SPE Library

The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.

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Conference Proceedings
Two-Station Embossing Process for Rapid Fabrication of Polymer Microstructures
Donggang Yao, Allen Y. Yi, Lei Li, Pratapkumar Nagarajan, May 2006
An embossing strategy involving a hot station and a cold station for sequentially heating and cooling the embossing tool was investigated to reduce cycle times in hot embossing polymer microstructures. Experimental studies showed that aluminum stamps with a thickness of 1.4 mm can be rapidly heated from room temperature to 200°C in 3 s using contact heating against a hot station at 250°C. Selected surface microfeatures including microchannels and microlens arrays were successfully embossed using a cycle time around 10 s.
An Innovative Approach to Involve Grade School Students in College Projects
Jonathan Meckley, Lucy Lenhardt, May 2006
The introduction of engineering to prospective students starts when they are in high school. They have already made some decisions about their career. This project involves 6th grade students designing a car body, then Penn State Erie students commercialize that design.
A New Class of High-Performance Compostable Plastic Bags and Can Liners
Frank A. Ruiz, May 2006
Heritage Bag Company has developed compostable bags and liners, which are produced from composites utilizing polymer and mineral materials technology of Heritage Plastics, Inc. This product line is based on proprietary blends of different biodegradable polymers which have been modified using mineral reinforcement technology to produce a readily extrudable polymer composite. This modification yields polymer processing, end-use products such as film and bags with characteristics very similar those obtained with higher-alpha olefin LLDPE resins, yet meet the requirements of ASTM D 6400-99.
Investigation of Reinforcement in Polymer Nanocomposites Using Polymer Thin Films
Jiong (Jenny) Shen, Yong Yang, L. James Lee, May 2006
Reinforcement in polymer nanocomposites was explored using polymer thin film technology. Polystyrene (PS) thin film spin-coated on the graphite substrate was used to resemble the interface between PS and carbon-based nanoparticles. Glass transition temperature (Tg) of the nano-confined polymer was observed to be higher than the bulk value, indicating the strong PS-substrate (graphite) interactions. The confinement becomes more pronounced with reduced film thickness. CO2-induced Tg depression was observed for this thin film system as well.
Development of New TPV Materials with Enhanced Scratch Resistance
Eric P. Jourdain, Leander Kenens, May 2006
Thermoplastic elastomers have begun penetrating automotive sealing systems due to their ability to offer weight reduction, ease of processing, long term sealing, and recyclability versus traditional thermoset materials; however use in some visible applications has been limited by scratch resistance.We describe the general principles of the scratch mechanism and the existing laboratory techniques to assess a material’s scratch resistance. A relationship between a material’s physical properties, surface properties and its scratch resistance is discussed.
Special Effects
Scott Heitzman, May 2006
The current range of products designed to attain special effects continues to expand. Growth was driven by technological innovations and through modifications of existing pigments and additives. This paper will discuss this expanded pallet and the effects and applications for which they were intended.
Modeling of Water Debinding of Metal Injection Molded Parts
Juan Adames, Arkady Leonov, May 2006
An experimental protocol for measuring mass diffusivity during water debinding of metal injection molded parts is proposed. The diffusivity found, although dependent on part geometry and debinding time, can be averaged to model the polymer extraction.
Resistance Welding of Glass-Fiber-Reinforced PP: Modeling and Experiments
S. Tan, G. Zak, P.J. Bates, J. Mah, May 2006
This research models the temperature profiles generated during resistance implant welding of polypropylene composites. The experimental current-time conditions at which meltdown occurs and experimentally measured temperatures compare favorably with the model results.
Development of a Device to Measure Rheological Properties at High Frequency
Chelsea Braybrook, Phil Bates, Marianna Kontopoulou, May 2006
A commercially available linear vibration welder has been modified to allow measurements of complex viscosity, storage and loss moduli of polymeric materials at frequencies relevant to those encountered in vibration welding. In order to make these measurements, a parallel plate fixture was constructed and mounted on a linear vibration welder. Piezoelectric shear force sensors and two accelerometers were used to accurately measure the forces and accelerations imposed on the polymeric materials. The device has been used to test two model viscoelastic materials.
Post-Yield Deformation of Glassy Networks: Effects of Molecular Architecture
Kevin J. Calzia, Alan J. Lesser, May 2006
The post-yield deformation of epoxy-based networks with controlled architectures is investigated. Particular attention is paid to changes in crosslink density and backbone structure and how they affect the strain hardening response of the glass. Scaling effects with temperature are also considered. In addition, differences in the stain at failure and rupture energy of the networks are explored.
Dimensional Stability of Single Site and Ziegler-Natta Ethylene Coplymers in Rotational Molding
H. Xu, A. Medina, C. Bellehumeur, May 2006
