SPE Library

The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.

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Conference Proceedings

A Comparative Study of Simulation Softwares for Stretch Blow Moulding
D.U. Erbulut, S.H. Masood, I. Sbarski, May 2007

Blow moulding simulation softwares are effective tools for blow moulders to predict and improve the performance of blow moulding process. Not many such software are available in the market. This paper presents a comparative study of two blow moulding software - B-SIM and Blow View – for specific application of stretch blow moulding process. Features and capabilities are compared based on the simulation study of a plastic bottle.

Estimation of Polymer Melt Index with a Controlled Rate Capillary Rheometer and a Parallel Plate Dma
Henry Pawlowski, May 2007

The measurement of polymer melt viscosity is done by both controlled stress and controlled rate capillary rheometers. Each method has its advantages and disadvantages. Often, tests are performed with a capillary rheometer under one mode of operation but then the results are required under the other mode of operation. Various users have adapted a variety of methods to allow for the conversion of data from one mode to the ther. This paper explores some of the methods used in making conversions and discusses important considerations whenever this is done.

Plastic Integral Hinges; Design, Processing, and Failure Analysis
Rabeh H. Elleithy, May 2007

This paper addresses the design issues and processing conditions that affect the performance of integral hinges. For example, the relation between the material properties and the design of the hinge is addressed. An answer will be given to the question why does the increase in the melt temperature improve the performance of hinges?" Some case studies of failed hinges are discussed to practically show the effect of processing material and design on hinges performance. Microscopy was used to investigate the failure mechanism of these hinges."

Effect of Die Design and Wall Slip on Die Drool Phenomenon for Metallocene Based LLDPE: Theoretical and Experimental Investigation
M. Zatloukal, K. Chaloupkova, May 2007

The effect of die design and wall slip on the die drool phenomenon was investigated for metallocene based LLDPE. It has been found that die exit opening and wall slip can significantly reduce the die drool phenomenon. Moreover, theoretical research has revealed that die drool onset can be explained by the negative/non-monotonic pressure profile generated inside the die and/or at the die exit region due to melt elasticity.

Determination of Uniaxial Extensional Viscosity for Polyolefins by Improved Entrance Pressure Drop Measurements
M. Zatloukal, J. Musil, May 2007

In this work, specially designed zero-length dies were used for the entrance pressure drop measurements with the aim to determine uniaxial extensional viscosity of polyolefin melts by using effective entry length correction and Cogswell/Binding models and the results were compared with the extensional rheology determined with the Sentmanat extensional rheometer. Reasonable agreement between these two techniques has been obtained.

Evaluation of Scratch Behavior of Plastic Mouldings
Hiromi Kita, Machiko Mizoguchi, Takashi Kuriyama, May 2007

Scratching mechanisms of injection molded PC/ABS blend were investigated. The scratching damage was microscopically observed by OM, SEM, and TEM. The scaly pattern and bank were observed in ploughing, wedge formation and cutting modes commonly. The micro cracking appeared in the bank in the case of cutting mode, and it would become internal cracks growing to the cracks and a cutting tip. The film laminated structure near the surface induced by injection moldings severely deformed and wavy pattern and elongated particles were found in the bank.

An Experimatal Study on Micro Injection Paramaters
Woo-Chul Jung, Young-Moo Heo, Kwang-Ho Shin, Gil-Sang Yoon, Sung-Ho Chang, May 2007

In recent industry, with the miniaturization and high-precision of machine part, the development of mold manufacturing technology for mass production is accompanied by the development of new technology such as IT and BT. In this study, the spiral type injection mold with a 200 ? thickness is made for investigating the influence of injection molding parameter and the flow length is measured through an experiment. Besides, Taguchi method is used in this experiment and the obtained data are analyzed using ANOVA method.

A Study of Foaming Agent in Bio-Based Polymer Foams
Yi-Fan Wu, Chien-Chung Fu, May 2007

In this study, the effect of variety foaming agents in bio-based polymer such as chemical blowing type of AC and BIH, and physical type of microsphere, has been investigated. The basic matrix of bio-based polymer was compounding PLA with native starch and calcium carbonate in twin screw extruder prior to introducing variety foaming agents at low temperature by dynamic rheometer to avoid the degradation of foaming agents.The topology of cross-section of their foams structure by SEM revealed that physical type of microspheres attained much better density but lower porosity than the others.

Integrated True 3D Simulation of Rapid Heat Cycle Molding Process
Yan-Chen Chiou, Ya-Yuen Chou, Hsien-Sen Chiu, Chau-Kai Yu, Chia-Hsiang Hsu, May 2007

In the Rapid Heat Cycle Molding (RHCM) Process, the mold temperature is rapidly changed in each cycle to improve part quality and reduce cycle time. In this paper, an integrated fully transient true 3D simulation approach is proposed by considering the interplay between filling/pack and cooling stages to study and further optimize the RHCM process.

Multivariate Process Analysis for the Prediction of Injection Molded Part Quality
Daniel Hazen, David Kazmer, May 2007

The injection molding process is a highly complex system in which multiple variables influence the final molded part quality. This paper investigates a multivariate approach to on-line quality prediction and monitoring that can be fully and readily implemented for production purposes. This approach consists of determining and monitoring the most important process data features that are generally available and automatically correlating them to critical quality attributes.

