SPE Library

The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.

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Conference Proceedings

Investigation of Melting in a Single-Screw Extruder
Atakan Altinkaynak, Mahesh Gupta, Mark A. Spalding, Sam L. Crabtree, May 2006

Screw freezing experiments in a single-screw extruder were conducted for an ABS resin. The melting of ABS was also simulated by a full three-dimensional simulation of the two-phase flow in the compression section of the extruder. Numerical simulations as well as experiments exhibit the Maddock melting mechanism. However, numerical predictions and experimental data have some discrepancies, which are discussed.

The Extended Supply Chain and the New Economy
Margaret H. Baumann, May 2006

The extended supply chain represents an opportunity for improved products and services and as a source for new business models. This paper will explore the opportunities that exist for an enterprise when it understands the supply chain and its role in it. This is particularly important for materials and components suppliers in today's changing global economy.

Scale Up of Polypropylene Vis-Breaking for Industrial Application
Franco Guastaferro, Iván Fernández, May 2006

A statistical experimental design was used to find the required concentration of a novel additive in order to obtain the same rheological behavior of higher priced, commercial controlled-rheology polypropylenes. A lab extruder was used to perform the experimental design, minimizing the amount of material needed. According to the results, recommendations were given to process two different lower priced polypropylenes with the additive in an industrial extruder with very good agreement with lab predictions.

A Multi-Sample Melt Micro-Rheometer
Anthony J. Bur, Kalman B. Migler, May 2006

We have developed a multi-sample melt micro-rheometer (M3R) based on pressure driven channel flow and designed for simultaneous measurement of multiple polymer melts. viscosities The required sample size is between 50 mg and 100 mg. The driving force for the rheometer is pressurized gas from a nitrogen tank that forces polymer melt into a slit. The melt flow is monitored using a video camera that views the flow front through a sapphire window. The device contains no moving parts and no gaskets or O-rings. Measurements of polyethylene and polycarbonate are presented.

Effect of Environmental Stress Cracking Agents on, Fatigue and Creep of a MDPE Pipe
R. Ayyer, A. Hiltner, E. Baer, R. Matheson, May 2006

The effect of environmental liquids on slow crack propagation in MDPE pipe is investigated. At 50°C, the differences in kinetics and mechanism of crack propagation in fatigue and creep are described relative to that in air. The relationship between fatigue and creep was strongly affected by the presence of environmental liquids.

Flow Phenomena in an Intermeshing Twin-Screw Reactor/Devolatilizer
David B. Todd, May 2006

Using an extruder for a devolatilizer or condensation reactor requires balancing the mixing, degree of fill, residence time distribution, and vapor pressure drop effects. Various viscous fluids, rotor configurations, and operating conditions have been examined in a 100 mm diameter intermeshing corotating twin-screw extruder.

Plastic Pallet Design Improvement using a CAE Software
Magda M. Castillo, Agustín Torre, Luis Marín, May 2006

A CAE software was used to simulate the end-use load requirements of a plastic pallet. The simulation results indicated the critical areas of the part that need to be reinforced. Based on this, changes to the design were done using a CAD software until the functionality requirements were fulfilled while maintaining part appearance and ensuring low cost. Deformation results agreed relatively well with the actual deformations under extreme load conditions.

Effect of Shear Induced Flow Imbalance on Multi-Cavity Molds using Gas Assisted Injection Molding
Christopher Sandieson, Matthew Harp, May 2006

This paper presents a study on the effect of shear induced flow imbalances on a thick flanged plate molded with gas assist. Samples were molded with and without melt rotation technology and the results contrasted. Flow imbalances and impact on gas distribution and gas penetration were analyzed. Melt rotation technology corrected the flow imbalances seen in multi-cavity tooling and helped gas penetration and distribution.

Comparison and Optimization of Five-Gallon Container Designs using CAE
Magda M. Castillo, Luis Marín, Agustín Torres, May 2006

The design quality of several five-gallon pails was evaluated using a CAE software. This software simulates the load under actual and worst case storage conditions. According to the results, recommendations were made to improve each design. In addition, the containers properties were measured to analyze the effect of processing conditions on their performance.

Ballistic Impact Resistance of Biaxially Oriented Polypropylene
Y. Yang, G. Thompson, H. Tai, A. Hiltner, E. Baer, May 2006

Biaxially oriented polypropylene (PP) processed by cross-rolling was investigated for application as an improved ballistic resistant material. Cross-rolled PP has greatly improved toughness properties as indicated by both puncture and ballistic tests. Cross-rolling creates a lamellar morphology which is responsible for the unique cone-shape damage mechanism obtained under ballistic deformation conditions.

Polymer-Based Solar Thermal Systems: Past, Present and Potential Products
Jay D. Burch, May 2006

Conventional solar thermal systems primarily use metal and glass materials and metal-processing technology. Polymers offer potential for reduced costs through lower materials and manufacturing costs, weight reduction and parts integration. This paper reviews past and present polymer solar heating systems, and suggests potential opportunities for development of solar thermal products.