Experiments were carried out to evaluate the dimensional stability of rotational molding grade resins. The development of residual stresses was modeled using a thermo-elastic approach. Results confirmed that both crystallization behavior and cooling conditions contribute to warpage.
Honeycombs Impregnation by Polymers with Nanofillers
Jennifer Muoghalu, Bernice Nzioki, Nsikakabasi Akpan, Andrey Beyle, Christopher C. Ibeh, May 2006
Main mechanical properties of honeycombs are improved by impregnation of their walls by polymers containing nanofillers. Maximal effect is achieved by carbon nanofibers application. Structure of walls becomes of sandwich-like, what is increasing the effective stiffness and especially compression and shear strength of honeycombs, which is determined by walls buckling.
Confinement in Layered Silicate Modified Thin Films
Laxmi K. Sahu, Bruce Gnade, Nandika Anne D’Souza, May 2006
In this paper we have studied the effect of montomorillonite layered silicate (MLS) nanoclay in polymer thin films by considering the effect of concentration and different film thickness on linear coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) and glass transition temperature (Tg). CTE and Tg of thin polymer and nanocomposite films were calculated by using ellipsometry. They were also correlated with the interaction between the substrate and film and their chain mobility.
TPU/Nanoclay Composites Produced via Reactive Extrusion
Shane R. Parnell, May 2006
In this study, reactive extrusion was used to polymerize a typical thermoplastic polyurethane in situ with an organically modified layered silicate. Depending on the incorporation method, varying degrees of nanoclay dispersion were achieved. However, even with good nanoclay exfoliation, significant improvements in tensile and barrier properties were not achieved. Compared to analogous composites produced via melt compounding, composites produced via reactive extrusion exhibited superior properties.
Recycling Non-Halogen FR-PC/ABS
Paul Moy, May 2006
PC/ABS composites used extensively for laptop housings have grown significantly in the plastic waste stream. For these systems, required flame retardancy is done either through system design or composite formulations. Many manufacturers opt for non-halogen FRs such as triaryl phosphates. This paper will look at these options, measuring properties relative to recycling issues and using common industrial practices, present performance in a realistic recycling program. This study also considers additives found useful as stabilizers.
Designing with TPO for Innovative High Gloss Mold-In-Color Automotive Applications
LaRon M. Brown, Mitesh Shah, David Smith, David Edge, Sudhir Bafna, Matt Binkinz, May 2006
Thermoplastic Polyolefins (TPO) are used extensively in interior and exterior automotive applications due to their various advantages. The ultimate goal, to replace a painted part with high gloss mold-incolor (MIC) plastic, is now within reach with a new line of TPO products. Design Challenges, performance, system cost and colorability of this new technology are reviewed in this paper.
Supramolecular Polymers at Interfaces
Jeonghan Kim, Farrell R. Kersey, David M. Loveless, Stephen L. Craig, May 2006
When macromolecular superstructures are defined by very specific chemical interactions, their properties are likely to be very sensitive to the steric constraints of interfaces. Modular systems of molecules, constructed for the purpose of obtaining structure-activity relationships, provide extremely useful molecular tools for probing polymer physics in two regimes: (1) linear polymers reversibly assembled along their main chains, and (2) covalent polymer brushes reversibly crosslinked by thermodynamically similar, but kinetically dissimilar, intermolecular interactions.
Outgassing Behavior of E Beam Irradiated HDPE and ETFE
Sanjiv Bhatt, Rich Hoffman, May 2006
Electron Beam irradiated high density polyethylene (HDPE) and ethylene tetra fluoro ethylene (ETFE) was studied by performing organic outgassing studies.Effects of radiation levels and aging are beyond the scope of this work.It was found that the outgassing in HDPE and ETFE increased with increased exposure to E Beam, decreased with time, and increased with temperature. ETFE, due its unique combination of tetra fluoro ethylene and ethylene, showed greater outgassing as a function of temperature.This work is limited to total outgassing analysis. Analysis of the species within the total is beyond the scope.
Modeling the Morphology Development of Ethylene Copolymers in Rotational Molding
H. Xu, A. Medina, C.T. Bellehumeur, May 2006
Morphology development was modeled using the phase field theory. The model successfully captures variations caused by changes in material formulation and molding conditions. Since morphological features are contributing factors to product performance, the model will be useful for process optimization.
Polymer Nanocomposites Fibers and Applications
Abdellah Ajji, Johanne Denault, Martin Bureau, Minh-Tan Ton-That, David Trudel-Boucher, Daniel Côté, May 2006
Different polymer nanocomposite (polypropylene-clay and polyethylene terephthalate-hydroxyapatite) fibers were produced by melt blowing. Fibers exhibit interesting mechanical properties attributed to polymer and nanoparticle orientation. Fibers could be organized and consolidated into 3D structures with retained improved mechanical properties. Structural and biomedical of these structures are presented.

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Brown, H. L. and Jones, D. H. 2016, May.
"Insert title of paper here in quotes,"
ANTEC 2016 - Indianapolis, Indiana, USA May 23-25, 2016. [On-line].
Society of Plastics Engineers
Available: www.4spe.org.

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