SPE Library

The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.

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Conference Proceedings

Resistance Welding of Glass-Fiber-Reinforced PP: Modeling and Experiments
S. Tan, G. Zak, P.J. Bates, J. Mah, May 2006

This research models the temperature profiles generated during resistance implant welding of polypropylene composites. The experimental current-time conditions at which meltdown occurs and experimentally measured temperatures compare favorably with the model results.

Post-Yield Deformation of Glassy Networks: Effects of Molecular Architecture
Kevin J. Calzia, Alan J. Lesser, May 2006

The post-yield deformation of epoxy-based networks with controlled architectures is investigated. Particular attention is paid to changes in crosslink density and backbone structure and how they affect the strain hardening response of the glass. Scaling effects with temperature are also considered. In addition, differences in the stain at failure and rupture energy of the networks are explored.

Dimensional Stability of Single Site and Ziegler-Natta Ethylene Coplymers in Rotational Molding
H. Xu, A. Medina, C. Bellehumeur, May 2006

Experiments were carried out to evaluate the dimensional stability of rotational molding grade resins. The development of residual stresses was modeled using a thermo-elastic approach. Results confirmed that both crystallization behavior and cooling conditions contribute to warpage.

Honeycombs Impregnation by Polymers with Nanofillers
Jennifer Muoghalu, Bernice Nzioki, Nsikakabasi Akpan, Andrey Beyle, Christopher C. Ibeh, May 2006

Main mechanical properties of honeycombs are improved by impregnation of their walls by polymers containing nanofillers. Maximal effect is achieved by carbon nanofibers application. Structure of walls becomes of sandwich-like, what is increasing the effective stiffness and especially compression and shear strength of honeycombs, which is determined by walls buckling.

Confinement in Layered Silicate Modified Thin Films
Laxmi K. Sahu, Bruce Gnade, Nandika Anne D’Souza, May 2006

In this paper we have studied the effect of montomorillonite layered silicate (MLS) nanoclay in polymer thin films by considering the effect of concentration and different film thickness on linear coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) and glass transition temperature (Tg). CTE and Tg of thin polymer and nanocomposite films were calculated by using ellipsometry. They were also correlated with the interaction between the substrate and film and their chain mobility.

TPU/Nanoclay Composites Produced via Reactive Extrusion
Shane R. Parnell, May 2006

In this study, reactive extrusion was used to polymerize a typical thermoplastic polyurethane in situ with an organically modified layered silicate. Depending on the incorporation method, varying degrees of nanoclay dispersion were achieved. However, even with good nanoclay exfoliation, significant improvements in tensile and barrier properties were not achieved. Compared to analogous composites produced via melt compounding, composites produced via reactive extrusion exhibited superior properties.

Recycling Non-Halogen FR-PC/ABS
Paul Moy, May 2006

PC/ABS composites used extensively for laptop housings have grown significantly in the plastic waste stream. For these systems, required flame retardancy is done either through system design or composite formulations. Many manufacturers opt for non-halogen FRs such as triaryl phosphates. This paper will look at these options, measuring properties relative to recycling issues and using common industrial practices, present performance in a realistic recycling program. This study also considers additives found useful as stabilizers.

Designing with TPO for Innovative High Gloss Mold-In-Color Automotive Applications
LaRon M. Brown, Mitesh Shah, David Smith, David Edge, Sudhir Bafna, Matt Binkinz, May 2006

Thermoplastic Polyolefins (TPO) are used extensively in interior and exterior automotive applications due to their various advantages. The ultimate goal, to replace a painted part with high gloss mold-incolor (MIC) plastic, is now within reach with a new line of TPO products. Design Challenges, performance, system cost and colorability of this new technology are reviewed in this paper.

Modeling the Morphology Development of Ethylene Copolymers in Rotational Molding
H. Xu, A. Medina, C.T. Bellehumeur, May 2006

Morphology development was modeled using the phase field theory. The model successfully captures variations caused by changes in material formulation and molding conditions. Since morphological features are contributing factors to product performance, the model will be useful for process optimization.

Polymer Nanocomposites Fibers and Applications
Abdellah Ajji, Johanne Denault, Martin Bureau, Minh-Tan Ton-That, David Trudel-Boucher, Daniel Côté, May 2006

Different polymer nanocomposite (polypropylene-clay and polyethylene terephthalate-hydroxyapatite) fibers were produced by melt blowing. Fibers exhibit interesting mechanical properties attributed to polymer and nanoparticle orientation. Fibers could be organized and consolidated into 3D structures with retained improved mechanical properties. Structural and biomedical of these structures are presented.

Cool Colors in Plastics
Steve Goldstein, May 2006

Reference to cool colors are those that either absorb a minimum of solar energy or are transparent to solar energy. Last year we presented a paper showing work on colorants that were used in plastics that would meet TSR ratings in coatings applications. We have extended this work into PP, HDPE, PS and TPO.

