The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.
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Measurment and Prediction of Cooling Efficiency with CAE Software
A cooling system is applied to improve the cooling efficiency in the field of the injection molding. In this paper, the cooling system was simulated by commercial injection molding and heat transfer CAE software. The conditions of simulated cooling system were classified for the mold base material and cooling channel. After experiments of the injection molding using the simulated results of the cooling conditions, cooling efficiencies were analyzed.
Interfacial Failure of Composites at Cryogenic and Elevated Temperatures
Interfacial failure between carbon-fiber/polyimide composites under high and low temperature exposures was characterized. Based on microscopic photos taken after exposures at -196°C and 250°C and thermo-elastic failure analysis, transverse microcrack formation of composites was investigated.
Improving the Properties and Economics of Fiber Reinforced Parts Using Glass Beads
Mechanical, thermal, and physical properties of five thermoplastic resins compounded using solid glass beads and fibers as additives was studied. Melt flow index is found as the most affected property as a function of bead size and bead-to-fiber ratio. Criticality of bead-to-fiber ratio in relation to product quality and processing is discussed. Material costs are also examined with respect to key property changes and a selection method is suggested to find an optimum.
Peculiarity of Formation of the HDPE Phase Oxidized (Gel) by Processing
Change of physical and chemical, reological and physicomechanical properties of High Density Polyethylene (HDPE), exposed by thermal oxidation in shift current conditions with using of the rotational viscosimeter, is considered.It is shown, that products of oxidation form in the polymer melt and solid polymer an independent phase (gel), and have sharply distinguished from initial HDPE polarity, fluidity, physical and chemical properties.
Wood/Plastic Composites (WPC) with Glass Fiber Reinforcement (GRF)
The usage of WPC is rapidly growing, but these still suffer from lack of toughness, which can be improved by adding a small amount of GFR. Tensile tests of WPC specimen with varying amounts of wood-fiber content and 5% GRF were carried out. Significant improvements in properties were observed.
Surface Modification of PVDF Porous Membranes by Electron Irradiation
Poly (vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) membranes were irradiated by electron beam and then grafted by acrylic acid (AA) and sodium 4-Styrenesulfonate (SSS). The degree of grafting was affected by irradiation dose, grafting time, grafting temperature, monomer concentration, monomer ratio, and pH of solution. The composition and microstructure were characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The modified membranes were characterized through water contact angle, water flux measurement and fouling-resistant experiment.
Compatibilization of Natural Fibers/PP Composites
The effect of maleic anhydride grafted polypropylene (PP-g-MA) as a compatibilizer on mechanical, rheological, and morphological properties of rossells/PP and sisal/PP composites was investigated. The fiber loading was 20wt% and the compatibilizer contents were varied from 1-10 phr. The tensile strength and unnotched impact strength of the composites increased with increasing the compatibilizer content.
A Novel Styrene/Maleic Anhydride Copolymer for Polymer Modification by SC CO2
Poly (vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) membranes were modified by supercritical impregnation of St-MAn alternative copolymer (SMA). The SMA, having Mw of higher than 106, were synthesized inside PVDF matrix with SC CO2 as solvent and carrier. The composition and microstructure of modified membrane were characterized by ART-FTIR, ESCA, NMR, DSC and SEM. The thermal stability and hydrophilicity of modified membranes were improved.
Permeability of Polymer Nanocomposites
Permeability of the nylon and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) polymer and naocomposites, biaxially stretched and post fatigued film is measured. Both the tortuous path and crystallinity influence the barrier properties. Permeability is predicted taking into consideration the amorphous phase, crystalline phase and MLS content and compared with the experimental values. Keywords: Permeability, Nanocomposites, PET, Nylon-6
A Novel Fabrication Method and Optimum Tooling Design for Microlens Arrays
This study uses a simple and novel procedure for microlens arrays. The master is formed by room temperature imprint lithography and thermal reflow process. The electroforming is used to fabricate the metal mold insert from master. Finally, micro-hot embossing is used to replicate microlens arrays.
