SPE Library

The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.

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Conference Proceedings
Harnessing Molecular Forces to Exfoliate Clay in Thermoset Systems
Michael J. Gintert, Sadhan C. Jana, Sandi G. Miller, May 2006
Layered silicate PMR-15 polyimide nanocomposites are being developed for high-performance aerospace applications. The goal is to achieve full exfoliation under quiescent conditions using a novel approach, whereby intra- and extra-gallery modulus and viscosity are engineered to result in a net force pushing clay layers apart during cure. The current study explores treatment of clay with reactive surfactants which are thermally stable and participate in crosslinking with PMR resin, providing higher thermo-oxidative stability than possible with current technologies.
Chemical and Engineering Issues in Polymer Nanocomposites Design
Sadhan C. Jana, Dhawal Dharaiya, Asim Pattanayak, Chang Do Jung, May 2006
The field of polymer nanocomposites has reached a certain level of maturity and we are in a position to design a number of polymer nanocomposite products to deliver certain desired properties. In this paper, two examples are presented where basic engineering principles are applied to design nanocomposite products of thermoplastic polyurethanes and blends of polyamide 6 and polypropylene.
Parametric Study on Scratch Behavior of Polymers
H. Jiang, G.T. Lim, J.N. Reddy, J.D. Whitcomb, H.-J. Sue, May 2006
The effect of material and surface properties of polypropylene (PP) on scratch behavior were discussed by parametric studies using finite element analysis (FEA). Two different loading conditions were examined. It is found that Poisson's ratio has a negligible effect on scratch performance. Increasing yield stress and reducing coefficient of adhesive friction are important ways to positively affect the scratch performance of polymer. However, increasing the Young's modulus does not necessarily improve scratch performance.
Particulate Fillers on Morphology Development in Chaotic Mixing
Sadhan C. Jana, Dhawal Dharaiya, Madhusudan Sau, May 2006
The influence of particulate fillers such as carbon black and layered silicate clay on morphology development in chaotic mixing of immiscible polymers was studied and results compared with those of a wellknown compatibilizer. The formation of much smaller droplets in the presence of fillers was explained using reduced interfacial tension and rapid thinning of lamellas and fibrils in chaotic mixing.
Preparation, Intercalation and Exfoliation of ?-Zirconium Phosphate with Varying Dimensions
Luyi Sun, Woong J. Boo, Hung-Jue Sue, Abraham Clearfield, May 2006
Synthetic ?-zirconium phosphate (?-ZrP) platelets with varying dimensions have been prepared via three different approaches. The ?-ZrP can be easily intercalated by amines and then exfoliated in epoxy to prepare polymer nanocomposites. Such nanocomposites containing exfoliated ?-ZrP sheets with varying aspect ratios can be used to study the structure-property relationship in polymer nanocomposites.
Chemical Analysis of the Polyester/Metal Surface of a Delamination Failure
Eldridge M. Mount III, May 2006
A polymer film lamination shows an unexpected delamination failure. The lamination is produced by adhesive laminating a previously printed metallized polyester film to a LLDPE sealant. In use the lamination is found to fail by delamination between the polyester film and the metal layer. Chemical surface analysis of the failure surface by X-ray photon spectroscopy (XPS) indicates a degraded polyester surface creating a weak boundary layer at the polyester/metal interface which is the cause of the delamination. Possible causes for the degraded polyester surface are discussed.
The Development of Soft TPO for Automobile Interior Skin That Enhance Recyclability
Seong Min Cho, Dong Myeong Shin, Dong Woo Lee, May 2006
This study investigates soft thermoplastic olefin (TPO) for automobile interior skin such as instrument and door trim panel skin in order to replace polyvinyl chloride(PVC) resin, enhance recyclability and solve environmental problem. In this study, we investigated TPO material requirement by each process and results indicated optimum material composition for each process.
Comparison of Two Different Cooling Methods for Extrusion Processes
Timothy W. Womer, Walter S. Smith, Richard P. Wheeler, May 2006
This paper will compare the total power consumption of two different means of heating/cooling systems: air and water. For a single 90mm extruder, the total power consumption, output rate, and thermal control will be used to compare the two cooling means. Four different resins will be used.
Modeling Agglomerate Dispersion in Single Screw Extruders
Natália Domingues, Marco Camesasca, Miron Kaufman, Ica Manas-Zloczower, António Gaspar-Cunha, José António Covas, May 2006
We present a new model for assessing mixing in extrusion processes. The model combines numerical simulations of flow patterns in the extruder with a Monte Carlo method of clusters rupture and erosion mediated by the local fragmentation number. Particle size distributions and Shannon entropy are used for mixing characterization.
Structure-Property and Pigment/Organoclay Interaction in PP Nanocomposites
I.F.M. Major, C.Y. Lew, H. Lu, G.M. McNally, A.H. Clarke, May 2006
PP nanocomposites (PLN) were prepared by twinscrew mixing with organoclay and phthalocyanine blue pigment. Significant clay/pigment interaction was observed. Exfoliated organoclay exhibited carrier effect on the pigment. Pigmented PLN exhibited better mechanical properties than the unpigmented PLN.
Processing CNT/PVDP Composites for Enhanced Strength
Kern Peng, Hornberger, Cattien V. Nguyen, Umesh Sopory, May 2006
