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The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.

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Conference Proceedings
The Influence of Color
Teri Belcher, Kevin Harvey, May 2007
Color is an essential part of life for human beings. It influences our bodies, our minds and our souls. Our physiological, psychological and emotional responses to color have been studied in great detail. Over time the appeal of colors changes, leading to color trends in the market place. As new colorant and special effect technologies become available, our color choices and preferences continually evolve. Studying color perception and trends could provide the edge we, as an industry, seek in better understanding the market place.
Relationship between Surface Microstructure and Improved Scratch Whitening Resistance of Thermoplastic Polyolefins for Automotive Applications
Theresa Hermel-Davidock, James Seliskar, James Oelberg, May 2007
This paper will examine the scratch whitening resistance of PP rich, injection molded Thermoplastic Polyolefins (TPOs) for exterior automotive applications. Significant attention will be given to the influence of the molecular architecture of the polypropylene (PP) component on the surface morphology and resultant scratch whitening resistance of the injection molded part. Material parameters and surface crystallinity which contribute to enhanced scratch whitening resistance will be highlighted.
Shrinkage and Cooling Simulation of Injection Molded Parts in Melt Solidification Processes
Shiu-Wu Chau, Yin-Jie Juang, May 2007
The numerical prediction of three-dimensional warpage simulation during cooling process for injection molded parts before demolding is conducted in this paper. Similar to other warpage calculations, the energy equation for injection molded parts is solved together a thermal elastic models to investigate the shape deformation inside mold. Different from previous studies assuming melt cooling from solid state, the injection molded parts are cooled from fluidic state using a solidification model. Additionally, the influence of mold constrain is also taken into account.
Microstructural Characteristics of Micro-Injection Molded Thermoplastics
Jingsong Chu, Andy Hrymak, Musa R. Kamal, May 2007
A micro-injection molding machine was used to obtain micro-moldings of polyethylene, in order to study the effects of processing conditions on some microstructural characteristics of the moldings. The processing variables were estimated, based on experimental data and on simulation results. Polarized light microscopy was used to evaluate morphology. Three-dimensional distribution of shrinkage was measured. Micro-mechanical properties (modulus and hardness) were measured with a nanoindenter. The microstructure and properties will be explained in light of the thermo-mechanical history.
Wetting Behavior of Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) Ionomer on Silica Surface
Xiaowen Zhai, Steven Swier, R.G. Schmidt, R.A. Weiss, May 2007
The wetting behavior of poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) ionomers on a silica surface was investigated. Spin-cast films of Li-salts of a carboxylated PDMS (Li- CPDMS) on silica resisted dewetting even after annealing at 120°C for 144 h, while the unmodified PDMS did not even form a homogeneous film.
Evaluation of Different Injection Molding Screw Designs for Better Color Mixing
Robert A. Sickles Jr., Luke M. Miller, Walter S. Smith, Timothy W. Womer, May 2007
Improved color mixing for injection molding can be improved by different variables. Screw speed, melt temperature, backpressure, barrel temperature profiles, screw design, dispersion discs, etc. can all influence color dispersion. This study will focus on the screw design and its affect on color mixing and its affect on other process parameters.
Modeling of Non-Isothermal High Stalk Film Blowing Process by Using Variational Principles for Non-Newtonian Fluids
M. Zatloukal, H. Mavridis, J. Vlcek, P. Saha, May 2007
In this work, the high stalk film blowing model derived by using variational principles has been used to investigate the effect of cooling on the HMW – HDPE bubble formation with respect to final film properties. Moreover, the effect of the molecular weight and long chain branching has been theoretically studied by the help of the newly proposed generalized Newtonian model.
Extrusion and Spinning of Nylon-6,6 / Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Mixtures
Ziqiang Li, Costas Tzoganakis, May 2007
This work had two aspects. In the first one, the interaction between CO2 and nylon-6,6 melt is explored by investigating by the effects of CO2 on nylon-6,6 shear viscosity and hydrogen bonding. In the second one, an attempt is made to establish feasible conditions for spinning of nylon-6,6/CO2 mixtures, to produce nylon filaments. Extrusion and spinning experiments of nylon- 6,6 / CO2 were conducted on a twin- screw extruder line and the effects of carbon dioxide on viscosity and spun filaments morphology and tensile properties were investigated.
Engineering Plastics for Laser Welding
Eric van der Vegte, Marnix van Gurp, Hans Hoekstra, Alexander Stroeks, May 2007
The use of laser light energy to very locally weld plastic surfaces together has opened new possibilities for flexible design and assembly of plastics parts. However, this poses the challenge of applying a combination of transparent and absorbing plastic parts in order to use the laser light efficiently for local melting at the interface. Transparency is still a challenge in some cases, due to the scattering nature of certain plastics. This paper will focus on the optical requirements of the welded parts, but also on the physical aspects of the interface to form a strong weld.
Plane Stress Rapid Fracture Resistance of Pipe Grade PE: Estimation from Tensile Drawing Data
Pemra Ozbek, Patrick Leevers, May 2007
The Rapid Crack Propagation régime in pressurised polyethylene pipe is limited by a critical temperature, which is determined mainly by the increasing resistance of the material to plane stress fracture. The Reversed Charpy and ASTM F2231 ‘Thin Charpy’ test methods are designed to index this property, at appropriately high rates, for quality control and material development purposes. This paper demonstrates that equivalent information can be derived from a procedure based on basic tensile drawing tests, via material properties which are more accessible to material design.
