SPE Library

The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.

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Conference Proceedings
RHEOLOGICAL BEHAVIOR OF SULFONATED POLYSTYRENE IONOMERS
Masaharu Nishiura, Makoto Sarata, Yuya Hidekuma, Masanori Okano, Asami Nakai, Hiroyuki Hamada, May 2010
The rheological behavior of the alkali metal salts of oligomeric (Mw = 4 kg/mol) sulfonated polystyrene ionomers (SPS) was characterized using dynamic and steady shear measurements. Sulfonation increased the melt viscosity of the PS, by as much as 4 orders of magnitude, and the zero shear viscosity scaled with the Coulombic strength of the cation Although Mw was below the entanglement molecular weight, the ionomer melts exhibited strong elastic behavior.
SINGLE-WALLED CARBON NANOTUBE DISPERSION WITH ELECTROSTATICALLY TETHERED NANOPLATELETS
Ivan D. Lopez, Sven Hoffmann, Al Bednar, Tim A. Osswald, May 2010
We report an exceptionally effective method for physically pulling nanotube bundles apart by utilizing electrostatically tethered nanoplatelets to gather and concentrate sonication energy at the surface of nanotube aggregates. Following dispersion, the nanoplatelets can be separated from the nanotubes by tuning the ionic strength of the medium. This colloidal approach obviates the need to drastically modify nanotube surface chemistry to achieve full exfoliation, thereby preserving their intrinsic properties.
FILLING SIMULATION AND TEMPERATURE PREDICTION IN HOT RUNNER SYSTEMS
Ivan D. Lopez , Sven Hoffmann , Al Bednar , Tim A. Osswald, May 2010
A simulation based on the Radial Functions Method was implemented to estimate temperature and flow in hot runner systems during the mold filling process of a discshaped mold cavity. The simulation predicts temperature developments inside the hot runner and its effects on the temperature distribution inside the cavity. Filling cycles were repeated until the system reached steady state condition.
THE USE OF BETA NUCLEATION TO IMPROVE THE IMPACT STRENGTH AND REDUCE THE WARPAGE OF POLYPROPYLENE CAPS & CLOSURES
Philip Jacoby, May 2010
We have developed a unique masterbatch that can be used to produce polypropylene caps and closures containing the beta crystalline phase of PP. These caps exhibit dramatically improved impact strength without a significant loss of other desirable physical properties. Another benefit of beta-nucleated closures is improved dimensional stability and reduced warpage. The masterbatch can be added during molding of the closures by blending pellets of the masterbatch with that of the PP resin and no pre-compounding is required.
THE USE OF BETA NUCLEATION TO IMPROVE THE IMPACT STRENGTH AND REDUCE THE WARPAGE OF POLYPROPYLENE CAPS & CLOSURES
Philip Jacoby, May 2010
We have developed a unique masterbatch that can be used to produce polypropylene caps and closures containing the beta crystalline phase of PP. These caps exhibit dramatically improved impact strength without a significant loss of other desirable physical properties. Another benefit of beta-nucleated closures is improved dimensional stability and reduced warpage. The masterbatch can be added during molding of the closures by blending pellets of the masterbatch with that of the PP resin, and no pre-compounding is required.
SUDDEN FAILURE OF FINAL GRP PRODUCTS
Eric D. Bowersox, May 2010
Experience of application of chimney liner, process pipes, ducts, scrubbers, and other kinds of equipment demonstrates that under operating conditions their failure can occur. Failure occurs because of formation of cracks in chemically resistant layer of GRP multilayered structure. The structural and technological factors causing the failure of final GRP products are considered.
UNDERSTANDING THE ASTM METHOD FOR HEAT BUILD-UP
Steven Goldstein, May 2010
In reviewing the ASTM method for heat build-up one is curious as to the robustness of the method. The test method is designed for PVC only.
UNDERSTANDING THE ASTM METHOD FOR HEAT BUILD-UP
Steven Goldstein , Chris Valovic , Mark Gall, May 2010
In reviewing the ASTM method for heat build-up one is curious as to the robustness of the method. The test method is designed for PVC only.
ULTRASONIC DIAGNOSIS OF THE VIBRATION BEHAVIOR OF SCREWS IN A SINGLE SCREW EXTRUDER
Zhigang Sun , Leszek A. Utracki, May 2010
Ultrasonic diagnostic method of screw behavior during extrusion has been designed developed and evaluated for a single screw extruder. It was found that under the same processing conditions and depending on the past history of the equipment usage the vibration behavior of screws in the inspected processing equipment could vary noticeably and the vibration pattern repeated itself at every two screw revolutions. Results suggest that the vibration behavior of the screw is dictated by how the screw is engaged in and the status of the gearbox.
ULTRASONIC DIAGNOSIS OF THE VIBRATION BEHAVIOR OF SCREWS IN A SINGLE SCREW EXTRUDER
Zhigang Sun , Leszek A. Utracki, May 2010
Ultrasonic diagnostic method of screw behavior during extrusion has been designed, developed, and evaluated for a single screw extruder. It was found that under the same processing conditions and depending on the past history of the equipment usage, the vibration behavior of screws in the inspected processing equipment could vary noticeably and the vibration pattern repeated itself at every two screw revolutions. Results suggest that the vibration behavior of the screw is dictated by how the screw is engaged in and the status of the gearbox.
BREAKTHROUGH INVENTIONS AND INNOVATIONS IN DIE DESIGN FOR POLYMER PROCESSING
Joseph Dooley , Gary Oliver , Karen Xiao, May 2010
After a polymer has been converted from a solid to amolten state, it must be processed into a final shape tohave value to a customer. This final shape may be apellet, a film, a sheet, a profile, or many other finalgeometries. This paper will discuss some of thebreakthrough inventions and innovations in die design thatare used to produce this vast array of final polymerproduct shapes.
