SPE Library

The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.

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Conference Proceedings
REDUCING CYCLE TIMES & COSTS BY SIMPLIFYING MOLD DESIGNS USING COLLAPSIBLE CORE & EXPANDABLE CAVITY TECHNOLOGY
Alan Hickok, May 2010
Today there are cost-effective alternatives to traditional rack & gear systems for molding threaded parts.Molders can also benefit from cycle times reduced by as much as 15% ƒ?? 20% percent. Through the use of side by side comparisons and case studies, these benefits, as well as design simplification and cleaner, less complicated maintenance, will be shown. More profitable avenues for molders can be realized by calculating the savings between old and new approaches to unscrewing applications.
THEORETICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF INTERFACIAL INSTABILITIES IN COEXTRUSION FEED-BLOCK DIES
D.S. Langhe, A. Hiltner, E. Baer, May 2010
In this work, wave type of interfacial instabilities occurring during the coextrusion process have been investigated by using different feedblock geometries and polymers. It has been found that the onset of interfacial instabilities can be captured by the quantification of the stretching discontinuity occurring on the interface between different polymers.
PREDICTION ON THE WARPAGE OF INJECTION MOLDED GLASS FIBER REINFORCED POLYMERS WITH COMPOSITE MECHANICS
P. Gutmann, D.S. Bangarusampath, V. Altstädt, H. Schmalz, A.H.E. Müller, May 2010
Based on the microstructure characteristics of injection molded short fiber reinforced polymers, a model was developed to predict the warpage. Multiscale composite mechanics was used to describe the materials properties during the processing. A shin shell element composed improved Allman membrane element and discrete Kirchhoff bending element was put forward to calculate the warpage of injection molded products. The results of prediction were compared with experimental results.
INFLUENCE OF THE MICROSTRUCTURE ON THE FOAMING BEHAVIOR OF AN IMMISCIBLE BLEND
P. Gutmann , D.S. Bangarusampath , V. Altstädt , H. Ruckdäschel , H. Schmalz , A.H.E. Müller, May 2010
The foaming behavior of immiscible blends is affected by many factors as the morphology or the viscosity ratio. To investigate the influence of the microstructure on the foaming behavior of an immiscible blend the morphology of a blend was systematically changed by varying the phase content. The blends were foamed using a batch-foaming process and the achieved foam structures were correlated to the blend morphology and the properties of the blend phases.
POLYMER MELT FLOW ANALYSIS IN SPIRAL FLOW INJECTION MOLDING
N. O-Charoen , T. Hashimoto , Y. W. Leong , H. Hamada, May 2010
The internal structure of polycarbonate / acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (PC/ABS) blend injection molding was investigated by using a spiral flow mold. The thickness of skin and core layers through thickness direction was evaluated from the size and shape of cavities (ABS rich region) in the cross sections of etched specimens.The microstructure development was analyzed from the computed solidification velocity of the polymer melt. As a result the maximum shear stress and solidification time of the resin was important in determining the final morphological properties.
APPLIED RHEOLOGY FOR HDPE DIE DROOL PHENOMENON
Siqiang Zhu, Rahul Rasal, Douglas Hirt, May 2010
In this work, two different HDPEs were investigated from rheological as well as die drool phenomenon point of view. It has been revealed that long-chain branching and low polymer melt elasticity significantly reduce die drool phenomena at the die exit region.
3D SIMULATION OF THE FLUTED MIXER ELEMENT BEHAVIOR
Pradip Paik, Kamal K Kar, May 2010
One of the most important, yet problematic, issues in the extrusion process is achieving good mixing. Considerable prior efforts have been made to understand different types of mixing elements for single-screw and twin-screw extrusion. However, there is still a lack of good process values or criteria that can be used for design purposes. The focus of this work is to better quantify the mixing behavior, using 3D FEM analysis, to develop some design criteria. This study will focus on the fluted mixer, comparing common design variations and the effect of material viscosity and process conditions.
