SPE Library

The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.

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Conference Proceedings

Thermal and Morphological Properties of Polyethylene Crystals Formed in N-Pentane Under High Pressure
Wei Zhang, Erdogan Kiran, May 2006

The thermal and morphological properties of PE crystals formed in n-pentane at selected pressures from 10 to 54 MPa were studied using DSC and SEM. The results show that the PE crystals that form from these high-pressure conditions display a plate-like morphology which tends to aggregate into ellipsoid-shape structures. DSC studies show that the PE crystals show higher crystallinity and display multiple melting peaks during the first heating scan. This process can be an alternative method for the thermal fractionation.

Blown Films From LDPE-Organoclay and Ionomer-Organoclay Nanocomposites
Rhutesh K. Shah, Rajendra K. Krishnaswamy, Donald R. Paul, May 2006

Mechanical and barrier properties of LDPE and poly(ethylene-co-methacrylic acid) ionomers were improved by melt mixing them with montmorillonite based organoclays. Organoclay structure was optimized to form nanocomposites with good exfoliation, from which films were blown under different conditions.

Modeling the Transient Rheology of a Polypropylene Melt Reinforced with Long And Short Glass Fibers
Aaron P.R. Eberle, Donald G. Baird, Peter Wapperom, May 2006

In this paper we investigate the transient shear rheology of a polypropylene containing long fibers (2.75 to 11 mm, L/D > 150) and short fibers (1 mm, L/D < 50). The objectives of this work are to determine the relationship between stress growth and relaxation behavior of fiber orientation and determine the feasibility of extending Doi's theory for the rheology of rod-like molecules to fiber reinforced materials.

Chemical Attack of UV-Cure Adhesives Involving Polycarbonate
Jessee McCanna, May 2006

UV-cure adhesives are commonly used to assemble a variety of devices molded out of polycarbonate. This paper investigates the effect of uncured or partially cured UV adhesives on elongation-to-break performance of polycarbonate samples, both stressed and unstressed. In addition, the effect of cure time and vapor exposure on elongation-to-break is also summarized.

The Effect of Orientation on Perfluorosulfonate Ionomer Based IPMC Actuation
Joel M. Carr, May 2006

This paper discusses recent findings in the enhancement of actuation properties in ionic polymer metal composites through systematic manipulations of molecular organization and morphology. The preliminary results showed that there is a direct correlation between the morphology of the material and the mechanical properties.

Scratch Behavior of Model Polypropylene Thin Sheets
E. Moghbelli, R.L. Browning, S.F. Hahn, H.-J. Sue, May 2006

The effects of molecular weight (MW) and surface morphology on scratch behavior of model polypropylenes (PP) were investigated. The results suggest that scratch performance is improved when the MW and surface crystallinity of PP are high. Correlation between surface properties and scratch resistance of PP is established and discussed.

Stresses, Adhesion and the Mechanics of Polymer Coatings
Richard John Farris, May 2006

Novel and powerful methods of characterizing the state of stress, the orthotropic elastic coefficients and the energy of adhesion of thin coatings are described. These methods were developed by my research group to help understand the mechanical behavior of coating materials. The systems studied include epoxies, polyimides, photoresists and even some paints and metals. The techniques address issues such as the origin of coating stresses, the influence of the degree of constraint, determining anisotropic elasticity coefficients, and problems associated with adhesion testing.

Working with Organic Pigments in Yellow Color Space
Damien T. Cole, Roger A. Reinicker, May 2006

Formulators coloring plastics and synthetic fibers can select from a variety of organic colorants in order to achieve a final desired color. The choices can be confusing unless the colorants are previously specified or are well known to the formulator. This paper will deal with a subset of the colorants in yellow color space while clarifying the selection process with respect to some of the most important properties of the colorants for plastics and fibers.

What Every Plastics Professional Should Know About Patents and Patenting - Part 2: Important Considerations in Invention Patenting
Amad Tayebi, May 2006

Deciding on what to claim in a patent application and targeting the claims for specific business objectives are very important legal and business decisions. In this article, important considerations influencing such decisions are discussed, including the prior art, patentability of the claimed invention and defining claim terms. Relevant examples are given to illustrate such considerations.

Statistical Tools for Predicting Flame Resistance of PC/ABS Blends
Srinivas Siripurapu, Naveen Agarwal, May 2006

Flame-retarded products must pass the requirements of UL94 testing. Only a pass/fail type of data is obtained which makes it difficult to predict longterm capability. This paper describes statistical tools to predict UL94 V and 5V capability of PC/ABS blends for robust design of such products. In particular, use of parameters such as probability of first-time-pass, p(FTP), for V-testing, and time-to-drip (TTD) and time-to-hole (TTH) for 5V-testing is described.