Mechanical Properties of PP/PA/GF Blend Thermoplastics
In order to improve mechanical properties of PP(Polypropylene) / GF(Glass fiber), PP/GF was injection molded with PA(Polyamide) through three procedures. Tensile and flexural test were conducted. The fractured surface of the etched specimens after testing was observed using a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). From the results, PP/PA/GF thermoplastics which were molded by using PP/GF pellet and PA showed higher strength than the other specimens.
Fracture Behavior of Heat-Sealed PP Films under Static and Creep Loadings
Effects of heat-sealing temperature and film direction on mechanical properties and fracture behavior of heat-sealed PP films were investigated. Peel tests were conducted under static and creep loadings. 170 °C heat-sealing specimens were slightly higher than that of the other specimens. Under creep loadings, 170 °C heat-sealing specimens in the transverse direction showed the highest creep property. The fracture mode of the specimens could be divided into 3 types.
Fracture Behavior of Heat-Sealed Poly(Lactic Acid) Films
Effect of heat-sealing temperature on fracture behavior of heat-sealed poly (lactic acid) (PLA) films was investigated according to the Essential Work of Fracture (EWF) technique. The EWF parameters obtained from heat-sealed PLA films that affected by heat-sealing temperature were investigated. The relationship between the EWF parameters and peel strength of heat-sealed PLA films was also discussed.
Novel Chitosan-Alginate Fibers for Wound Dressing Applications
Alginate is a well known bioactive wound-dressing material. Similarly, Chitosan shows potential but has not been commercialized mainly due to high costs. Both materials can be engineered and produced as fibers to improve specific properties. Properties, FTIR and SEM analyses indicate a superior fiber for chitosan hydrolyzed and extruded with alginate. This process leads to synergy of the constituents in the new chitosan-alginate complex. The process is both precise and economical.
Failures of Plastic Products Due to Not Adequately Replacing of Metals by Plastics
Replacing metals by plastics often results in unreliable products. The main failure causes will be presented. As a practical example mechanical and thermal failures of a waste water tank designed for metal and replaced by HDPE will be discussed in detail. The solution to a problem to design snap-fit assemblies on buckling ribs is outlined.
Optical Measurements of the Strain Field in Plastic Products
Experimental verification of FEM predictions is required for reliable predictions of the mechanical behavior of products. Examples of FEM predictions of flax fiber reinforced products and the experimental verification with an optical system (ARAMIS) will be presented.
Soft, High-Temperature-Resistant Blends of Poly(Ethylene Alkyl Acrylate) Copolymers and Polypropylene
Blends of low melt index ethylene alkyl acrylate copolymers with polypropylene give a good combination of low hardness and high upper service temperature. The PP is the minor component, but due to the viscosity ratio of the polymers approaches a co-continuous phase. Of particular advantage are acrylate copolymers produced on a tubular reactor due to the compositional heterogeneity which gives improved compatibility with PP.
The Processing and Performance of Nylon 12/PEBAX Blends
This work studied the effect of a polyether block amide (PEBA) on the rheological, mechanical and thermal properties of nylon 12 polymers. The results showed significant differences in melt viscosity, tensile properties and phase transition temperatures (tan ?) with varying PEBA concentration.
The Effect of Processing Conditions on the Properties of TPUs
In this study a range of thermoplastic polyurethanes were manufactured by various processing methods, temperatures and shear rates. The results indicate that these parameters had a significant effect on the morphological properties, especially at elevated temperatures and shear rates.
Strain Rate Dependent Failure of Plastic Materials
The response of plastic materials to mechanical stress is contingent on many variables. One very important characteristic is the rate at which the stress is applied, otherwise known as the strain rate. The effects of strain rate are reviewed and three case studies are used to illustrate failure resulting from rapid stress loading.
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