Development of Semi-Interpenetrating Polymer Network Electrolytes of Polyurethane and Polysiloxane
Shanshan Wang, Kyonsuku Min, May 2007
A novel semi-interpenetrating polymer network (semi-IPN) electrolyte of polyurethane (PU) and polyether modified polysiloxane (PEMPS) with salt, LiClO4, were developed by using a solvent-free reactive process. The dissolution of LiClO4 in monomer and PEMPS was studied by using optical microscopy (OP), differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) and Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) spectroscopy. The semi-IPN electrolytes of TPU/PEMPS were characterized by DSC and FTIR. The effect of PEMPS on the ionic conductivity of PU was also determined by using the modified LCR meter.
Comparison of N2 and CO2 in Extrusion Foaming of Wood-Fiber Composites
G. Guo, G.M. Rizvi, C.B. Park, May 2007
Producing cellular wood-fiber/plastic composite (WPC) with physical blowing agents (PBA) offers unique advantages over chemical blowing agents (CBA). This paper compares the foaming behaviors of two environmentally benign PBAs, namely N2 and CO2, to help understand PBA-based foaming mechanisms in WPC. This understanding will help in making proper choices about PBAs and foam processing parameters.
High Heat Ductile (HHD) Copolymers by Reactive Extrusion
Brian Mullen, May 2007
A blend of two polycarbonate copolymers, high-heat poly(ester-carbonate) (PEC) and polycarbonate-polydimethylsiloxane copolymer (PC-PDMS) provided an opaque, pearlescent blend. However, when a transesterification catalyst was used, the blend becomes miscible and translucent/transparent. The high-heat, ductile (HHD) materials were analyzed for a range of properties including optics, rheology, heat performance, flame retardance, and mechanical properties. The hydrolytic stability of the HHD materials was also measured by comparing the ductility of the blends before and after autoclaving.
Extrusion Foaming Behaviors of PET with CO2
Wenge Zheng, Patrick C. Lee, Chul B. Park, May 2007
This paper investigates the extrusion foaming behaviors of Polyethyleneterephthalate (PET) blown with supercritical CO2. The evolution of the foam's morphology once it exited from the die was recorded using a CCD camera and also characterized by SEM. Microcellular PET foams can be prepared by optimizing the PET properties as well as the processing conditions.
Effect of Moisture Absorption on the Properties of Clay-Reinforced Polypropylene Nanocomposites
Hachmi Ben Daly, Hend Ben Hadj Salah, Kenneth Cole, Johanne Denault, Abdelwaheb Dogui, May 2007
The behavior of two polypropylene nanocomposites when immersed in distilled water or sea water at four different temperatures was studied and compared with that of neat PP. The nanocomposites showed a higher water diffusion rate and equilibrium moisture content. Nevertheless, because of their superior initial mechanical properties, after 42 days exposure they were still equivalent to unexposed PP. X-ray diffraction and infrared spectroscopy were applied to characterize the surfaces of the exposed specimens.
Phase Separation in Thermotropic Liquid Crystalline Polymer/Polycarbonate Blends under Shear
Kam-Wa D. Lee, Musa R. Kamal, Philip K. Chan, May 2007
The effect of shear on the temporal development of phase separation in thermotropic liquid crystalline polymer (LCP)/polycarbonate (PC) blends was examined. Experiments were performed using a polarized-light microscope, equipped with a shearing hot stage. Phase separation, with and without shear, in blends containing 50 wt % LCP were analyzed. The results showed that the speed and amount of phase separation increased when shear was applied.
Foaming Dynamics of Immiscible Polymer Blends
Zhihua Guo, Maxwell J. Wingert, Jiong Shen, L. James Lee, David L. Tomasko, May 2007
To better understand the underlying mechanisms of immiscible blend polystyrene/poly (methyl methacrylate) (PS/PMMA) foaming, a simple bilayer representation is examined. Visual observation of batch foaming of this system is conducted and a quenching method is used to study foams with different bubble growth time. These help understand the effects of blend morphology on foaming in a more quantitative way.
Rheology of Heterogeneous Polymer Melts
Charles L. Rohn, Eric Bennett, Fred Mazzeo, May 2007
Heterogeneous polymers represent an important class of plastics that comprise polymer blends, alloys, and fiber or mineral filled plastics. The rheology of these melts is dominated by the transient morphology that is produced during fabrication into finished products. Standard laboratory rheological tests do not take into account morphology. Combined measurements of a capillary viscometer and controlled stress rotational rheometer can provide a better understanding of the processing behavior of these complex rheological plastics
Cluster Performance Measurement: A Case-Study of Plastic Clusters in the Czech Republic
Adriana Knapkova, Bruce Dehning, Daniel Remes, Jiri G. Drobny, May 2007
The topic of clusters has emerged as a crucial idea in competitiveness and economic development in the last years. This paper shows and discusses (basing on concrete plastic cluster in the Czech Republic) possible approaches to the cluster performance measurement. There are analyzed problems related to the performance measurement and suggested suitable performance measures. This case-study also shows the possibilities for mutual cooperation and ways in which the research results can be transferred into working practice.
Prediction of Continuous Kneader Reactor Processes from Batch Data
Boyd T. Safrit, May 2007
Batch trials were performed on a kneader reactor where a bulk co-polymerization was carried out. Polymerization conversion, viscosity build, reaction kinetics, and heat transfer calculations were performed using the experimental data from the batch trials. A continuous process was proposed for this bulk copolymerization and the models and results from the batch trials were used in designing the continuous process. Predictions of the continuous process using the batch trial data are compared to the actual continuous process, with a focus on polymer conversion, heat transfer, and torque prediction.


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