SPE Library

The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.

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Conference Proceedings

Improvements in Material Characterization by Uniaxial Hot Tensile Test
F.M. Duarte, J.M. Nóbrega, J.C. Viana, May 2006

Due to its simplicity, uniaxial hot tensile tests are widely used to obtain the mechanical properties of materials. Several difficulties of this type of tests are frequently reported in the literature, especially when high temperatures are employed. This work describes a new device developed to enhance the degree of reliability of uniaxial hot tensile tests; confining the specimen stretching to its neck-down portion and minimizing the grip-slip, the grip extrusion and/or the specimen-grip adhesion that may occur.

Microcellular Open-Cell Foams for Noise Control in Automotive Body Structures
M.Y. Serry Ahmed, P.C. Lee, C.B. Park, N. Atalla, May 2006

Foaming process is controlled for production of novel foams with various microcellular structures and morphologies. The objective is to produce lighter weight sound insulation packages with superior acoustical performance for passive noise control in automotive structures using microcellular foams. This was achieved through the control of the foaming process for production of variable microcellular structures and morphologies for the novel foams under investigation.

Understanding Today's Alphabet Soup in Packaging Regulations?
Sharon M. Ehr, May 2006

Global packaging regulations are changing. A review and update of toxicological and regulatory changes made in United States and EU packaging laws along with an outline of the applicable regulations relating to coloring packaging and its effects on colorant selection will be discussed.

Using Rapid Prototyping and Reverse Engineering to Grow Jobs in Western North Carolina
William L. McDaniel, Phillip Sanger, Michael Clare, May 2006

This paper will describe the development of a prototype for a thermoforming mold that will be used by a promising organization in Western North Carolina. Based upon a flimsy sample, WCU faculty and students reverse-engineered the product, generated a 3D parametric model, produced a working prototype mold, and delivered it to the organization in less than three weeks. The partnership illustrates an excellent industry-education collaboration, and its effect on growing jobs in the region.

Extruded Open-Cell Foams Using Brittle Polymers with CO2
P.C. Lee, G. Li, J.W.S. Lee, C.B. Park, May 2006

This paper presents an extrusion-based, open-cell foaming process using thermoplastic polymers such as polystyrene (PS) and polycarbonate (PC) with supercritical CO2. The effects of CO2 content, surface quenching, die geometry, and temperature on foam morphologies were investigated. Low-density, microcellular, open-cell foams were successfully produced. The large intercellular pores were observed from micrographs for both PS and PC foams at optimum processing conditions.

Modification of Acrylic Coatings with Nanofillers
T.G. Gopakumar, N.S. Patel, M. Xanthos, May 2006

This work focuses on modifying the properties of waterborne acrylic coatings by incorporating nanofillers of different structure, aspect ratio, hydrophilicity and purity. The composites were characterized by SEM for morphology, WAXD for filler dispersion, water permeability and mechanical properties.

The Use of Non-Polar Processing Aids to Improve Efficiencies
Niall Marshall, Edward P. Richard, Gideon Visser, May 2006

The addition of non-polar processing aids has been shown to widen the processing window for manufacturers of film and other extruded products. Opportunities exist to stably run lines at faster speeds with power savings. The benefits of using a non-polar processing aid in blown film are discussed.

On the Design of a Strong Contour Laser Weld Joint Geometry for Closed Hollow Chambers
Suzanne Xiaoqun Xu, Dan Watt, Bobbye Baylis, Paul Daly, May 2006

A combined mechanical-thermal stress analysis of the welding process and further FEA analysis of the subsequent hydraulic pressure failure behaviour was used to create a very strong joint geometry in a simple hollow vessel. The pressure test results exceeded those of vibration welds for the same part.

A Novel Isobutylene-Based TPV
David Marshall, Hideki Ishikawa, Hideki Kawai, Katsuhiko Kimura, Shigemi Matsumoto, May 2006

A fully crosslinked Isobutylene-based TPV has been developed with exceptional gas and moisture barrier properties. Other property benefits are improved, compression set and service temperature, compared with thermoplastic alternatives.

Flow and Cure Modelling of RIM Mouldings -Thermal and Flow Validation
A.J. Mateus, P.G. Martinho, P.J. Bartolo, May 2006

The RIM process involves simultaneous flow and exothermal curing reactions. The optimisation of these events enables to produce parts with better quality and improved properties. The integration of appropriate mathematical models simulating the thermal and flow aspects is experimentally verified.

