SPE Library

The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.

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Conference Proceedings
MICRO INJECTION MOLDING OF LCP-MODIFIED PA66
A. Gava , G. Lucchetta, May 2010
Injection molded micro parts require accurate replication of micro-scale features. This replication is governed by complex mechanisms and its quality depend on the plastic material properties, the geometry of the features and the process conditions The objective of this paper is to improve the replication of the micro-scale features by decreasing the polymer viscosity. The effects of melt viscosity and molding conditions on replication of microscopic features in injection molded parts were examined for a PA66 blended with a LCP additive. The replication was measured at different contents of LCP and at different process conditions.
FACTORS CONSIDERED IN DARK COLORED WINDOWS AND SIDING Part I - THE COMPLEX COMBINATION OF REQUIRED VINYL PROPERTIES
Jian Wang, Marc Mangnus, Wallace Yau, Willem deGroot, Teresa Karjala, Mehmet Demirors, May 2010
Successful dark colored windows and siding require pigmentation for long-term durability and for solar reflection to avoid excessive temperatures, a durable polymer, limits on coefficient of linear thermal expansion to minimize buckling stresses, formulations with excellent initial and retained impact resistance, and a polymer base with sufficient glass transition temperature and buckling resistance to maintain shape at maximum solar heating for several decades of time.
INSERT FILM INJECTION MOLDING TECHNOLOGY FOR AUTOMOTIVE PLASTIC PARTS WITH THE MULTI-CAVITY MOLD SYSTEM
Sunghee Lee , Youngbae Ko , Jongwon Lee, May 2010
As modern users of automotive interior plastic parts demand to enhance higher surface quality and lower manufacturing cost, film insert molding method has been widely applied lately to these injection molded products. In this paper, the integration technique of vacuum thermal forming, insert film injection molding and cavity monitoring processes, which is performed on multi-cavity mold system, is proposed and performed both experimentally and numerically for an automotive plastic part model.
DEVELOPMENT AND TESTING OF NOVEL ORIFICE DIE DESIGN FOR EXTENSIONAL VISCOSITY MEASUREMENTS
M. Zatloukal , J. Musil, May 2010
In this work novel patent pending orifice die design for precise extensional viscosity data determination from entrance pressure drop measurements has been developed and tested both theoretically (through Finite Element Analysis) and experimentally. It has been demonstrated that the proposed novel orifice die allows much more precise extensional viscosity measurements for polymer melts in comparison with conventionally used orifice dies.
DEVELOPMENT AND TESTING OF NOVEL ORIFICE DIE DESIGN FOR EXTENSIONAL VISCOSITY MEASUREMENTS
M. Zatloukal , J. Musil, May 2010
In this work, novel patent pending orifice die design for precise extensional viscosity data determination from entrance pressure drop measurements has been developed and tested both, theoretically (through Finite Element Analysis) and experimentally. It has been demonstrated that the proposed novel orifice die allows much more precise extensional viscosity measurements for polymer melts in comparison with conventionally used orifice dies.
EFFECTS OF VARIATION OF CROSS-LINKING AGENT, EXPANSION TIME AND EXPANSION TEMPERATURE ON CORECELL-M FOAM PROPERTIES
P.R.W. Hanna, M.P. Kearns, E. Maziers, May 2010
CorecellTM is a unique SAN structural foam successfully used in the Wind Energy and Marine markets. Corecell's density can be controlled by different formulation and process parameters such as cross-linking agent, expansion time or temperature. The foam mechanical properties are also affected by each of these variables and therefore the relationship between density, properties and formulation is complex. This article describes these relationships and how Gurit has used this knowledge to develop the new CorecellTM M-foam.
STUDY INTO THE DENSIFICATION BEHAVIOUR OF POLYETHYLENES FOR ROTATIONAL MOULDING
P.R.W. Hanna , M.P. Kearns , E. Maziers, May 2010
The melting and densification behaviour of a range of Polyethylenes (PEs) produced from 2 different catalysts, Ziegler-Natta and Metallocene types, were investigated using a novel visual data acquisition and analysis system (TP Picture??), developed by Total Petrochemicals Research Feluy. Differences in the dissolution behaviour of the bubbles were observed and correlations with the material density, densification rate, bubble size/ distribution and MFI were determined.