GAS-ASSISTED MOLD SURFACE HEATING FOR IMPROVING THE QUALITIES OF INJECTION MOLDED PARTS
Shia-Chung Chen, Jen-An Chang, Hsin-Shu Peng, Chan-Yuan Tsao, May 2010
In this study, hot gas is utilized to achieve rapid mold surface heating. Different inlet sizes (4mm, 6mm, 8mm) at the mold entrance was designed. Mold surface temperature was raised to above glass transition temperature within few secondsƒ?? heating prior to injection then mold is closed for melt injection. Heating speed can be as high as 40 oC/s. Hot gas heating was does eliminate the fiber floating marks of molded parts and achieving high surface quality. It was found that the gas inlet size can affect the heating speed and heating uniformity.
CONICAL COUNTER-ROTATING TWIN SCREW EXTRUDER DESIGNS FOR NON-PVC APPLICATIONS
Lei Xie, Gerhard Ziegmann, May 2010
Conical counter-rotating twin screw extruders have traditionally been used for PVC profile extrusion. With adjustments to screw configuration and barrel design, the counter rotating twin screw extruder can process other resins as well. Process advantages such as lower discharge temperature and residence time control can be realized as compared to other extrusion devices such as single screw extruders.
IMPROVING THE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF POLYETHYLENE BY CRYOGENIC MIXING WITH MULTI-WALLED CARBON NANOTUBES
Sahil Gupta, Erin Camponeschi, Ellen Kloppenborg, David C. Venerus, Jay D. Schieber, May 2010
Cryogenic ball-milling process was used to produce Polyethylene/CNT nanocomposites; containing 1wt% of Multi-walled carbon nanotubes. Through tensile testing an increase of up to 28% in elastic modulus was observed with respect to the matrix. The morphology of the nanocomposite, and the degree of dispersion of the MWCNTs were studied using SEM and light transmission microscopy. Both MWCNT ropes and aggregates were observed; also wetting of the nanotubes by the matrix was evidenced.
STUDY OF OPTIMAL THERMAL DISTRIBUTION DESIGN FOR MANIFOLD HEATER
Mike Barnstead, Frank Wagner, May 2010
A uniform heat distribution in the manifold temperature is a key factor in a successful hot runner system. In this study, a CAE software simulation was used to help visualize the design of the adapter placed on the cartridge heater and working on the manifold as the interface of the heat source. Using the CAE simulation, we determined the optimal thermal distribution by designing a grooved adapter to handle the heat flow orientation.
CONSIDERATIONS FOR PRODUCING HIGH QUALITY PLATED PLASTIC COMPONENTS
Mike Barnstead , Frank Wagner, May 2010
The plating of plastic components for use on automobiles and other items is increasing due to the cost and the many desirable properties of the plated plastic component such as weight reduction. The goal of this paper is to examine the process cycle of preparing plastic components prior to plating as well as design molding and racking concerns specific to electroplating.
CONSIDERATIONS FOR PRODUCING HIGH QUALITY PLATED PLASTIC COMPONENTS
Mike Barnstead , Frank Wagner, May 2010
The plating of plastic components for use on automobiles and other items is increasing due to the cost and the many desirable properties of the plated plastic component, such as weight reduction. The goal of this paper is to examine the process cycle of preparing plastic components prior to plating, as well as design, molding and racking concerns specific to electroplating.
DETERMINATION OF VALID MINIMUM DIMENSIONS OF DDENT SPECIMENS TO EVALUATE THE ESSENTIAL WORK OF FRACTURE (EWF) OF POLYETHYLENES
Mariselis Trujillo , Karina G. Izquierdo , Johan J. Sánchez , Alejandro J. Müller, May 2010
We studied how the dimensions of test specimens affect EWF results. One grade of commercial HDPE was evaluated. We demonstrate that reductions of 20 to 30% of conventional dimensions used for DDENT geometry allow reproducible and valid results, similar to those obtained with larger specimens. Results show that it is not possible to reduce dimensions more than 30% and still comply with geometric validations related to EWF.