Rhological Properties of Water Molecules Nano-Jet Printing Process
Chi-Ying Kuo, Chi Fu Dai, Rong-Yeu Chang, May 2007

This study investigates the performance of nanojet printing processes by molecular dynamic simulation. By compressing water molecules in the Au nozzle, the whole nanojet printing process for different operation conditions are simulated. Distributions of velocity, temperature, pressure, density, and so on, are also discussed in this study. The results form various systems show that the lower operational temperatures make nanojet processes more stable and thus reduce satellite droplets. Results that show various features can help understand these processes.

Direct Visualization of Conventional Injection Molding
Angel S. Yanev, Gustavo R. Dias, Antonio M. Cunha, May 2007

A transparent mould with two injection locations, allowing flow visualization on both conventional and two materials injection molding, was used in this research.The aim of this work is to monitor and assess the polymer melt behavior under controlled processing conditions, during the filling and holding stages of the molding cycle. Visual access in the mould is allowed by the sapphire windows, surrounding the cavity. Visualization results are combined with local pressure and temperature measurements and compared with Moldflow MPI software simulations.

Determination of Gate Locations in Computer-Aided Injection Molding Analysis
Won-Gil Ryim, Sang Mun Yun, May 2007

With increase of injection molding CAE and adoption of 3D mesh which takes more computation time in analysis, gate location optimization in shortest time and smallest resources becomes most important issue. This paper discusses about the process of determining the gate locations using injection molding CAE, and the technologies developed for the optimization, which controls flow balance and weldline of molded parts.

A Statistical Approach to Plastic Pipe Production
Suleyman Deveci, Zafer Gemici, Mualla Oner, May 2007

In this study, the effects of process parameters of plastic pipe production to the plastic pipe's wall thickness were examined. Process and wall thickness data were collected in a regular time period and statistical calculation made according to these data. X-R control schemes drawn and process capability indices were calculated. Data points, which were out of control in a statistical manner, were determined and process parameters which causes these variations determined.

PLA/TPS Blends with Improved Ductility
Michel A. Huneault, Hongbo Li, , Nathalie Chapleau, May 2007

Blending Polylactide (PLA) and thermoplastic starch (TPS) generally leads to brittle materials. It was found however that if the blends are properly compatibilized through reactive extrusion and plasticized, the TPS phase can significantly increase the ductility of the material leading to materials with elongation at break in excess of 200%. This paper examines compatibilization and plasticization strategies to combine PLA and TPS into useful injection moldable materials.

Determination of Valid Minimum Dimensions of DDENT Specimens to Evaluate the Essential Work of Fracture (EWF) of Polyethylenes
Mariselis Trujillo, Karina G. Izquierdo, Johan J. Sánchez, Alejandro J. Müller, May 2007

We studied how the dimensions of test specimens affect EWF results. One grade of commercial HDPE was evaluated. We demonstrate that reductions of ? 20 to 30% of conventional dimensions used for DDENT geometry allow reproducible and valid results, similar to those obtained with larger specimens. Results show that it is not possible to reduce dimensions more than 30% and still comply with geometric validations related to EWF.

Processing Conditions and Thermal Properties of Poly(Lactic Acid)
Langang Niu, Nick R. Schott, May 2007

Poly(lactic acid) (PLA) is an excellent biodegradable polymer that is widely used. The processing conditions of PLA were established by developing a Molding Area Diagram (MAD) on a Roboshot® injection molding machine with different mold temperatures. Isothermal bulk crystallization kinetics of the PLA with 1weight% of talc as a nucleating agent was studied on DSC.

Crystallization of UV-Irradiated ?-Nucleated Polypropylene
Jana Výchop?ová, Roman ?ermák, Martin Obadal, Vincent Verney, Sophie Commereuc, May 2007

The work deals with crystallization of photodegraded polypropylene containing various amounts of ?-nucleating agent. Samples were irradiated by UV-light, melted and subsequently non-isothermally crystallized. The results showed that the crystallization temperature decreased with increasing irradiation time. The irradiation caused the splitting of crystallization exotherms into two peaks indicating two crystallization mechanisms. The presence of ?-nucleating agent in the material suppressed the peak splitting.

The Use of Annodised Aluminum as a Rotational Moulding Tool Material
M.P. McCourt, M.P. Kearns, May 2007

This paper presents the results from investigations into the differences in moulding with a novel anodised machined aluminium mould material and a conventional machined aluminium mould material. Significant differences in terms of cycletime were observed between the moulding carried out with the anodised moulding and the conventional aluminium mould surface material with no change in the shrinkage, part appearance or mechanical properties noted between either.

The Influence of Color
Teri Belcher, Kevin Harvey, May 2007

Color is an essential part of life for human beings. It influences our bodies, our minds and our souls. Our physiological, psychological and emotional responses to color have been studied in great detail. Over time the appeal of colors changes, leading to color trends in the market place. As new colorant and special effect technologies become available, our color choices and preferences continually evolve. Studying color perception and trends could provide the edge we, as an industry, seek in better understanding the market place.

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