Cold Curing Epoxy Adhesives for Building Applications
G. Hülder, G.W. Ehrenstein, May 2006

Polymers open access to many new production techniques. This also applies for the building industry. CFRPstraps bonded with special cold curing adhesives have become an important technique for the supplementary reinforcement of buildings. For the successful application the specific material behaviour, especially of the adhesive, has to be considered. Thermal application limits were investigated with a method based on DMA-curves. They suggest that often stated values close to the glass transitions temperature for such adhesives should be reconsidered.

Rheology of High Molecular Weight Polyethylenes with SCCO2
Matthew D. Wilding, Donald G. Baird, May 2006

The effects of using supercritical carbon dioxide (SCCO2) to melt process high molecular weight polyethylene are studied. High molecular weight polyethylene (HDPE) is studied in an effort to produce high strength fibers and materials in a melt extrusion process. Dynamic, capillary, and slit-die rheometry are used to quantify the effect SCCO2 has on the melt viscosity of high Mw HDPEs. Carbon dioxide uptake is quantified using mass flow measurements.

Development and Use of Eco-Plastics in Mexico and Latin America
Veronika Pesinova, Ranganath Shastri, May 2006

In Mexico and other countries of Latin America, the per capita consumption of plastics has more than doubled during the last decade. This results in the increased generation of plastic residues which leads to the growing plastics waste disposal problem. This paper presents a concept of Eco-plastics" which is an integrated approach to solving plastic waste generation challenges in Latin America. A feasibility study is recommended as a first step towards the implementation of this concept."

The Center for Nanocomposites and Multifunctional Materials at Pittsburg State University
Christopher C. Ibeh, Andrey Beyle, David Hui, May 2006

This project is a collaborative effort by Pittsburg State University and its partner institutions, University of New Orleans, North Carolina A & T University and a consortium of advisory member companies. It was initiated in the Fall semester of 2004 and received authorization of the Office of Naval Research (ONR) in March 2005. The research topics and activities of the partners focus on implementation of the Multifunctional Materials For Naval Structures" project."

Measurement of Gas Solubility in Polylactide
G. Li, H. Li, L.S. Turng, Shaoqin Gong, May 2006

The solubility of N2 and CO2 in plylactide melt was measured at 180 °C and 200 °C using a magnetic suspension balance. The Simha-Somcynsky (SS) equation of state (EOS) and Sanchez-Lacombe (SL) EOS were applied for the swollen volume prediction to obtain the buoyancy compensation during the determination of the solubility.

Mechanical Behavior of Cured Epoxy: Effects of Ultrasonic Processing
Gerri Bernard, Richard D. West, Vivak M. Malhotra, May 2006

Our recent research suggests that ultrasonic cavitation can be an effective tool for the fabrication of polymer nanocomposites. However, how high intensity cavitation modifies the polymers needs to be understood. We report that cavitation not only enhances the curing rate of a commercial epoxy polymer but also increases the stiffness of the cured sample without lowering the flexural strength. Our results indicate that there is a critical processing time beyond which polymer degradation occurs.

Failure Mode Characterization of Glass Fiber Filled Plastic Using Fractography
Niles G. Stenmark, May 2006

Several exemplar fracture surfaces of a glass filled plastic material were studied. The material chosen for this investigation was Noryl® GFN2, a 20% glass fiber reinforced blend of poly(phenylene oxide) (PPO) and polystyrene (PS) from G.E. Plastics. The generated failure modes of this material included tensile overload, flexural overload, impact and fatigue. This paper will focus on identifying potentially unique fracture features for each type of cracking.

Structure and Properties of TPO-Based Nanocomposites
Do Hoon Kim, Paula D. Fasulo, William R. Rodgers, Donald R. Paul, May 2006

Thermoplastic polyolefin nanocomposites with different ratios of maleated polypropylene (PP-g-MA) to organoclay were prepared in a twin-screw extruder. Mechanical and thermal properties were measured and compared with composite theory. These properties will be discussed in terms of the morphology of the dispersed clay and elastomer phases and the characteristics of the matrix and dispersed phases.

Isothermal Enthalpy Recovery in a Polymer Glass After Carbon Dioxide Jumps
Lameck Banda, Mataz Alcoutlabi, Gregory B. McKenna, May 2006

A novel technique to measure enthalpy recovery in polymer glasses after carbon dioxide pressure jumps has been developed in our laboratory. Specifically, we modified a Setaram C80 Calvet differential scanning (DSC) calorimeter to work under moderate CO2 pressures. In the present work, we show first results for such experiments for polystyrene in which the pressure is changed from 4 MPa to 2 MPa, 1 MPa and ambient conditions.

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