Structure Development of Polypropylene/Ethylene-Butene Copolymer Blends in Melt Spinning
Jinhai Yang, James L. White, May 2006

Polypropylene/ethylene-butene copolymer blends have been melt-spun into filaments. The morphology and orientation of the filaments are studied by SEM, WAXD, and birefringence.

Mechanics of Foam-Filled Honeycombs
Andrey Beyle, Nsikakabasi Akpan, Christopher C. Ibeh, May 2006

Foam-filled honeycombs are prospective core materials for sandwich structures used in cryogenic isolation, hydrogen storage, etc. Mechanical properties of such materials are calculated according the developed models and studied experimentally. Such core has better mechanical properties and resistance to leakage than conventional ones.

The Calorimetric Glass Transition of Free Standing Polystyrene Thin Films
Yung P. Koh, Gregory B. McKenna, Sindee L. Simon, May 2006

The absolute heat capacity and the glass transition are measured for stacked polystyrene thin films using the step scan differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) method. We find that the absolute heat capacity in both the glass and liquid states decreases with decreasing film thickness and that the Tg also decreases with decreasing film thickness. The results indicate that an understanding of Tg at the nanoscale is elusive.

Measurement of the Bulk Modulus Using Pressurizable Dilatometry
Yan Meng, Sindee L. Simon, May 2006

A new piston-cylinder type pressurizable dilatometer controlled by a stepper motor has been developed to measure the time-dependent bulk modulus of viscoelastic materials. The PVT behavior and bulk modulus measurements for polystyrene are reported.

Solid State Structure and Properties of Novel High Performance Olefin Elastomers
A. Hiltner, H. Wang, D. Khariwala, W. Cheung, S. Chum, E. Baer, May 2006

Exciting new developments in polyolefin synthesis give rise to blocky olefin copolymers with properties typical of the thermoplastic-elastomers. This paper describes the materials science of these unique polymers including the microphase separated morphology and its relationship to elastomeric behavior.

Measurement of Fuel Barrier Properties of Rotational Molded Materials
B.A. Graham, D. Cook, May 2006

Future California Air Resources Board (CARB) and US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) fuel emission standards will change the rotational molding industry. This study outlines an apparatus and test method useful to screen various materials relative to these new standards. Quantification of permeation rate and the identification of individual permeating components were conducted on actual coupons from rotational molded parts. A correlation to rotomolded tanks is presented with the preferred material candidates being explained.

NIR Radiation Management Part III - Rational Design of Novel NIR Absorbers for Plastics
Arno J. Boehm, May 2006

At ANTEC 2004 we presented a new class of highly efficient organic NIR absorbers based on the quaterrylenetetra-carboxylic diimide chromophore with a unique performance profile especially suited for laser transmission welding with 808 nm semiconductor lasers and other NIR radiation management applications where high absorptivities at a specific wavelength or in a narrow spectral band (so-called differential" absorptivities) are required.In the first part of this paper we present concepts on how to tune the absorption properties of this class of compounds by intelligent molecular design in order to access other common laser wavelengths. In the second part we will introduce a new class of broad band ("integral") inorganic NIR absorbers with absorption efficiencies hitherto reserved exclusively to organic materials in combination with photo- and thermostabilities typical for an inorganic plastics additive."

The Infinitely Variable Dynamic Shear Mixer, IDMX
Nick R. Schott, Károly Belina, Desi Csongor, May 2006

Mixing is one of the most important processes in the plastics industry. Two mechanisms occur in mixing: dispersive and distributive. Different types of mixers have been developed to fulfill both mechanisms.A special mixing unit was studied. Polycarbonate, ABS and regrind were investigated. The output of the mixer was investigated as a function of the screw speeds of the satellite extruders. Qualitative measurements were carried out to characterize the efficiency of mixing at different concentration levels of the components. Conclusions were made on the effect of the parameters of mixing.

Rheological Modeling of Plug-Assist Thermoforming
Hosseini Hossein, Berdyshev Boris Vasilivich, May 2006

Solving problems for thermoforming processes in production of axisymmetric thin walled plastics is investigated in this research work. A non-linear viscoelastic rheological model with a new strain energy function is suggested for improvement of physical properties of final product. For model validation, a quantitative relation between stress and technical parameters of plug-assist thermoforming is determined by comparison of theoretical and experimental results. This process with the proposed rheological model could be suggested for prevention from some technical defects such as wall thickness variations, physical instability during inflation-shrinkage, and warpage exhibited in the final part of a polymeric sheet thermoforming.

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ANTEC 2016 - Indianapolis, Indiana, USA May 23-25, 2016. [On-line].
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