The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.
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Effect of Epoxy Modifier on Flame Retardancy and Rheological Behavior of Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene(ABS)/Montmorillonite(MMT) Composites
ABS/MMT composites were prepared via melt intercalation to MMT with or without pretreatment of liquid epoxy resin. For the direct addition of epoxy, the composite has intercalated structure; while for the pretreatment of MMT with epoxy, the composite has exfoliated structure. Cone analysis results reveals slight difference in flame retardancy between the two composites. At low frequency zone, the composite with intercalated structure has higher storage modulus than the composite with exfoliated structure.
Mold Deformation Effects on Ultra-Thin Wall Injection-Molded Parts
Ultra-thin-walled injection molding is becoming important due to the explosive growth of requirement of thinner and lighter plastic parts, especially for portable electronic devices. However, the flow pressure and the uneven mold temperature in injection molding will cause variations in cavity dimension, and further reduce the precision of molding. In this paper, a 3D numerical approach is developed to predict the mold deformation effects and the variations of ultra-thin-walled part dimensions.
Polypropylene/SEBS Thermoplastic Elastomer - Nanocomposite Films
Nanocomposite (PP/SEBS/organoclay) films were sheet extruded with differing clay concentrations. Blends were compounded using a high shear single screw reciprocating kneader. Higher clay content increased the Shore A hardness of the films but induced a significant improvement in both O2 and CO2 barrier performance.
Oxypolypropylene as a Compatibiliser in Polypropylene-Nanocomposite Films
Nanocomposite films were prepared from polypropylene-organosilicate compounds, incorporating both oxypolypropylene (OxyPP) and a range of PP grafted maleic anhydride compatibilisers. X-ray diffraction suggested enhanced organosilicate exfoliation and dispersion, attributed to improved enthalpic interaction with the OxyPP compared with neat PP/organosilicate structures.
Performance of Mono-Layer Films Manufactured from EVOH/PP Compounds
Blown films were extruded from EVOH/PP compounds manufactured on a single screw extruder with a static diffuser. Oxypolypropylene and maleated PP oligomer were evaluated as compatibilisers. Results indicated improved gas barrier versus non-compounded blends and virgin PP films.
Structure and Performance of Novel Acrylonitrile-Styrene-Acrylate Nanocomposite
ASA nanocomposites were prepared by melt compounding with synthetic layered-silicate as a higher performance alternative to ABS. Mixed intercalated/exfoliated morphology was observed in the ASA nanocomposites, conferring marked improvement in modulus, thermal stability and flame retardancy.
Residual Stress Effects on Multi-Material Injection-Molded Parts
Process-induced residual stress is one of the most important problems that confound the overall success of injection molding process, especially for multi-material injection molding that uses two or more molds to produce a multi-material plastic part. It could cause the unpredictable warpage after demolding. The objective of this paper is to develop a numerical approach to predict the residual stress distribution of multi-material injection-molded part and further study its effects on the warpage after demolding.
Structure and Performance of ABS-Clay Nanocomposites by Melt Compounding
ABS layered-silicate nanocomposites were manufactured by melt compounding. X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy analysis confirmed the achievement of hybrid intercalated and exfoliated structures, giving significant improvement in the mechanical, thermal and rheological properties.
Polyethylene Nanocomposite Films Incorporating LDPE/Nanoclay Masterbatch
Nanocomposite blown films were prepared with blowup ratios from 1.5 to 2.5, by direct compounding with 5% nanoclay and direct let-down of a 25% nanocomposite masterbatch produced by double-stage mixing. Results demonstrated improved clay exfoliation and orientation in films manufactured from masterbatch.
Experimental Investigation of Infrared Rapid Surface Heating for Injection Molding
A low cost and practical infrared rapid surface heating system for injection molding is designed and investigated. The temperature increase is verified on the mold plate with a thermal video system. A modified spiral flow mold was used to test the enhancing filling ability of the rapid surface heating system.
High Speed Hot Plate Welding
The paper describes the possibilities of a new generation of high-speed hotplate welding machines and the first results for the welding of low-viscosity thermoplastics. Possibilities for a new form of quality assurance and also a means of adjusting the optimum process parameters are presented.
Compatibilization of Polypropylene/Polysulfone Membranes
Polypropylene (PP) and polysulfone (PSU) have not been previously blended due to viscosity and processing temperature variations. These blends made using an environmentally-friendly process showed structureproperty improvements with the addition of functional polyolefins.
Rheology Phenomena of Nano-Extrudate Flow
The purpose of this paper is to study the die swell phenomena in a nano-extrudate flow from the molecular dynamics simulation. We have studied a polyethylene (PE) melt extruding into vacuum surrounding through a 4-to-1 nano-extrusion die. The results indicate the extrusion velocity has a strong influence on the stability of extrudate with the die swell. Also, there is a particularly noteworthy surface effect that some molecules are adsorbed on the outer surface of capillary under the lower extrusion velocity.
Effect of Surface Treatment on Mechanical Properties of GF/Phenol Composite
Effects of surface treatment agent (amino silane, epoxy silane, methacryl silane and vinyl silane) on tensile and bending properties of glass fabric/phenol resin composites were examined. The tensile and bending properties of the composites with epoxy silane treating glass fabrics were higher than that of the other specimens. On the other hand, these properties of the composites with vinyl silane treating glass fabrics were the lowest in all specimens.
Nanocomposites Based on Cyclic Oligomers
We have been investigating the synthesis and polymerization of cyclic oligomers of bisphenol A polycarbonates (BPACY), and cyclic ester oligomers (CEO) for a number of different applications. Both the BPACY and the CEO are low viscosity liquids. It is possible to form nanocomposites by liquid-liquid phase separation during polymerization of cyclic oligomers or by adding nanoclay.
Interfacial Characteristics in Film Insert Molded PC/ABS and PC Film
Adhesion properties between PC/ABS blend substrate and PC films of various thicknesses, bonded through film insert molding, were investigated. The usage of different Mw of PC and PC-oligomer in the blend has been found to severely affect the adhesion strength and alter the delamination characteristics at the film-substrate interface. Thicker films have also been found to have a profound effect in enhancing the film-substrate adhesion.
Structure and Properties of Biaxially Oriented Polypropropylenes (BOPP)
The solid state structure, mechanical properties, and gas transport of biaxially oriented polypropylenes are investigated. Specifically, the effect of chain architecture on processing conditions and resulting properties of the oriented films is probed. Relationships between the process, solid state structure, and properties are described.
Matrix-Free Polymer Composites: Process-Structure-Property Relationship
High-temperature high-pressure sintering coupled with thermoforming is a novel process to make shapeable matrix-free polymer composites by consolidating and molding UHMWPE fabric. The process-structure-property relationship was studied to provide a profound understanding of this creative method.
Partially Oxidized Graphite in Polypropylene Grafted Maleic Anhydride
Natural graphite flakes (NGF) were partially oxidized with potassium permanganate (KMnO4) in order to increase their dispersion during melt mixing in polypropylene (PP) grafted maleic anhydride (MA) (PPg- MA). Electrical conductivity of the composite, as well as X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectrometry, and rheological properties were assessed against the level of oxidation.
Influence of Hybridization of Glass-Fiber and Talc on the Mechanical Performance of Polypropylene Composites
Polypropylene composites with glass fibers or talc are widely used in various technical applications. In many applications weld lines are formed in injection molding and reduce mechanical performance. When large aspect ratio reinforcements are used this detrimental effect is more pronounced. This results from the preferential orientation of reinforcements in the plane of weld line. In this paper, the hybridization of two different aspect ratio reinforcements is shown to be beneficial to the weld resistance.
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