Ultrasonic Bonding of 3M™ Dual Lock™ Reclosable Fasteners to Polypropylene Substrates
James J. Kobe, May 2006

Polypropylene (PP) is becoming the plastic of choice for many industrial and automotive applications. There are a limited number of methods to attach a 3M™ Dual Lock™ reclosable fastener to a low surface energy (LSE) polypropylene substrate. Pressure sensitive adhesive and pop-in attachment methods have some limitations. Ultrasonic bonding of Dual Lock reclosable fasteners to polypropylene substrates is a new method that overcomes many of these limitations.

Heat Deflection and Mechanical Properties of PVC/PMMA/Clay Composites
N. Chan, G. Carran, D.J.Y.S. Pagé, N. Cunningham, May 2006

PVC/PMMA/clay composites were prepared by melt mixing. Heat deflection temperature and flexural properties of the PVC/PMMA/clay composites were higher than for PVC/clay or neat PVC. XRD showed that PMMA improves the dispersion of the clay in PVC. Clay particles were measured to be 1 ?m.

The Effect of Fiber Contents on the Ejection Force of Deep Tubular Mouldings
A.J. Pontes, N. Alcides, A.S. Pouzada, May 2006

The knowledge of the ejection force is useful for optimizing the design of ejection system in injection moulds. The effect of mould temperature and fiber weight fraction on the ejection force required for deep tubular moldings is studied. The ejection force increases with the fiber weight fraction and decreases with the mould temperature.

Effect of Temperature on Creep and Tensile Properties of LLDPE Nanocomposites
Ali Shaito, Nandika Anne D’Souza, Debora Fairbrother, Jerry Sterling, May 2006

Creep and tensile properties of LLDPE and LLDPE nanocomposite balloon films are studied. Tensile and creep tests were conducted at a range of temperatures. Creep results were fit to the Burgers model. The results indicate that nanocomposites based on the use of maleated polyethylene incorporation into the base polyethylene and montmorillonite layered silicate (MLS) composite have higher mechanical properties.

Absorption and Permeation Properties of Composite Proton Exchange Membranes (PEM)
Smita B. Brijmohan, Montgomery T. Shaw, May 2006

The properties of PEMs with SXLPS particles dispersed and aligned in a crosslinked PDMS matrix were examined. Included in this study was the influence of SXLPS quantity and size on the water and methanol uptake, and on methanol permeability. In addition, the state of water linked with the SO3H groups was examined.

Crystallization Dynamics in Polypropylene-Clay Nanocomposites
Mark A. Treece, James P. Oberhauser, May 2006

This study explores the crystallization dynamics of polypropylene-clay nanocomposites. Calorimetry and optical microscopy tools are employed to study the effect of nanoclay on quiescent crystallization kinetics. While a mini-extruder, designed to apply a shear pulse, is used with turbidity and birefringence measurements to explore the flow-induced crystallization dynamics in nanocomposite systems. Data presented indicates that clay can act as a nucleating agent in both flow and quiescent cases, and subsequently cause enhanced crystallization kinetics.

Thin-Film Thermosiphon Solar Collector Design
Richard O. Rhodes, May 2006

A very low cost, unglazed Thermosiphon Solar Collector constructed from polyethylene film and having an internal heat exchanger has been developed. The collector operates at relatively low temperature and low material stress, decreasing thermal degradation, material creep, and weight. Prototype systems have been built and tested, and processing equipment designed.

Extrusion Foaming of Poly(Lactic Acid) (PLA) Blown with CO2
Joël Reignier, Richard Gendron, Michel Champagne, May 2006

This paper presents a thorough investigation of the continuous extrusion foaming of PLA using CO2 as the blowing agent. Detailed results are given for the plasticization induced as determined from on-line rheometry as well as resulting foam characteristics.

Impact of Polymer Processing on Sorption of Organic and Moisture Vapors by a Gravimetric Approach
Ying Qin, Maria Rubino, Rafael Auras, Hugh Lockhart, May 2006

Sorption of benzaldehyde and moisture vapors in polypropylene resin, sheet, and containers was studied via a Rubotherm magnetic suspension microbalance. Polymer processing has an impact on polymer structure and morphology. A comparison of sorption among the three polypropylene forms demonstrated the marked impact of processing on inducing changes in the barrier properties of the polymer. The simultaneous sorption of organic compounds and moisture demonstrated the combined effect on the sorption.

Dewetting Transition in Thin Polymer Films
Alamgir Karim, May 2006

We use a combinatorial method of investigation to obtain a near-universal scaling curve describing a wetting-dewetting transition line for polystyrene films of fixed thickness by introducing reduced temperature and surface energy variables dependent on molecular weight.

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ANTEC 2016 - Indianapolis, Indiana, USA May 23-25, 2016. [On-line].
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Available: www.4spe.org.

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