Design for Six Sigma and Product Development in the Plastics Industry
Vinny Sastri, May 2006

Developing a product that meets the customer’s requirements requires a collaborative effort from marketing, technology, manufacturing and other functions across the organization. Customer’s requirements should be translated to specific product properties and specifications. The designed product must be robust during manufacturing and should be shipped to the customer on time and with the right quality. This paper describes the value of critical parameter management using Design for Six Sigma rigor with a case study.

Study on Mechanical Properties of Dynamically Cured Novolac/PP Blends
Limei Cui, Yong Zhang, Yinxi Zhang, May 2006

In this paper, the dynamic vulcanization process was applied to polypropylene (PP) and novolac type phenolic resin blends compatibilized with maleic anhydride-grafted PP (MAH-g-PP). The influences of dynamic cure and novolac content on mechanical properties of the PP/novolac blends were investigated. The results showed that the dynamically cured PP/MAH-g-PP/novolac blends had better mechanical properties and thermal stability than that of uncured PP/novolac blends, uncured PP/MAH-g-PP/novolac and dynamically cured PP/novolac blends.

High Strength Cellulose Triacetate Fibers
S.R. Allen, May 2006

Sign (+/-) of birefringence observations are shown to be a powerful tool for development of high strength cellulose triacetate and regenerated cellulose fibers. These simple observations provide a means to monitor both the extent and uniformity of reaction in the preparation of cellulose triacetate using heterogeneous acetylation conditions. Possible deacetylation of the triacetate during liquid crystalline fiber processing from trifluoroacetic acid solvent systems, and relationship to fiber strength are also described.

Recycling Thermosets: The Use of High-Pressure High-Temperature Sintering (HPHTS) and Degraded Material as Means of Producing New Products
Drew E. Williams, Richard J. Farris, May 2006

High-Pressure High-Temperature Sintering (HPHTS) of waste thermosets allowed for the production of new parts from 100% recycled material. This technique along with utilizing degraded material as filler has resulted in the successful recycling of thermosetting materials at high recycle levels. Finally, Chemicals Stress Relaxation experiments offered excellent insight into the mechanism of HPHTS and the degradation process.

Mechanical Properties of Injection-Molded Fiber-Reinforced Parts Theory and Verification
Cristoph Hinse, Reinhard Haag, May 2006

Mechanical properties of fiber-reinforced plastic parts largely depend on fiber orientation obtained from flow simulation to calculate anisotropic properties. This paper describes theoretical and experimental studies which showed the effects of linking process simulation and structural mechanical analysis to optimize the design process.

True 3D Numerical Simulation for Micro Injection Molding
WenHsien Yang, Dan Chang, Venny Yang, PeiChi Chang, ShengJye Hwang, May 2006

The demand for miniature molded parts has been growing over last decade. The filling in micro structure regions are primarily 3D and hence cannot be properly modeled by the 2.5D approach. A 3D model is developed to simulate the micro molding. The numerical results are compared with the experiment.

True 3D CAE Visualization of Intra-Cavity" Filling Imbalance in Injection"
Jimmy C. Chien, Chao-Tsai Huang, Wen-Hsien Yang, David C. Hsu, May 2006

The intra-cavity flow imbalanced phenomena have been discovered in either a single cavity or a multi-cavity mold, and result in the uneven product quality within one cavity. In this paper, 3D numerical simulation method is applied to realize this imbalanced phenomenon and its physical mechanism.

Drop Test of a Compound Structure Composed of PC Plate and PCB
Shia-Chung Chen, Lei-Ti Huang, Zong-Wei Huang, Tong-Yue Wu, May 2006

This paper proposes a feasible procedure in which both experiment and simulation are iteratively used to assess the responses to drop tests. An example of compound structure, which is basically comprised of a PC plate and PCB, was tested and simulated to show the performance of the proposed procedures. Compared with the results of a patented drop test platform, our test results not only achieved good correlations, but computational cost could also be considerably reduced.

Cae Analysis of Rapid Thermal Response Molding Process for Thin Wall Parts
Keun Park, Byung Kim, Donggang Yao, May 2006

The present work covers simulation of thin wall molding using the Rapid Thermal Response (RTR) molding process. In order to account for the unique thermal boundary conditions of the RTR mold, coupled analysis with heat transfer simulation is suggested. Both numerical and experimental results show good flow estimation and birefringence prediction under rapid mold heating.

True 3D and Fully Transient Mold Temperature Simulation for RHCM Process
YuFeng Chen, Venny Yang, WenHsien Yang, Rong-Yeu Chang, May 2006

In the Rapid Heat Cycle Molding (RHCM) Process, the mold temperatures are usually quit high during filling and get cooled quickly in the cooling phase. A true 3D and transient thermal response heating and cooling analysis model is proposed to help analysis and optimize the process.

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ANTEC 2016 - Indianapolis, Indiana, USA May 23-25, 2016. [On-line].
Society of Plastics Engineers
Available: www.4spe.org.

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