SPE Library

The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.

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Conference Proceedings
Flow and Cure Modelling of RIM Mouldings -Thermal and Flow Validation
A.J. Mateus, P.G. Martinho, P.J. Bartolo, May 2006
The RIM process involves simultaneous flow and exothermal curing reactions. The optimisation of these events enables to produce parts with better quality and improved properties. The integration of appropriate mathematical models simulating the thermal and flow aspects is experimentally verified.
Ultrasonic Bonding of 3M™ Dual Lock™ Reclosable Fasteners to Polypropylene Substrates
James J. Kobe, May 2006
Polypropylene (PP) is becoming the plastic of choice for many industrial and automotive applications. There are a limited number of methods to attach a 3M™ Dual Lock™ reclosable fastener to a low surface energy (LSE) polypropylene substrate. Pressure sensitive adhesive and pop-in attachment methods have some limitations. Ultrasonic bonding of Dual Lock reclosable fasteners to polypropylene substrates is a new method that overcomes many of these limitations.
Heat Deflection and Mechanical Properties of PVC/PMMA/Clay Composites
N. Chan, G. Carran, D.J.Y.S. Pagé, N. Cunningham, May 2006
PVC/PMMA/clay composites were prepared by melt mixing. Heat deflection temperature and flexural properties of the PVC/PMMA/clay composites were higher than for PVC/clay or neat PVC. XRD showed that PMMA improves the dispersion of the clay in PVC. Clay particles were measured to be 1 ?m.
The Effect of Fiber Contents on the Ejection Force of Deep Tubular Mouldings
A.J. Pontes, N. Alcides, A.S. Pouzada, May 2006
The knowledge of the ejection force is useful for optimizing the design of ejection system in injection moulds. The effect of mould temperature and fiber weight fraction on the ejection force required for deep tubular moldings is studied. The ejection force increases with the fiber weight fraction and decreases with the mould temperature.
Effect of Temperature on Creep and Tensile Properties of LLDPE Nanocomposites
Ali Shaito, Nandika Anne D’Souza, Debora Fairbrother, Jerry Sterling, May 2006
Creep and tensile properties of LLDPE and LLDPE nanocomposite balloon films are studied. Tensile and creep tests were conducted at a range of temperatures. Creep results were fit to the Burgers model. The results indicate that nanocomposites based on the use of maleated polyethylene incorporation into the base polyethylene and montmorillonite layered silicate (MLS) composite have higher mechanical properties.
Absorption and Permeation Properties of Composite Proton Exchange Membranes (PEM)
Smita B. Brijmohan, Montgomery T. Shaw, May 2006
The properties of PEMs with SXLPS particles dispersed and aligned in a crosslinked PDMS matrix were examined. Included in this study was the influence of SXLPS quantity and size on the water and methanol uptake, and on methanol permeability. In addition, the state of water linked with the SO3H groups was examined.
Crystallization Dynamics in Polypropylene-Clay Nanocomposites
Mark A. Treece, James P. Oberhauser, May 2006
This study explores the crystallization dynamics of polypropylene-clay nanocomposites. Calorimetry and optical microscopy tools are employed to study the effect of nanoclay on quiescent crystallization kinetics. While a mini-extruder, designed to apply a shear pulse, is used with turbidity and birefringence measurements to explore the flow-induced crystallization dynamics in nanocomposite systems. Data presented indicates that clay can act as a nucleating agent in both flow and quiescent cases, and subsequently cause enhanced crystallization kinetics.
Thin-Film Thermosiphon Solar Collector Design
Richard O. Rhodes, May 2006
A very low cost, unglazed Thermosiphon Solar Collector constructed from polyethylene film and having an internal heat exchanger has been developed. The collector operates at relatively low temperature and low material stress, decreasing thermal degradation, material creep, and weight. Prototype systems have been built and tested, and processing equipment designed.
Extrusion Foaming of Poly(Lactic Acid) (PLA) Blown with CO2
Joël Reignier, Richard Gendron, Michel Champagne, May 2006
This paper presents a thorough investigation of the continuous extrusion foaming of PLA using CO2 as the blowing agent. Detailed results are given for the plasticization induced as determined from on-line rheometry as well as resulting foam characteristics.
Impact of Polymer Processing on Sorption of Organic and Moisture Vapors by a Gravimetric Approach
Ying Qin, Maria Rubino, Rafael Auras, Hugh Lockhart, May 2006
Sorption of benzaldehyde and moisture vapors in polypropylene resin, sheet, and containers was studied via a Rubotherm magnetic suspension microbalance. Polymer processing has an impact on polymer structure and morphology. A comparison of sorption among the three polypropylene forms demonstrated the marked impact of processing on inducing changes in the barrier properties of the polymer. The simultaneous sorption of organic compounds and moisture demonstrated the combined effect on the sorption.
Dewetting Transition in Thin Polymer Films
Alamgir Karim, May 2006