UNDERSTANDING AND QUANTIFICATION OF DIE DROOL PHENOMENON DURING POLYPROPYLENE EXTRUSION PROCESS
M. Zatloukal , W. Sambaer , A. Libotte, May 2010
In this work die build-up phenomenon has been investigated theoretically by using FEM analysis as well as experimentally for polypropylene resins which are commonly used in the biaxial oriented film production. It has been demonstrated that the negative pressure at the die exit region is correable with die drool phenomenon in this case.
UNDERSTANDING AND QUANTIFICATION OF DIE DROOL PHENOMENON DURING POLYPROPYLENE EXTRUSION PROCESS
M. Zatloukal , W. Sambaer , A. Libotte, May 2010
In this work, die build-up phenomenon has been investigated theoretically, by using FEM analysis, as well as experimentally for polypropylene resins which are commonly used in the biaxial oriented film production. It has been demonstrated that the negative pressure at the die exit region is correable with die drool phenomenon in this case.
FACTORS AFFECTING THE RAPID CRACK PROPAGATION PERFORMANCE OF POLYETHYLENE PIPES
Mark Lamborn, Ashish Sukhadia, May 2010
Good resistance to Rapid Crack Propagation (RCP) is considered to be important in plastic pipe field performance. However, RCP is a very complex phenomenon that depends on a variety of factors including pipe geometry (diameter and wall thickness) and test conditions (temperature and pressure). We show the effects, from both theoretical and experimental aspects, of these and other variables on RCP performance and share our concerns about some of the current RCP (S4) test practices.
A STUDY OF CRYSTALLIZATION KINETICS OF POLY (3-HYDROXYBUTYRATE-CO-3- HYDROXYVALERATE)/ZN-AL LAYERED DOUBLE HYDROXIDE (LDH) STEARATE NANOCOMPOSITES
Koffi L. Dagnon , Clark Robinson , Hua H. Chen , Nandika A. D’Souza, May 2010
Isothermal crystallization of poly (3-hydroxybutyrateco- 3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV)/ Zn-Al layered double hydroxide (LDH) stearate nanocomposites was investigated by means of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The Avrami equation was derived and the parameters were assessed for the nucleation and crystal growth mechanism of PHBV and its nanocomposites. (Ref.8)
A STUDY OF CRYSTALLIZATION KINETICS OF POLY (3-HYDROXYBUTYRATE-CO-3- HYDROXYVALERATE)/ZN-AL LAYERED DOUBLE HYDROXIDE (LDH) STEARATE NANOCOMPOSITES
Koffi L. Dagnon , Clark Robinson , Hua H. Chen , Nandika A. D’Souza, May 2010
Isothermal crystallization of poly (3-hydroxybutyrateco- 3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV)/ Zn-Al layered double hydroxide (LDH) stearate nanocomposites was investigated by means of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The Avrami equation was derived and the parameters were assessed for the nucleation and crystal growth mechanism of PHBV and its nanocomposites.
MORPHOLOGY AND PROPERTIES OF NANOCOMPOSITES BASED ON HDPE/HDPE-G-MA BLENDS
Adam Kramschuster, Lih-Sheng Turng, May 2010
Nanocomposites formed from blends of HDPE and HDPE-g-MA and organoclay were melt processed and analyzed by WAXS and TEM coupled with particle analysis to explore the effect of HDPE-g-MA on extent of exfoliation and mechanical properties. As HDPE-g-MA content increases, the global average particle aspect ratio increases drastically, peaks, and slightly decreases. Relative modulus improves with increased levels of HDPE-g-MA, and then levels off.
