SPE Library

The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.

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Conference Proceedings

Preparation of Polystyrene/Carbon Nanofiber Conductive Composite Film
Chi-Wei Tien, Luyi Sun, Israel Serna, Hung-Jue Sue, May 2006

An efficient and inexpensive approach was developed to prepare conductive polystyrene (PS) films via a simple solution dispersion method. Carbon nanofiber (CNF), which has a similar structure as multiwall carbon nanotubes and a high performance/price ratio, was used as the filler in this research to achieve conductivity in polystyrene films. A good dispersion was achieved within the polystyrene solution system even without using any surfactants. A low percolation threshold at about 0.75wt% has been achieved.

Nano-Clay Tethered Shape Memory Polyurethane Nanocomposites
Feina Cao, Sadhan C. Jana, May 2006

The magnitude of recovery force in shape memory polymers is usually low and must be augmented. In this work, a network is introduced in shape memory thermoplastic polyurethane (PU) by the addition of reactive nanoclay in an effort to improve the recovery force. In this case, nanoclay particles were allowed to tether to PU chains by chemical bonding. This report covers preliminary results on thermal, mechanical, and shape memory properties of clay-PU nanocomposites.

Multivariate Analysis (MVA) for Quality Detection in Injection Molding Systems in the Medical Device Community
Chris Ambrozic, Lee Hutson, May 2006

We describe a new method of point-of-origin quality detection for injection molding systems. The method encompasses data acquisition, Multivariate modeling, reject control and data reporting, provides in-line quality detection of injection molded parts, and real-time reports on fault contributors. We discuss real-world production applications in which MVA is applied using real-time molding parameters to predict quality, with a goal of Parametric Release.

Electrorheological Properties of Carbon Black Filled PDMS
Michael Kaufman, Marianna Kontopoulou, Aristides Docoslis, May 2006

The electrical conductivity and rheological properties under steady shear flow of carbon black-filled PDMS are measured as a function of filler loading, matrix viscosity and shear rate, upon application of an AC electric field. The effects of electric field are most notable at low filler loadings and low matrix viscosities.

Effect of Specimen Thickness on PC/ABS Spiral Flow Injection Moldings
N. O-Charoen, S. Pivsa-Art, Y.W. Leong, K. Umemura, M. Kotaki, H. Hamada, May 2006

The morphology of PC/ABS blend injection moldings is investigated using a spiral flow test mold. The results show that the specimen thickness would significantly affect the internal structure. Effect of specimen thickness on morphology of dispersed ABS phase in skin and core layers is extensively discussed in the relation to the mechanical properties.

Visualization of PP Foaming with Nitrogen
Q. Guo, J. Wang, C.B. Park, May 2006

In this research, we observed the cell nucleation and initial growth behaviours of PP foaming with N2 under various experimental conditions in a batch foaming simulation system. We found that the nucleating agent content, initial temperature, initial pressure (i.e., gas content), and pressure drop rate during foaming had significant effects on cell density and cell growth. The branched PP (WB130)/N2 had a higher cell density than the linear PP (HE351)/N2.

PP Melt Swelling Due to Gas Dissolution
Y.G. Li, H.B. Li, J. Wang, C.B. Park, May 2006

Foaming of thermoplastic is gaining interest because of its potential to decrease the weight of automotive parts. Understanding of the thermophysical properties of PP/gas mixtures is critically important in this context. This paper presents a newly developed experimental technique that captures the melt pendent drop images locally, determines the boundary locations precisely and then reconstructs those images to accurately measure the swelling of the polymer due to gas dissolution at elevated temperatures and pressures.

Pressure Profile in Annular Die Using PP/CO2 Solution Viscosity
Jing Wang, Chul B. Park, May 2006

In this paper, a rheological die with a slit channel was designed to determine the solution viscosity of supercritical CO2 in non-crosslinked high-melt-strength (HMS) polypropylene (PP). The shear viscosity was modeled as a function of temperature, pressure, gas content, and shear rate. With interest in producing highly expanded foam sheets using an annular die, an analysis of the annular die pressure profile using the measured viscosity data was also conducted.

Fine-Celled Foaming of HDPE Using Nitrogen
J.W.S. Lee, C.B. Park, May 2006

Foaming experiments were performed in extrusion using HDPE and Nitrogen. Talc was used as a nucleating agent, and three levels of pressure drop rate were applied. The use of talc significantly increased the cell density and reduced the role of pressure drop rate in cell nucleation.

A Fiber and Film Simulation Package as a Learning Tool
Christopher Cox, Scott Pearson, James von Oehsen, Edward Duffy, May 2006

The Center for Advanced Engineering Fibers and Films, an NSF Engineering Research Center, has developed a modeling package which couples polymer process stages and a materials database in a visualization-based environment. We will describe the no-cost academic version of this code, including a discussion of the background of the modules, along with examples of potential student projects.