POLYETHYLENE TEREPHTHALATE REINFORCED THERMOPLASTIC COMPOSITES
Gowri Dorairaju, Gregory Morose, Daniel F. Schmidt, May 2010
Fiber-reinforced polypropylene (PP) composites represent an attractive solution for industries to produce tailor-made materials. Poly-ethylene terephthalate (PET) fibers are chosen in this work. PET fibers are cable-wired by using a PP matrix and the final composites show good balance between high impact properties, even at very low temperatures, improved stiffness and fracture strain. The effects of fiber concentration, types of PP matrices, types and concentrations of dispersing agents are investigated.
BLENDING OF RECYCLE PE BLOWN FILM AND INJECTION MOULDING GRADES
Jeremy R. Austin, May 2010
The affects on the mechanical and rheological properties of blends of recycled blown film (BM) and injection moulded milk containers (IM) were studied. Tensile, flexural and thermal properties remained unchanged with resultant increasing MFI. Anomalous results appear to occur between the 80/20% w/w (BM/IM) and 60/40% w/w (BM/IM) blends as confirmed by GPC, MFI and density.
ANALYSIS OF METALLOCENE BASED LLDPE FLOW WITH RESPECT TO DIE DROOL PHENOMENON BY USING FEM AND FLOW VISUALIZATION EXPERIMENT
M. Zatloukal , K. Chaloupkova , M. Martyn , P. Coates, May 2010
In this work the relationship between die exit geometry and die drool phenomenon for metallocene based LLDPE has been investigated experimentally by using laboratory extrusion line equipped by specially designed capillary die and flow visualization cell as well as theoretically by using viscoelastic Finite Element Method.
SAFETY FACTORS IN PLASTIC PARTS USING LINEAR ANALYSIS
Jesús Fuenmayor , Joel Bohórquez, May 2010
The factor of safety (FOS) is a key design parameter for any part subjected to stress. FOS is of special interest when a plastic part is designed because of the highly variable plastic properties. Several experimental tests were conducted to end-user parts manufactured with HDPE PP and PVC which were exposed to different kind of loads until part failure. Mechanical simulations considering a linear material behavior were performed under the same loads and restraints conditions employed in the experimental tests in order to determine the proper FOS to be considered.
SAFETY FACTORS IN PLASTIC PARTS USING LINEAR ANALYSIS
Jesús Fuenmayor , Joel Bohórquez, May 2010
The factor of safety (FOS) is a key design parameter for any part subjected to stress. FOS is of special interest when a plastic part is designed because of the highly variable plastic properties. Several experimental tests were conducted to end-user parts, manufactured with HDPE, PP and PVC, which were exposed to different kind of loads until part failure. Mechanical simulations considering a linear material behavior were performed under the same loads and restraints conditions employed in the experimental tests, in order to determine the proper FOS to be considered.
AN OVERVIEW OF INTERNAL COOLING IN ROTATIONAL MOULDING
S.B. Tan , P.R. Hornsby , M. McAfee , M.P. Kearns , M. McCourt , P.R. Hanna, May 2010
Internal cooling is an attractive way to reduce the cycle times and enhance the product properties in rotational moulding. A review on the different internal cooling approaches undertaken by various researchers in the past is presented. Internal water spray cooling is considered as an alternative cooling technique and the important process parameters for this technique are highlighted. These parameters are believed to affect the cooling efficiency and product quality when internal water spray cooling is applied.


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"Insert title of paper here in quotes,"
ANTEC 2016 - Indianapolis, Indiana, USA May 23-25, 2016. [On-line].
Society of Plastics Engineers, ISBN: 123-0-1234567-8-9, pp. 000-000.
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