The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.
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Antimicrobial Additives in Medical Plastics Compounds
Bacterial infections in hospitals are a leading cause of death in the U.S. and can be caused by bacterial growth on plastic medical devices. The purpose of this paper is to identify effects of microorganisms on plastics, discuss pros and cons of antimicrobial additives in medical plastics.
Measurement of Surface Properties of Polymeric Materials Using Nanosphere Embedment Measurements
Here we report results from our ongoing investigation of the surface properties of polymers using a nanoparticle embedment method that was originally pioneered by Teichroeb and Forrest. We describe a viscoelastic contact mechanics solution that includes surface adhesive forces and a time dependent Poisson's ratio. The results show that, with properly designed experiments, both the surface adhesion properties and the surface rheological properties can be extracted from nanosphere embedment measurements.
A Test Method for Rolling Resistance of Rubber Compounds
A test method is described for measuring energy losses in rolling, using the damped oscillations of a pendulum. The amplitude of oscillation decays initially at a constant rate, and changes to a decreasing rate as the swings become small. In principle, the two processes provide separate measures of energy dissipation. The proposed method could be used for studying the effects of surface features of tire treads and roads on tire rolling resistance, in addition to characterizing the dissipative properties of tread compounds.
High Whiteness Masking Masterbatch for Film Applications
Repro" or recycled polymer waste has been utilized in the polymer industry for years. In the manufacture of polyethylene films it is desired to introduce repro (recycled film scrap etc.) back into the film process. The recycled resin stream often contains residual inks or colorants which adversely affects the desired color of the final product when producing white films. A new masterbatch "Reproclean" has been developed to help mask the color of the recycled resin in the final film product. Results indicate that Reproclean significantly improves the whiteness and brightness indices of white polymer films."
Mechanical Properties of Foamed PP Sheet
Mechanical properties of foamed polypropylene sheet having different foaming ratios (2.0, 2.4 and 3.0) were investigated. Tensile strengths and ultimate strains of polypropylene sheet with 3.0 foaming ratio were lower than those of polypropylene sheet with 2.0 and 2.4 foaming ratios. The ultimate strain increased with an increase in the aspect ratio of the cell shape in the polypropylene sheet. The ultimate strain of the foamed polypropylene sheet was affected by the cell shape.
Thermal and Morphological Properties of Polyethylene Crystals Formed in N-Pentane Under High Pressure
The thermal and morphological properties of PE crystals formed in n-pentane at selected pressures from 10 to 54 MPa were studied using DSC and SEM. The results show that the PE crystals that form from these high-pressure conditions display a plate-like morphology which tends to aggregate into ellipsoid-shape structures. DSC studies show that the PE crystals show higher crystallinity and display multiple melting peaks during the first heating scan. This process can be an alternative method for the thermal fractionation.
Blown Films From LDPE-Organoclay and Ionomer-Organoclay Nanocomposites
Mechanical and barrier properties of LDPE and poly(ethylene-co-methacrylic acid) ionomers were improved by melt mixing them with montmorillonite based organoclays. Organoclay structure was optimized to form nanocomposites with good exfoliation, from which films were blown under different conditions.
Modeling the Transient Rheology of a Polypropylene Melt Reinforced with Long And Short Glass Fibers
In this paper we investigate the transient shear rheology of a polypropylene containing long fibers (2.75 to 11 mm, L/D > 150) and short fibers (1 mm, L/D < 50). The objectives of this work are to determine the relationship between stress growth and relaxation behavior of fiber orientation and determine the feasibility of extending Doi's theory for the rheology of rod-like molecules to fiber reinforced materials.
Chemical Attack of UV-Cure Adhesives Involving Polycarbonate
UV-cure adhesives are commonly used to assemble a variety of devices molded out of polycarbonate. This paper investigates the effect of uncured or partially cured UV adhesives on elongation-to-break performance of polycarbonate samples, both stressed and unstressed. In addition, the effect of cure time and vapor exposure on elongation-to-break is also summarized.
The Effect of Orientation on Perfluorosulfonate Ionomer Based IPMC Actuation
This paper discusses recent findings in the enhancement of actuation properties in ionic polymer metal composites through systematic manipulations of molecular organization and morphology. The preliminary results showed that there is a direct correlation between the morphology of the material and the mechanical properties.
