersion state of OMMT may play an important role in excimer laser ablation behavior of PSOMMT nanocomposites.
Effects of Process Conditions and Glass Fiber Content on Part Quality of Glass Fiber-Reinforced PP Part
Shrinkage and warpage are two important quality indexes of the plastic of fiber-reinforced injection molded parts. The effects of different processing parameters and the percentage of glass fiber on volumetric shrinkage and warpage of the parts have been investigated based CAE analysis. An L16(45) orthogonal array design was conducted analyze the influence of factors and fiber content on shrinkage and warpage, and improve the quality of the injection molded polypropylene part.
Designing Plastic Products for Injection Molding
Designing plastic products for injection molding requires knowledge about strength of materials, heat transfer, mold making, injection molding and costs.The product design can then be optimized for minimal mold and processing costs. Students of Industrial Design Engineering at the Delft University of Technology are educated in designing consumer products for small series till mass production. Cost awareness is important and in the lectures we present practical engineering design rules.
Effect of Thermal History on Surface Roughness and Light Transmission of Biaxially Oriented Polypropylene Films
The effect of preform thermal history on the transparency of biaxially-oriented polypropylene (BOPP) films was investigated. Preform sheets were prepared by compression molding with careful variation of cooling rates, and subsequently were oriented using a Brückner Karo IV stretcher. The small and large-scale surface roughnesses of oriented films were determined by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and optical microscopy, and correlated with light transmission measured by UV-Vis spectrometry.
An Experimental Investigation into Solids Feeding Characteristics of a Single Piece Barrel with Integral Feedport Design vs a Standard Two Piece Water Cooled Feedblock and Barrel Configuration.
Differences in solids conveying, screw pressure profile generation, output and melt temperature varies between single piece barrel with integral feedport design and two piece water cooled feedblock and barrel designs. Two different resins will be studied using the same screw design for each barrel configuration.
Removal of Oxygen Dissolved in Thermoplastic Resin for Gentle Processing
The effect of temperature and time on desorption of Oxygen dissolved in thermoplastic resin has been investigated. Exclusion of Oxygen is presently studied to reduce thermo-oxidative degradation in injection molding. A desorption fixture with an oxygen-sensor has been used to measure while a model has been implemented to calculate the amount of Oxygen dissolved in thermoplastic resins in dependence of desorption parameters. Results indicate a good match of experimentally attained and calculated values and a high potential for gentle processing by exclusion of Oxygen.
Crystallinity Development during Spinning of Polypropylene Part I: On-Line Measurements Using Raman
Application of Raman spectroscopy to obtain crystallinity data, on-line, during fiber spininning of polypropylene polymers is described. These data were obtained to develop validated fundamental fiber spinning models. These validated fiber spinning models will be used to guide fiber spinning for rapid product development.
Biopharmaceutical Manufacturing – an Unseen Plastics Market
Plastics engineers are very aware of the use of polymeric materials in the medical field but little is known about a technically interesting and rapidly growing application that is totally dependent on polymers, biopharmaceutical manufacturing. Since 1990, producers have been replacing their traditional stainless steel tanks and pipes in both new construction and retrofit situations with sterile pre-engineered single use plastic bags equipped with the necessary inlet and outlet ports, tubing, filters, valves, and manifolds.
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