SPE Library

The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.

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Conference Proceedings

Dewetting Transition in Thin Polymer Films
Alamgir Karim, May 2006

We use a combinatorial method of investigation to obtain a near-universal scaling curve describing a wetting-dewetting transition line for polystyrene films of fixed thickness by introducing reduced temperature and surface energy variables dependent on molecular weight.

Teaching Polymer Processing Principles to Engineering Technology Undergraduate Students Utilizing a Positive, Dimensional Approach
David E. Finlow, May 2006

Utilizing a positive, dimensional approach to transport phenomena provides undergraduate plastics engineering technology students with a solid foundation upon which to build the fundamental principles of polymer processing. Students are encouraged to visualize, and sketch, on three scales: molecular, microscopic, and macroscopic. They also are encouraged to progress through three levels of learning: translation to a visual mode; solution of determinate problems; and the solution of indeterminate problems.

Characterization of Material Properties in the Depth Direction of an Oriented PET Reheat Stretch Blow Molded Container
Scott W. Steele, May 2006

The properties of PET vary thru the depth of a blow molded article due to variation in blow up ratio. By blowing a preform constructed by injection molding three concentric sleeves, the wall of the blow molded article can be dissected and barrier and physical properties of discreet layers can be measured and correlated with process variables.

Surface Modifications of Automotive Weather Seals
Yundong Wang, Joe Spuria, Hua Cai, Ryszard Brzoskowski, May 2006

Automotive sealing systems produced with thermoplastic vulcanizates (TPVs) can be modified to improve their functional performance and aesthetic appeal using techniques such as low friction co-extrusion coating, low friction spray coating, flock tape co-extrusion, electrostatic flocking, high gloss co-extrusion coating, high gloss colored or metallic tape co-extrusion, etc.

Coolant Flow Rate Manipulation for Cavity Pressure Control
B. Pramujati, R. Dubay, C. Samaan, May 2006

Cavity pressure control in injection molding is important to maintain product quality in injection molding process. The coolant flow rate and temperature are parameters affecting the cavity pressure profile during cooling stage. A coolant flow rate control system has been designed and implemented to provide consistent heat removal from the mold cycle-to-cycle. Good and effective cavity pressure control was obtained by controlling the coolant flow rate using a predictive controller.

Experimental Investigation of PP Film Casting
Kenneth Aniunoh, Graham Harrison, May 2006

In film casting, a polymer melt is extruded through a flat die before rapid cooling on a chill roll. We study experimentally the effects of draw ratio and molecular weight on polypropylene film formation. The temperature, width and velocity profiles in the air gap are measured. Neck-in and temperature profiles are affected by both draw ratio and molecular weight. The machine direction velocity decreases from the centerline value near the film edges.

Polypropylene Clay Nanocomposites with Improved Stability of Morphology to Processing
Sharad Kumar, Krishnamurthy Jayaraman, May 2006

The rate of restacking of platelets in extrusion of polypropylene clay nanocomposites can be reduced significantly by edge functionalization of the clay.

ESC Failure of Polycarbonate Components: Two Case Studies
Jennifer M. Hoffman, Angele Sjong, May 2006

A chemical that is typically compatible with a given plastic can act as a stress-cracking agent in certain conditions. This presentation will address key contributing factors to ESC of polycarbonate components used in the medical device and health industries. Case studies will be presented.

Two-Station Embossing Process for Rapid Fabrication of Polymer Microstructures
Donggang Yao, Allen Y. Yi, Lei Li, Pratapkumar Nagarajan, May 2006

An embossing strategy involving a hot station and a cold station for sequentially heating and cooling the embossing tool was investigated to reduce cycle times in hot embossing polymer microstructures. Experimental studies showed that aluminum stamps with a thickness of 1.4 mm can be rapidly heated from room temperature to 200°C in 3 s using contact heating against a hot station at 250°C. Selected surface microfeatures including microchannels and microlens arrays were successfully embossed using a cycle time around 10 s.

An Innovative Approach to Involve Grade School Students in College Projects
Jonathan Meckley, Lucy Lenhardt, May 2006

The introduction of engineering to prospective students starts when they are in high school. They have already made some decisions about their career. This project involves 6th grade students designing a car body, then Penn State Erie students commercialize that design.

