The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.
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PLA COMPOSITES REINFORCED BY WHEAT AND RYE HUSK
PLA-composite materials were prepared by injection moulding process through high speed hot-cool melt compounding process with 40 wt% loads of husk.Chain extender (Joncryl ADR 4368) has been used during the melt mixer. To characterize the composites materials, morphology, mechanical (tensile, flexural and charpy) thermal (crystallinity, Tg and Tm) and rheological (melt flow rate, viscosity) properties were studied and the properties were compared to soft wood fibre compositeƒ??s properties.
NANOMECHANICAL PROPERTIES IN ULTRATHIN POLYMER FILMS: MEASUREMENT ON RECTANGULAR VS CIRCULAR BUBBLES
Confinement effects on the mechanical properties of ultrathin polymer films were investigated by a bubble inflation technique developed in our lab. Prior studies of ultrathin films of poly(vinyl acetate) (PVAc) and polystyrene (PS) were performed on circular bubbles of different diameters. Here we show early results of rectangular bubble measurements for PS thin films. Results are compared with those for the circular bubbles.
PROCESS IMPROVEMENTS FOR PLASTIC PROCESSORS RESULTING FROM A MODIFIED FORM OF TITANIUM DIOXIDE
Titanium dioxide pigment (TiO2) is notoriously difficult to process due to its self-binding properties and dusty nature. It is possible for the form of the titanium dioxide to be modified to an easy-flow pigment. This modification allows for lower dust levels which improve the working environment, and offer process efficiencies which lead to lower conversion costs and more consistent quality.
TRENDS AND NEEDS IN AUTOMOTIVE MATCHED BY VARIOUS PLASTIC SUSTAINABLE SOLUTIONS
An overview is given of the various drivers, needs and trends in the automotive industry and how these are matched by various new plastic solutions, which in the end all significantly increase the sustainability of various car components and of the cars in total.
ELECTRIFICATION OF HOT RUNNER SYSTEMS
This paper overviews advancements in the electrification of valve gate actuation in Hot Runner systems for use in cleanroom environments. This paper offers a review of the existing technologies laying out the advantages and disadvantages of the various offerings in the market. It will also help the molders to choose the right application for cleanroom production.
ELECTRIFICATION OF HOT RUNNER SYSTEMS
This paper overviews advancements in the electrification of valve gate actuation in Hot Runner systems for use in cleanroom environments. This paper offers a review of the existing technologies, laying out the advantages and disadvantages of the various offerings in the market. It will also help the molders to choose the right application for cleanroom production.
VIBRATION WELDING OF TWO DIFFERENT TYPES OF POLYAMIDE MATERIALS: GLASS FILLED PA6 TO GLASS FILLED PA66
This paper presents experimental results on vibration welding of two different types of PA materials, PA6 and PA66 materials, which exhibit significantly different melting temperatures. Factors affecting the weld strength such as weld bead design and welding process parameters are presented in the paper.
MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF HEAT-SEALED PART IN ENVIRONMENTFRIENDLY FILM
Multi-layered laminated films are widely used as general packaging materials and thermal lamination is one of the environmentally friendly techniques since it does not involve solvents during lamination. The heat exerted during the heat- sealing process however could affect the lamination strength of these films. In this study we focused on the relationship between the results of pinhole test and the properties of heat sealed parts.
MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF HEAT-SEALED PART IN ENVIRONMENT-FRIENDLY FILM
Multi-layered laminated films are widely used as general packaging materials and thermal lamination is one of the environmentally friendly techniques since it does not involve solvents during lamination. The heat exerted during the heat- sealing process, however, could affect the lamination strength of these films. In this study, we focused on the relationship between the results of pinhole test and the properties of heat sealed parts.
EVALUATION OF NATURAL FLAVONOIDS AS CROSSLINKING AGENTS FOR POLYVINYL ALCOHOL
Anthocyanins have been chosen as natural crosslinking agents for polyvinyl alcohol (PVOH). Tosylation of secondary hydroxyl functionality in PVOH was carried out with p-toluenesulfonyl chloride in the presence of bases. The structures of the crosslinked PVOH and the crosslinking mechanism were established from their 1H NMR spectral. Hydroxyl contents in PVOH decreased due to the crosslinking of tosylated PVOH with anthocyanin. It was also found that crosslinking of PVOH by anthocyanin enhanced the mechanical properties of PVOH film.
LIGHT WEIGHT PET BOTTLES: A SIMULATION STUDY
Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) is a widely used resin in production of carbonated soft drinks bottles made by injection stretch blow molding (ISBM) process. Light weighting of the PET bottles has the potential to reduce the materials and manufacturing costs. This paper present a simulation study where performs of reduced weight are assessed in terms of the process viability and the product quality.
