SPE Library

The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.

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Conference Proceedings
Mechanical Properties from the INV6 Closure for Short-Fiber Suspensions
David A. Jack, Douglas E. Smith, May 2006
Applications of orientation tensors for short-fiber polymer composites introduce a dependence upon higher-order orientation tensors alleviated through a closure. Current fourth-order closures have been demonstrated to neglect shear-extensional and shear-shear coupling effects in material stiffness predictions whereas sixth-order closures are capable of representing this advanced behavior. The newly introduced invariant based sixth-order fitted closure (INV6) is investigated and results demonstrate the INV6 closure accurately captures the complete material stiffness behavior.
Effect of Specimen Thickness on PC/ABS Spiral Flow Injection Moldings
N. O-Charoen, S. Pivsa-Art, Y.W. Leong, K. Umemura, M. Kotaki, H. Hamada, May 2006
The morphology of PC/ABS blend injection moldings is investigated using a spiral flow test mold. The results show that the specimen thickness would significantly affect the internal structure. Effect of specimen thickness on morphology of dispersed ABS phase in skin and core layers is extensively discussed in the relation to the mechanical properties.
Visualization of PP Foaming with Nitrogen
Q. Guo, J. Wang, C.B. Park, May 2006
In this research, we observed the cell nucleation and initial growth behaviours of PP foaming with N2 under various experimental conditions in a batch foaming simulation system. We found that the nucleating agent content, initial temperature, initial pressure (i.e., gas content), and pressure drop rate during foaming had significant effects on cell density and cell growth. The branched PP (WB130)/N2 had a higher cell density than the linear PP (HE351)/N2.
Determination of Barrier Properties of Poly(Lactide) Polymers Using a Quartz Crystal Microbalance
Nitin Gulati, Rafael Auras, Maria Rubino, May 2006
Barrier properties of Poly (lactide) polymers were studied using a Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM). For this purpose, a new system was built up using QCM to measure the sorption of water vapor on polymer films spin coated on a quartz crystal. Sorption experiments were conducted at 23 °C and relative humidity of 20% and 60%. PLA films produced had a thickness of 0.12±0.02 ?m. Water diffusion coefficient values between 0.9 to 1.1 x 10-17m2.s-1 at 20 and 60% RH and permeability coefficients between 0.98 and 2.42 x 10-23 kg.m.m-2.s-1.Pa-1 were determined.
PP Melt Swelling Due to Gas Dissolution
Y.G. Li, H.B. Li, J. Wang, C.B. Park, May 2006
Foaming of thermoplastic is gaining interest because of its potential to decrease the weight of automotive parts. Understanding of the thermophysical properties of PP/gas mixtures is critically important in this context. This paper presents a newly developed experimental technique that captures the melt pendent drop images locally, determines the boundary locations precisely and then reconstructs those images to accurately measure the swelling of the polymer due to gas dissolution at elevated temperatures and pressures.
Pressure Profile in Annular Die Using PP/CO2 Solution Viscosity
Jing Wang, Chul B. Park, May 2006
In this paper, a rheological die with a slit channel was designed to determine the solution viscosity of supercritical CO2 in non-crosslinked high-melt-strength (HMS) polypropylene (PP). The shear viscosity was modeled as a function of temperature, pressure, gas content, and shear rate. With interest in producing highly expanded foam sheets using an annular die, an analysis of the annular die pressure profile using the measured viscosity data was also conducted.
Fine-Celled Foaming of HDPE Using Nitrogen
J.W.S. Lee, C.B. Park, May 2006
Foaming experiments were performed in extrusion using HDPE and Nitrogen. Talc was used as a nucleating agent, and three levels of pressure drop rate were applied. The use of talc significantly increased the cell density and reduced the role of pressure drop rate in cell nucleation.
A Fiber and Film Simulation Package as a Learning Tool
Christopher Cox, Scott Pearson, James von Oehsen, Edward Duffy, May 2006
The Center for Advanced Engineering Fibers and Films, an NSF Engineering Research Center, has developed a modeling package which couples polymer process stages and a materials database in a visualization-based environment. We will describe the no-cost academic version of this code, including a discussion of the background of the modules, along with examples of potential student projects.
Measurment and Prediction of Cooling Efficiency with CAE Software
Jeeseung Lee, Seungwook Lee, Hanmoog Kang, Shanghun Lee, May 2006
A cooling system is applied to improve the cooling efficiency in the field of the injection molding. In this paper, the cooling system was simulated by commercial injection molding and heat transfer CAE software. The conditions of simulated cooling system were classified for the mold base material and cooling channel. After experiments of the injection molding using the simulated results of the cooling conditions, cooling efficiencies were analyzed.
Interfacial Failure of Composites at Cryogenic and Elevated Temperatures
Jaehyung Ju, Roger J. Morgan, E. Eugene Shin, May 2006
Interfacial failure between carbon-fiber/polyimide composites under high and low temperature exposures was characterized. Based on microscopic photos taken after exposures at -196°C and 250°C and thermo-elastic failure analysis, transverse microcrack formation of composites was investigated.
Improving the Properties and Economics of Fiber Reinforced Parts Using Glass Beads