SHAPING THE EXPERTS OF TOMORROW: PREPARING THE WORKFORCE OF THE FUTURE
Michael Jaffe, George Collins, Anthony J. East, Willis Hammond, Zohar Ophir, Xianhong Feng, Paul Friedhoff, May 2010
With the retiring baby-boomers, educational challenges, poor public perception of manufacturing, and difficult economic climate, we are on the cusp of entering one of the most challenging times in American manufacturing. American manufacturers within all industries will be faced with tremendous difficulty in finding the skilled workforce they need to be competitive in todayƒ??s market. We need to identify the problem and layout a feasible first step in addressing it if we hope to minimize the impact.
IMPACT RESISTANCE AND RAMAN CHARACTERIZATION OF Al2O3/ZnO POLY(METHYL METHACRYLATE) NANOCOMPOSITES
Wantinee Viratyaporn , Richard L. Lehman, May 2010
In the present work, composites comprised of oxide nanoparticles in a PMMA matrix were studied and the Raman shifts associated with the interfacial moieties were identified and correlated with possible structures.The potential effects of these structural perturbations on composite properties are considered.
A ONE-STEP EXTRUSION PROCESS FOR PREPARING POLYOLEFIN/CLAY NANOCOMPOSITES USING SODIUM MONTMORILLONITE
Benjamin F. Ports , R. A. Weiss, May 2010
Polyolefin/clay nanocomposites were fabricated by directly melt compounding polyethylene with sodium montmorillonite a poly(ethylene-co-acrylic acid) ionomer compatibilizer and a quaternary ammonium salt in a simple one-step extrusion process. The effects of processing conditions salt structure and concentration on the clay dispersion morphology and mechanical properties were investigated using X-ray diffraction transmission electron microscopy and mechanical testing.
A ONE-STEP EXTRUSION PROCESS FOR PREPARING POLYOLEFIN/CLAY NANOCOMPOSITES USING SODIUM MONTMORILLONITE
Benjamin F. Ports , R. A. Weiss, May 2010
Polyolefin/clay nanocomposites were fabricated by directly melt compounding polyethylene with sodium montmorillonite, a poly(ethylene-co-acrylic acid) ionomer compatibilizer and a quaternary ammonium salt in a simple one-step extrusion process. The effects of processing conditions, salt structure and concentration on the clay dispersion, morphology and mechanical properties were investigated using X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and mechanical testing.
PART WEIGHT CONTROL VIA MODEL FREE OPTIMIZATION FOR INJECTION MOLDING
Xiangsong Kong , Xi Chen , Zhijiang Shao, May 2010
Quality requirements of injection molding parts have become more and more stringent. Part weight is one of the most important quality characteristics. A model free optimization method based on the simultaneous perturbation stochastic approximation (SPSA) method is presented for the weight control of injection molded parts. The experimental results using different materials show that this model free optimization method is effective for the part weight control.
PART WEIGHT CONTROL VIA MODEL FREE OPTIMIZATION FOR INJECTION MOLDING
Xiangsong Kong , Xi Chen , Zhijiang Shao, May 2010
Quality requirements of injection molding parts have become more and more stringent. Part weight is one of the most important quality characteristics. A model free optimization method based on the simultaneous perturbation stochastic approximation (SPSA) method is presented for the weight control of injection molded parts.The experimental results using different materials show that this model free optimization method is effective for the part weight control.
ENZYMATICALLY AND CHEMICALLY MODIFIED ABACA FIBRE FOR PP COMPOSITES
Andrzej K. Bledzki , Abdullah A. Mamun , Karsten Erdmann , M. M. Huque, May 2010
Abaca fibre reinforced PP composites were prepared using a high speed mixer followed by injection moulding with 30% of fibre load. Prior to composite production, the fibre was modified by o- hydroxy benzene diazonium salts, synthetic and natural enzyme. The effect of modification of the fibre was assessed on the basis of moisture resistance, mechanical, thermal properties of the resulting composites. Coupling agent (PPMA 6452) has been used to increase the interaction between fibre and polymer matrix.
PLA COMPOSITES REINFORCED BY WHEAT AND RYE HUSK
Andrzej K. Bledzki , Abdullah A. Mamun , Adam Jaszkiewicza , Jürgen Volk, May 2010
PLA-composite materials were prepared by injection moulding process through high speed hot-cool melt compounding process with 40 wt% loads of husk. Chain extender (Joncryl ADR 4368) has been used during the melt mixer. To characterize the composites materials morphology mechanical (tensile flexural and charpy) thermal (crystallinity Tg and Tm) and rheological (melt flow rate viscosity) properties were studied and the properties were compared to soft wood fibre composite’s properties.
PLA COMPOSITES REINFORCED BY WHEAT AND RYE HUSK
Andrzej K. Bledzki , Abdullah A. Mamun , Adam Jaszkiewicza , Jürgen Volk, May 2010
PLA-composite materials were prepared by injection moulding process through high speed hot-cool melt compounding process with 40 wt% loads of husk.Chain extender (Joncryl ADR 4368) has been used during the melt mixer. To characterize the composites materials, morphology, mechanical (tensile, flexural and charpy) thermal (crystallinity, Tg and Tm) and rheological (melt flow rate, viscosity) properties were studied and the properties were compared to soft wood fibre compositeƒ??s properties.


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"Insert title of paper here in quotes,"
ANTEC 2016 - Indianapolis, Indiana, USA May 23-25, 2016. [On-line].
Society of Plastics Engineers, ISBN: 123-0-1234567-8-9, pp. 000-000.
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