MORPHOLOGY AND PROPERTIES OF NANOCOMPOSITES BASED ON HDPE/HDPE-G-MA BLENDS
Matthew W. Spencer , Lili Cui , Youngjae Yoo , D. R. Paul, May 2010
Nanocomposites formed from blends of HDPE and HDPE-g-MA and organoclay were melt processed and analyzed by WAXS and TEM coupled with particle analysis to explore the effect of HDPE-g-MA on extent of exfoliation and mechanical properties. As HDPE-g-MA content increases the global average particle aspect ratio increases drastically peaks and slightly decreases. Relative modulus improves with increased levels of HDPE-g-MA and then levels off.
THE EFFECT OF SECOND SHOT MATERIAL ON WARPAGE OF MOLDED AND COATED LARGE TWO-COMPONENT
Michael Heinzer, Myoungbae Lee, Rachel VanHouten, Ozma Lane, James E. McGrath, Donald G. Baird, May 2010
Two-component injection compression molding process is the most advanced technology to produce large optical polycarbonate glazing panels. The paper investigates the effects of molding conditions and second shot material on the warpage of finished (coated) parts through a molding trial DOE. The data and results can provide a guideline for a proper part and process design and materials selection to manufacture good quality 2two-component PC panels/glazing with minimum warpage.
PREPARATION OF REINFORCED POLYPROPYLENE COMPOSITE VIA SMART PELLET ADDITIVES
Nicole Hoekstra, Edward Lao, May 2010
A commercially available inorganic fiber product Hyperform HPR-803 was introduced into films with both polypropylene (PP) and polysulfone (PSF). These fiber-filled multilayer products were then added to PP resins and injection molded. This methodology allowed for high glass transition temperature PSF to be injection molded at 175oC. The morphology behaviors of the composites were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Mechanical properties of the composites were investigated by performing tensile, flexural, and impact strength tests.
THE EFFECT OF INJECTION MOLDING PARAMETERS ON THE PROPERTIES OF CARBON NANOTUBES FILLED THERMOPLASTICS
Fabian Rios, Amos Ophir, Samuel Kenig, May 2010
The electrical and mechanical properties of Polycarbonate and Polybutylene Terephthalate carbon nanotubes (CNT) nanocomposites were studied with respect to injection molding processing parameters, by means of design of experiments (DOE). Results demonstrated that the injection molding parameters had a significant effect on the properties of polymer/CNT nanocomposites. While the melt temperature had the most significant effect on the resulting volume resistivity, combination of parameters affected the mechanical properties of each polymer/CNT nanocomposite.
ENGINEERING SOLID SOLUTION PHYSICAL PROPERTIES TO ENABLE PHARMACEUTICAL PRODUCTS
Walter Michaeli, Andreas Neuss, May 2010
The use of a common solid solution intermediate to support multiple pharmaceutical product applications is demonstrated with particular emphasis on the physical particle attributes required for success. Design of suspensions, tablets, and injection molded products from spray dried or extruded solid solutions is described together with illustrative preclinical pharmacokinetic profiles.
RHEOLOGICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF ETHYLENE VINYL ACETATE
O. Y. Alothman, May 2010
The behavior of melt flow of Ethylene Vinyl Acetate was studied using a capillary rheometer. The true flow curves were obtained by applying the Bagley correction into the apparent flow curves. It was found that EVA follows the typical pseudoplastic behavior with power indices within the range of polyethyleneƒ??s power indices. Moreover, end pressure losses were estimated.
PROCESSING AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF JUTE FABRIC REINFORCED SMC MOLDINGS
Makoto Sarata , Masaharu Nishiura , Yuya Hidekuma , Masanori Okano , Asami Nakai , Hiroyuki Hamada, May 2010
Recent earth environmental concern requires easy recycle material system and the use of biodegradable polymer and natural fiber is noticed in composite materials. In this study jute cloth reinforced SMC was fabricated. And the effect of water included in jute cloth was investigated by bending impact and tensile testing. As a result it was revealed that the dry processing was very important to apply natural fiber for composite materials.


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ANTEC 2016 - Indianapolis, Indiana, USA May 23-25, 2016. [On-line].
Society of Plastics Engineers, ISBN: 123-0-1234567-8-9, pp. 000-000.
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