Investigation of Reinforcement in Polymer Nanocomposites Using Polymer Thin Films
Jiong (Jenny) Shen, Yong Yang, L. James Lee, May 2006

Reinforcement in polymer nanocomposites was explored using polymer thin film technology. Polystyrene (PS) thin film spin-coated on the graphite substrate was used to resemble the interface between PS and carbon-based nanoparticles. Glass transition temperature (Tg) of the nano-confined polymer was observed to be higher than the bulk value, indicating the strong PS-substrate (graphite) interactions. The confinement becomes more pronounced with reduced film thickness. CO2-induced Tg depression was observed for this thin film system as well.

Development of New TPV Materials with Enhanced Scratch Resistance
Eric P. Jourdain, Leander Kenens, May 2006

Thermoplastic elastomers have begun penetrating automotive sealing systems due to their ability to offer weight reduction, ease of processing, long term sealing, and recyclability versus traditional thermoset materials; however use in some visible applications has been limited by scratch resistance.We describe the general principles of the scratch mechanism and the existing laboratory techniques to assess a material’s scratch resistance. A relationship between a material’s physical properties, surface properties and its scratch resistance is discussed.

Special Effects
Scott Heitzman, May 2006

The current range of products designed to attain special effects continues to expand. Growth was driven by technological innovations and through modifications of existing pigments and additives. This paper will discuss this expanded pallet and the effects and applications for which they were intended.

Modeling of Water Debinding of Metal Injection Molded Parts
Juan Adames, Arkady Leonov, May 2006

An experimental protocol for measuring mass diffusivity during water debinding of metal injection molded parts is proposed. The diffusivity found, although dependent on part geometry and debinding time, can be averaged to model the polymer extraction.

Resistance Welding of Glass-Fiber-Reinforced PP: Modeling and Experiments
S. Tan, G. Zak, P.J. Bates, J. Mah, May 2006

This research models the temperature profiles generated during resistance implant welding of polypropylene composites. The experimental current-time conditions at which meltdown occurs and experimentally measured temperatures compare favorably with the model results.

Post-Yield Deformation of Glassy Networks: Effects of Molecular Architecture
Kevin J. Calzia, Alan J. Lesser, May 2006

The post-yield deformation of epoxy-based networks with controlled architectures is investigated. Particular attention is paid to changes in crosslink density and backbone structure and how they affect the strain hardening response of the glass. Scaling effects with temperature are also considered. In addition, differences in the stain at failure and rupture energy of the networks are explored.

Dimensional Stability of Single Site and Ziegler-Natta Ethylene Coplymers in Rotational Molding
H. Xu, A. Medina, C. Bellehumeur, May 2006

Experiments were carried out to evaluate the dimensional stability of rotational molding grade resins. The development of residual stresses was modeled using a thermo-elastic approach. Results confirmed that both crystallization behavior and cooling conditions contribute to warpage.

Honeycombs Impregnation by Polymers with Nanofillers
Jennifer Muoghalu, Bernice Nzioki, Nsikakabasi Akpan, Andrey Beyle, Christopher C. Ibeh, May 2006

Main mechanical properties of honeycombs are improved by impregnation of their walls by polymers containing nanofillers. Maximal effect is achieved by carbon nanofibers application. Structure of walls becomes of sandwich-like, what is increasing the effective stiffness and especially compression and shear strength of honeycombs, which is determined by walls buckling.

Confinement in Layered Silicate Modified Thin Films
Laxmi K. Sahu, Bruce Gnade, Nandika Anne D’Souza, May 2006

In this paper we have studied the effect of montomorillonite layered silicate (MLS) nanoclay in polymer thin films by considering the effect of concentration and different film thickness on linear coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) and glass transition temperature (Tg). CTE and Tg of thin polymer and nanocomposite films were calculated by using ellipsometry. They were also correlated with the interaction between the substrate and film and their chain mobility.

TPU/Nanoclay Composites Produced via Reactive Extrusion
Shane R. Parnell, May 2006

In this study, reactive extrusion was used to polymerize a typical thermoplastic polyurethane in situ with an organically modified layered silicate. Depending on the incorporation method, varying degrees of nanoclay dispersion were achieved. However, even with good nanoclay exfoliation, significant improvements in tensile and barrier properties were not achieved. Compared to analogous composites produced via melt compounding, composites produced via reactive extrusion exhibited superior properties.

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Brown, H. L. and Jones, D. H. 2016, May.
"Insert title of paper here in quotes,"
ANTEC 2016 - Indianapolis, Indiana, USA May 23-25, 2016. [On-line].
Society of Plastics Engineers
Available: www.4spe.org.

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