SIMULATION DRIVEN MEDICAL PACKAGE DEVELOPMENT
The objective of this work is to demonstrate the concept of “simulation driven package development”. The concept involves not only simulating the structural behavior of the medical package (e.g. under top loading) but also predicting the package material distribution due to the manufacturing process conditions and tying that to the structural analysis. The structural analysis will thus take the more physical and usually non-uniform part material thickness distribution into consideration. The concept is highlighted through a case study.
NEW FUNCTIONS OF THERMOPLASTIC ELASTOMER BASED SANDWICH INJECTION MOLDINGS
Damping materials such as thermoplastic elastomer (TPE) usually has very low stiffness and easily deformable hence they are unsuitable for structural applications. This paper focuses on using sandwich injection molding technology to produce parts consisting PP skin and TPE core to impart high surface rigidity while maintaining dampening efficiency. Correlation between skin-core adhesion and flexural and damping properties of the moldings are discussed.
NEW FUNCTIONS OF THERMOPLASTIC ELASTOMER BASED SANDWICH INJECTION MOLDINGS
Damping materials such as thermoplastic elastomer(TPE) usually has very low stiffness and easilydeformable, hence they are unsuitable for structuralapplications. This paper focuses on using sandwichinjection molding technology to produce parts consistingPP skin and TPE core to impart high surface rigiditywhile maintaining dampening efficiency. Correlationbetween skin-core adhesion and flexural and dampingproperties of the moldings are discussed.
MELT MIXED NANOCOMPOSITES OF PA12 WITH CNT: INFLUENCE OF MATRIX PROPERTIES AND THE USE OF HYBRID FILLER SYSTEMS CONTAINING CB
Polyamide 12 (PA12) composites with different Carbon nanotubes (CNT) and Carbon Black (CB) were melt mixed to investigate the influence of the filler materials on the electrical properties and the state of the filler dispersion in the matrix. Additionally, the influence of the matrix (viscosity and end group functionalization) on these properties of the composites was studied. Furthermore, hybrid filler systems with CNT and CB were examined in order to reduce the CNT content necessary for electrical percolation.
DETERMINATION OF MATERIAL PROPERTY CHANGES DUE TO COMBINING FLOW FRONTS
It is a popular belief that when two plastic flow fronts converge, they merge, forming one single parabolic pressure-driven flow front. This is a common misconception; because plastic flow is laminar, these flow fronts should remain separate and maintain two individual parallel parabolic flow fronts. The purpose of this research is to examine the effect on part properties caused by increased orientation due to maintaining parallel flow fronts.
A STUDY OF THE MOLD THERMAL CHARACTERISTICS OF COOLING LINES IN CONVENTIONAL AND RAPID TOOLING
This project examines the thermal differences between conventional and conformal cooling lines.?ÿ Three sets of inserts were built for this study.?ÿ A P20 insert was built and used to compare the other two rapid tooling inserts.?ÿ One rapid tooling insert had the same conventional cooling lines as the P20 insert.?ÿ The other rapid tooling insert had conformal cooling lines.?ÿ Mold temperatures were recorded and compared.?ÿ The conformal inserts had the lowest mold temperatures.
OPTIMAL PIGMENTATION STRATEGIES FOR NEAR INFRARED REFLECTING PIGMENTS
Pigments are basically used to impart color. But the reflection of Near Infrared Radiation (NIR) is a requirement of modern pigments that gains particular importance for a multitude of uses. This paper reports about smart ways to formulate with this class of pigments. The main objective in this context is the enhancement of coloristic and NIR-reflective properties in typical plastics applications.
DEVELOPMENT AND CHARACTERIZATION OF POLYMERIC THERMOTROPIC MATERIALS FOR OVERHEATING PROTECTION OF SOLAR COLLECTORS
Within this paper the effect of material formulation on the light-shielding performance of thermotropic glazings for overheating protection purposes is addressed. Specific focus is given to the establishment of relationships between glazing morphology and the light-shielding properties. Some major routes for further research and material optimization are deduced.
(N) IR- ABSORBING CONCENTRATE FOR POLYCARBONATE APPLICATIONS
Organic and inorganic NIR active materials play an important role in a number of fast growing modern plastics applications ranging from laser weldable resp. markable compositions to efficient heat management systems. In recent years we introduced a number of new materials applicable in both transparent and opaque solar energy management [SEM] applications. In this paper we want to present concepts on how to use different combinations of those components in order to create intelligent solutions for integrated SEM systems for both the construction and automotive industries.
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