Ufuk ?entürk, Bill Shaker, Chris Smith, Larry Royer, May 2006
Mechanical, thermal, and physical properties of five thermoplastic resins compounded using solid glass beads and fibers as additives was studied. Melt flow index is found as the most affected property as a function of bead size and bead-to-fiber ratio. Criticality of bead-to-fiber ratio in relation to product quality and processing is discussed. Material costs are also examined with respect to key property changes and a selection method is suggested to find an optimum.
Peculiarity of Formation of the HDPE Phase Oxidized (Gel) by Processing
Rakhil M. Sinelnikova, Valery G. Makarov, May 2006
Change of physical and chemical, reological and physicomechanical properties of High Density Polyethylene (HDPE), exposed by thermal oxidation in shift current conditions with using of the rotational viscosimeter, is considered.It is shown, that products of oxidation form in the polymer melt and solid polymer an independent phase (gel), and have sharply distinguished from initial HDPE polarity, fluidity, physical and chemical properties.
Wood/Plastic Composites (WPC) with Glass Fiber Reinforcement (GRF)
Ghaus M. Rizvi, Hamid Semeralul, May 2006
The usage of WPC is rapidly growing, but these still suffer from lack of toughness, which can be improved by adding a small amount of GFR. Tensile tests of WPC specimen with varying amounts of wood-fiber content and 5% GRF were carried out. Significant improvements in properties were observed.
Surface Modification of PVDF Porous Membranes by Electron Irradiation
You-Y i Xu, Fu Liu, Bao-Ku Zhu, Guang-Ming Qiu, May 2006
Poly (vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) membranes were irradiated by electron beam and then grafted by acrylic acid (AA) and sodium 4-Styrenesulfonate (SSS). The degree of grafting was affected by irradiation dose, grafting time, grafting temperature, monomer concentration, monomer ratio, and pH of solution. The composition and microstructure were characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The modified membranes were characterized through water contact angle, water flux measurement and fouling-resistant experiment.
Compatibilization of Natural Fibers/PP Composites
K. Jarukumjorn, Y. Ruksakulpiwat, W. Sutapun, J. Kluensamrong, May 2006
The effect of maleic anhydride grafted polypropylene (PP-g-MA) as a compatibilizer on mechanical, rheological, and morphological properties of rossells/PP and sisal/PP composites was investigated. The fiber loading was 20wt% and the compatibilizer contents were varied from 1-10 phr. The tensile strength and unnotched impact strength of the composites increased with increasing the compatibilizer content.
A Novel Styrene/Maleic Anhydride Copolymer for Polymer Modification by SC CO2
Guang-Ming Qiu, Bao-Ku Zhu, Fu Liu, You-Y i Xu, May 2006
Poly (vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) membranes were modified by supercritical impregnation of St-MAn alternative copolymer (SMA). The SMA, having Mw of higher than 106, were synthesized inside PVDF matrix with SC CO2 as solvent and carrier. The composition and microstructure of modified membrane were characterized by ART-FTIR, ESCA, NMR, DSC and SEM. The thermal stability and hydrophilicity of modified membranes were improved.
Permeability of Polymer Nanocomposites
Laxmi K. Sahu, Nandika Anne D’Souza, Bruce Gnade, May 2006
Permeability of the nylon and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) polymer and naocomposites, biaxially stretched and post fatigued film is measured. Both the tortuous path and crystallinity influence the barrier properties. Permeability is predicted taking into consideration the amorphous phase, crystalline phase and MLS content and compared with the experimental values. Keywords: Permeability, Nanocomposites, PET, Nylon-6
A Novel Fabrication Method and Optimum Tooling Design for Microlens Arrays
Y.-K. Shen, C.-Y. Chang, Y.-S. Shen, S.-Y. Yang, May 2006
This study uses a simple and novel procedure for microlens arrays. The master is formed by room temperature imprint lithography and thermal reflow process. The electroforming is used to fabricate the metal mold insert from master. Finally, micro-hot embossing is used to replicate microlens arrays.
Mechanical Properties of PP/PA/GF Blend Thermoplastics
Naoyuki Kawai, Asami Nakai, Hiroyuki Hamada, Hiroshi Yasuda, May 2006
In order to improve mechanical properties of PP(Polypropylene) / GF(Glass fiber), PP/GF was injection molded with PA(Polyamide) through three procedures. Tensile and flexural test were conducted. The fractured surface of the etched specimens after testing was observed using a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). From the results, PP/PA/GF thermoplastics which were molded by using PP/GF pellet and PA showed higher strength than the other specimens.
Fracture Behavior of Heat-Sealed PP Films under Static and Creep Loadings
Yasuhiro Nishikawa, Yasuhiro Fujita, Sommai Pivsa-Art, Asami Nakai, Masaya Kotaki, Hiroyuki Hamada, May 2006
Effects of heat-sealing temperature and film direction on mechanical properties and fracture behavior of heat-sealed PP films were investigated. Peel tests were conducted under static and creep loadings. 170 °C heat-sealing specimens were slightly higher than that of the other specimens. Under creep loadings, 170 °C heat-sealing specimens in the transverse direction showed the highest creep property. The fracture mode of the specimens could be divided into 3 types.

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ANTEC 2016 - Indianapolis, Indiana, USA May 23-25, 2016. [On-line].
Society of Plastics Engineers
Available: www.4spe.org.

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