Enhanced Performance and Processing Considerations of Modified PMMA Capstocks for Weatherable PVC Building Products
There is a need for superior weathering PVC profiles and sheet with a variety of colors and appearance. Capping PVC profiles and sheet with MODIFIED-PMMA provides many enhancements to a multi-layered PVC system, not just enhanced weatherability. This paper reviews many of the performance changes encountered from the use of MODIFIED-PMMA capstocks with PVC substrates and the variables that influence the system performance. In addition, processing considerations required for existing PVC extrusion operations are detailed as well as fabrication adjustments.
Preparation and Characterization of Polymeric Capsules Containing Functional Additives
In attempts to develop novel functional additives for thermoplastic and thermoset polymer coatings, various sizes of microcapsules containing a silicone fluid which could facilitate the release of the coating from a metallic substrate were prepared by in-situ polymerization. Fill content, size of capsules, wall-thickness, and surface morphology were observed by TGA, TEM, SEM, EDX, optical and NMR microscopy. The capsules were dispersed in polymeric coatings and the release of their content through mechanical means was followed microscopically.
Scratch Behavior of Model Polypropylene Thin Sheets
The effects of molecular weight (MW) and surface morphology on scratch behavior of model polypropylenes (PP) were investigated. The results suggest that scratch performance is improved when the MW and surface crystallinity of PP are high. Correlation between surface properties and scratch resistance of PP is established and discussed.
Stresses, Adhesion and the Mechanics of Polymer Coatings
Novel and powerful methods of characterizing the state of stress, the orthotropic elastic coefficients and the energy of adhesion of thin coatings are described. These methods were developed by my research group to help understand the mechanical behavior of coating materials. The systems studied include epoxies, polyimides, photoresists and even some paints and metals. The techniques address issues such as the origin of coating stresses, the influence of the degree of constraint, determining anisotropic elasticity coefficients, and problems associated with adhesion testing.
Mechanical Properties of Soy Protein Isolate/Soy Hydrolysate Plastics
Biodegradable plastics based on soy protein isolate were prepared with soy hydrolysate as a plasticizer via different methods, and the mechanical properties of the samples from the different processing methods were tested and compared. The results indicated that the tensile strength and the elongation at break of the samples with soy hydrolysate were enhanced when the preparation process consisted of extrusion followed by injection molding or compression molding, but no improvement was noticed in the case of the compression molding without prior extrusion.
Laser Transmission Welding of Colored Thermoplastic Elastomers and Hard Plastics
Automobile and other part manufacturers have looked for ways to join dissimilar materials. Welding different kinds of resin together has been looked at for this purpose.Olefin thermoplastic elastomers colored with a transparent black colorant can be welded with polypropylene while keeping higher welding strength compared to the case of non-colored elastomers. Laser welding using black-colored thermoplastic elastomers has a variety of potential applications in the manufacture of automotive parts and electronic components.
A New TPU Featuring Low Tackiness
Thermoplastic polyurethanes are relatively tacky compared to other thermoplastic elastomers. The general practice in the plastic industry is to add waxes, lubricants or inorganic fillers to reduce the tackiness. Unfortunately, these additives have negative impact on final product performance and aesthetic property.A series of new TPU products featuring low tackiness, contact transparency and process efficiency that can be used in applications requiring low coefficient of friction in film, sheet, tubing etc. This paper will illustrate the features of the new products and their mechanical properties.
Working with Organic Pigments in Yellow Color Space
Formulators coloring plastics and synthetic fibers can select from a variety of organic colorants in order to achieve a final desired color. The choices can be confusing unless the colorants are previously specified or are well known to the formulator. This paper will deal with a subset of the colorants in yellow color space while clarifying the selection process with respect to some of the most important properties of the colorants for plastics and fibers.
What Every Plastics Professional Should Know About Patents and Patenting - Part 2: Important Considerations in Invention Patenting
Deciding on what to claim in a patent application and targeting the claims for specific business objectives are very important legal and business decisions. In this article, important considerations influencing such decisions are discussed, including the prior art, patentability of the claimed invention and defining claim terms. Relevant examples are given to illustrate such considerations.
Statistical Tools for Predicting Flame Resistance of PC/ABS Blends
Flame-retarded products must pass the requirements of UL94 testing. Only a pass/fail type of data is obtained which makes it difficult to predict longterm capability. This paper describes statistical tools to predict UL94 V and 5V capability of PC/ABS blends for robust design of such products. In particular, use of parameters such as probability of first-time-pass, p(FTP), for V-testing, and time-to-drip (TTD) and time-to-hole (TTH) for 5V-testing is described.
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