We use a combinatorial method of investigation to obtain a near-universal scaling curve describing a wetting-dewetting transition line for polystyrene films of fixed thickness by introducing reduced temperature and surface energy variables dependent on molecular weight.
Teaching Polymer Processing Principles to Engineering Technology Undergraduate Students Utilizing a Positive, Dimensional Approach
David E. Finlow, May 2006
Utilizing a positive, dimensional approach to transport phenomena provides undergraduate plastics engineering technology students with a solid foundation upon which to build the fundamental principles of polymer processing. Students are encouraged to visualize, and sketch, on three scales: molecular, microscopic, and macroscopic. They also are encouraged to progress through three levels of learning: translation to a visual mode; solution of determinate problems; and the solution of indeterminate problems.
Characterization of Material Properties in the Depth Direction of an Oriented PET Reheat Stretch Blow Molded Container
Scott W. Steele, May 2006
The properties of PET vary thru the depth of a blow molded article due to variation in blow up ratio. By blowing a preform constructed by injection molding three concentric sleeves, the wall of the blow molded article can be dissected and barrier and physical properties of discreet layers can be measured and correlated with process variables.
Surface Modifications of Automotive Weather Seals
Yundong Wang, Joe Spuria, Hua Cai, Ryszard Brzoskowski, May 2006
Automotive sealing systems produced with thermoplastic vulcanizates (TPVs) can be modified to improve their functional performance and aesthetic appeal using techniques such as low friction co-extrusion coating, low friction spray coating, flock tape co-extrusion, electrostatic flocking, high gloss co-extrusion coating, high gloss colored or metallic tape co-extrusion, etc.
Coolant Flow Rate Manipulation for Cavity Pressure Control
B. Pramujati, R. Dubay, C. Samaan, May 2006
Cavity pressure control in injection molding is important to maintain product quality in injection molding process. The coolant flow rate and temperature are parameters affecting the cavity pressure profile during cooling stage. A coolant flow rate control system has been designed and implemented to provide consistent heat removal from the mold cycle-to-cycle. Good and effective cavity pressure control was obtained by controlling the coolant flow rate using a predictive controller.
Experimental Investigation of PP Film Casting
Kenneth Aniunoh, Graham Harrison, May 2006
In film casting, a polymer melt is extruded through a flat die before rapid cooling on a chill roll. We study experimentally the effects of draw ratio and molecular weight on polypropylene film formation. The temperature, width and velocity profiles in the air gap are measured. Neck-in and temperature profiles are affected by both draw ratio and molecular weight. The machine direction velocity decreases from the centerline value near the film edges.
Polypropylene Clay Nanocomposites with Improved Stability of Morphology to Processing
Sharad Kumar, Krishnamurthy Jayaraman, May 2006
The rate of restacking of platelets in extrusion of polypropylene clay nanocomposites can be reduced significantly by edge functionalization of the clay.
ESC Failure of Polycarbonate Components: Two Case Studies
Jennifer M. Hoffman, Angele Sjong, May 2006
A chemical that is typically compatible with a given plastic can act as a stress-cracking agent in certain conditions. This presentation will address key contributing factors to ESC of polycarbonate components used in the medical device and health industries. Case studies will be presented.
Two-Station Embossing Process for Rapid Fabrication of Polymer Microstructures
Donggang Yao, Allen Y. Yi, Lei Li, Pratapkumar Nagarajan, May 2006
An embossing strategy involving a hot station and a cold station for sequentially heating and cooling the embossing tool was investigated to reduce cycle times in hot embossing polymer microstructures. Experimental studies showed that aluminum stamps with a thickness of 1.4 mm can be rapidly heated from room temperature to 200°C in 3 s using contact heating against a hot station at 250°C. Selected surface microfeatures including microchannels and microlens arrays were successfully embossed using a cycle time around 10 s.
An Innovative Approach to Involve Grade School Students in College Projects
Jonathan Meckley, Lucy Lenhardt, May 2006
The introduction of engineering to prospective students starts when they are in high school. They have already made some decisions about their career. This project involves 6th grade students designing a car body, then Penn State Erie students commercialize that design.

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How to reference articles from the SPE Library:

Any article that is cited in another manuscript or other work is required to use the correct reference style. Below is an example of the reference style for SPE articles:

Brown, H. L. and Jones, D. H. 2016, May.
"Insert title of paper here in quotes,"
ANTEC 2016 - Indianapolis, Indiana, USA May 23-25, 2016. [On-line].
Society of Plastics Engineers
Available: www.4spe.org.

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