Measurment and Prediction of Cooling Efficiency with CAE Software
Jeeseung Lee, Seungwook Lee, Hanmoog Kang, Shanghun Lee, May 2006

A cooling system is applied to improve the cooling efficiency in the field of the injection molding. In this paper, the cooling system was simulated by commercial injection molding and heat transfer CAE software. The conditions of simulated cooling system were classified for the mold base material and cooling channel. After experiments of the injection molding using the simulated results of the cooling conditions, cooling efficiencies were analyzed.

Interfacial Failure of Composites at Cryogenic and Elevated Temperatures
Jaehyung Ju, Roger J. Morgan, E. Eugene Shin, May 2006

Interfacial failure between carbon-fiber/polyimide composites under high and low temperature exposures was characterized. Based on microscopic photos taken after exposures at -196°C and 250°C and thermo-elastic failure analysis, transverse microcrack formation of composites was investigated.

Improving the Properties and Economics of Fiber Reinforced Parts Using Glass Beads
Ufuk ?entürk, Bill Shaker, Chris Smith, Larry Royer, May 2006

Mechanical, thermal, and physical properties of five thermoplastic resins compounded using solid glass beads and fibers as additives was studied. Melt flow index is found as the most affected property as a function of bead size and bead-to-fiber ratio. Criticality of bead-to-fiber ratio in relation to product quality and processing is discussed. Material costs are also examined with respect to key property changes and a selection method is suggested to find an optimum.

Peculiarity of Formation of the HDPE Phase Oxidized (Gel) by Processing
Rakhil M. Sinelnikova, Valery G. Makarov, May 2006

Change of physical and chemical, reological and physicomechanical properties of High Density Polyethylene (HDPE), exposed by thermal oxidation in shift current conditions with using of the rotational viscosimeter, is considered.It is shown, that products of oxidation form in the polymer melt and solid polymer an independent phase (gel), and have sharply distinguished from initial HDPE polarity, fluidity, physical and chemical properties.

Wood/Plastic Composites (WPC) with Glass Fiber Reinforcement (GRF)
Ghaus M. Rizvi, Hamid Semeralul, May 2006

The usage of WPC is rapidly growing, but these still suffer from lack of toughness, which can be improved by adding a small amount of GFR. Tensile tests of WPC specimen with varying amounts of wood-fiber content and 5% GRF were carried out. Significant improvements in properties were observed.

Compatibilization of Natural Fibers/PP Composites
K. Jarukumjorn, Y. Ruksakulpiwat, W. Sutapun, J. Kluensamrong, May 2006

The effect of maleic anhydride grafted polypropylene (PP-g-MA) as a compatibilizer on mechanical, rheological, and morphological properties of rossells/PP and sisal/PP composites was investigated. The fiber loading was 20wt% and the compatibilizer contents were varied from 1-10 phr. The tensile strength and unnotched impact strength of the composites increased with increasing the compatibilizer content.

A Novel Styrene/Maleic Anhydride Copolymer for Polymer Modification by SC CO2
Guang-Ming Qiu, Bao-Ku Zhu, Fu Liu, You-Y i Xu, May 2006

Poly (vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) membranes were modified by supercritical impregnation of St-MAn alternative copolymer (SMA). The SMA, having Mw of higher than 106, were synthesized inside PVDF matrix with SC CO2 as solvent and carrier. The composition and microstructure of modified membrane were characterized by ART-FTIR, ESCA, NMR, DSC and SEM. The thermal stability and hydrophilicity of modified membranes were improved.

Permeability of Polymer Nanocomposites
Laxmi K. Sahu, Nandika Anne D’Souza, Bruce Gnade, May 2006

Permeability of the nylon and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) polymer and naocomposites, biaxially stretched and post fatigued film is measured. Both the tortuous path and crystallinity influence the barrier properties. Permeability is predicted taking into consideration the amorphous phase, crystalline phase and MLS content and compared with the experimental values. Keywords: Permeability, Nanocomposites, PET, Nylon-6

A Novel Fabrication Method and Optimum Tooling Design for Microlens Arrays
Y.-K. Shen, C.-Y. Chang, Y.-S. Shen, S.-Y. Yang, May 2006

This study uses a simple and novel procedure for microlens arrays. The master is formed by room temperature imprint lithography and thermal reflow process. The electroforming is used to fabricate the metal mold insert from master. Finally, micro-hot embossing is used to replicate microlens arrays.

Mechanical Properties of PP/PA/GF Blend Thermoplastics
Naoyuki Kawai, Asami Nakai, Hiroyuki Hamada, Hiroshi Yasuda, May 2006

In order to improve mechanical properties of PP(Polypropylene) / GF(Glass fiber), PP/GF was injection molded with PA(Polyamide) through three procedures. Tensile and flexural test were conducted. The fractured surface of the etched specimens after testing was observed using a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). From the results, PP/PA/GF thermoplastics which were molded by using PP/GF pellet and PA showed higher strength than the other specimens.

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