The key to increasing the mechanical strength of a carbon nanotube (CNT)/polymer composite is to achieve uniform dispersion and alignment of the nanotubes in the polymer matrix. In this study, CNT dispersion and alignment were significantly improved by using a surfactant and a variety of unique processing steps to manufacture a 10wt% multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWNT)/ polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) composite. The resulting tensile strength of the composite was nearly double that of unreinforced PVDF.
Why Troubleshoot When You Can Prevent? A Bayesian Network Approach
Jason S. Trahan, Paul V. Engelmann, May 2006
Although successfully applied as a diagnostic tool to various fields, few Bayesian networks have been designed for prevention. Lack of time, personnel and resources have been obstacles for this branch of artificial intelligence. A method for constructing a Bayesian network based on established literature and practical knowledge of experts in the field is presented. The model will be applied to shear splay, incorporating factors in material, design and processing. Suggestions for implementation are also addressed.
Dynamic Vulcanisation of EPDM/HDPE-Based Thermoplastic Vulcanisates Studied Along the Extruder Axis
Martin van Duin, Ana Vera Machado, May 2006
Dynamic vulcanisation of EPDM/HDPE blends with resol was studied in an extruder equipped with sampling devices. Upon complete melting of the HDPE pellets the blends reach quickly their final morphology. For the EPDM/HDPE (50/50; w/w) blend at transition from continuous via co-continuous to fully dispersed EPDM is observed, which is driven by complete HDPE melting and crosslinking. Crosslinking of the EPDM phase occurs already when the HDPE is not yet fully molten, but does not prevent phase inversion of the blend.
Cadence Copolyester Resins for Calendered Film
John E. Pomeroy, Marc A. Strand, May 2006
Eastman Chemical Company's Cadence Copolyesters are specially designed for calendering. Calendering is a process for the production of plastic film and sheet. Thickness ranges are typically .002- .030 and widths from 36-120". Production rates range from 1000-10000 pounds per hour. This process is predominantly used for flexible and rigid Polyvinyl Chloride. This unique combination with Cadence Copolyester resins provides the physical performance and attributes of the copolyester polymer with the efficiency and quality advantages of the calendering process."
Improving Weld Line Strength of Polycarbonate Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene (PC/ABS) Blends via Tailored Silicone Copolymers
Srinivas Siripurapu, May 2006
Flame retardant PC/ABS blends with addition of tailored silicone copolymers exhibit improved weld line strength. The effect of copolymer architecture, impact modifier morphology and processing conditions on weld line characteristics is presented. These blends also show better flame resistance with UL94 ratings at thinner gages.
Polymer Replication and Characterization of a Ruled Diffraction Grating
Aleksandar K. Angelov, John P. Coulter, May 2006
The goal of this study was to process thermoplastic cyclo-olefin copolymer (COC) via injection micromolding and to evaluate its use for the production of diffraction gratings. The mold and the replicated gratings were characterized using atomic-force and scanning-electron microscopy. We statistically tested how well the replicas matched the mold. Our results show that molded COC is suitable for making diffraction gratings.
Micro and Nano Scale Solid-State PEI Foams
Pavee Chatchaisucha, Vipin Kumar, May 2006
Polyetherimide by General Electric ( ULTEM 1000) was foamed by the solid-state process using CO2 in the subcritical range. At 5 MPa approximately 10 % CO2 by weight is dissolved in PEI. The rate of diffusion in 1.5 mm thick specimens changed when the gas pressure was lowered to 1 MPa , indicating that in this range of pressures the diffusion rate is dependent of gas concentration. Microcellular structures in PEI were obtained, with density reductions up to 45%. Nano-cellular foams, with cells in the 50-100 nm range, and with cell densities exceeding 1014 cells/cm3 were produced at 5 MPa gas saturation.
Thermoplastic Starch/Natural Rubber Based Nanocomposites
M. Mondragón, J. Iturbe-Ek, F.J. Rodríguez, May 2006
Novel nanocomposites with superior properties were made from thermoplastic starch-natural rubber blends using montmorillonite (MMT) nanoclay. The nanocomposites were prepared by melt processing, with natural rubber content varying from 9 to 21% by weight and clay content varying from 2 to 6%. Mechanical properties and water absorption of the thermoplastic starch became significantly better when natural rubber and clay were added. X-ray diffraction showed dispersion of clay in the polymer blends.
Thermal Properties of Polyethylene Nanocomposites based on Different Organoclays
Karen Stoeffler, Pierre G. Lafleur, Johanne Denault, May 2006
In this work, alkyl pyridinium, imidazolium and phosphonium intercalants were used to produce organophilic clays with higher thermal stability than commercial alkyl ammonium modified montmorillonite. These organoclays were compounded with LLDPE and an appropriate compatibilizer using a micro twin-screw extruder. The degree of dispersion of the clay platelets was evaluated by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The thermal stability of the nanocomposites was evaluated by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA).
Investigation of Melting in a Single-Screw Extruder
Atakan Altinkaynak, Mahesh Gupta, Mark A. Spalding, Sam L. Crabtree, May 2006
Screw freezing experiments in a single-screw extruder were conducted for an ABS resin. The melting of ABS was also simulated by a full three-dimensional simulation of the two-phase flow in the compression section of the extruder. Numerical simulations as well as experiments exhibit the Maddock melting mechanism. However, numerical predictions and experimental data have some discrepancies, which are discussed.

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