The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.
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Structure and Performance of Novel Acrylonitrile-Styrene-Acrylate Nanocomposite
ASA nanocomposites were prepared by melt compounding with synthetic layered-silicate as a higher performance alternative to ABS. Mixed intercalated/exfoliated morphology was observed in the ASA nanocomposites, conferring marked improvement in modulus, thermal stability and flame retardancy.
Residual Stress Effects on Multi-Material Injection-Molded Parts
Process-induced residual stress is one of the most important problems that confound the overall success of injection molding process, especially for multi-material injection molding that uses two or more molds to produce a multi-material plastic part. It could cause the unpredictable warpage after demolding. The objective of this paper is to develop a numerical approach to predict the residual stress distribution of multi-material injection-molded part and further study its effects on the warpage after demolding.
Structure and Performance of ABS-Clay Nanocomposites by Melt Compounding
ABS layered-silicate nanocomposites were manufactured by melt compounding. X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy analysis confirmed the achievement of hybrid intercalated and exfoliated structures, giving significant improvement in the mechanical, thermal and rheological properties.
Polyethylene Nanocomposite Films Incorporating LDPE/Nanoclay Masterbatch
Nanocomposite blown films were prepared with blowup ratios from 1.5 to 2.5, by direct compounding with 5% nanoclay and direct let-down of a 25% nanocomposite masterbatch produced by double-stage mixing. Results demonstrated improved clay exfoliation and orientation in films manufactured from masterbatch.
Experimental Investigation of Infrared Rapid Surface Heating for Injection Molding
A low cost and practical infrared rapid surface heating system for injection molding is designed and investigated. The temperature increase is verified on the mold plate with a thermal video system. A modified spiral flow mold was used to test the enhancing filling ability of the rapid surface heating system.
High Speed Hot Plate Welding
The paper describes the possibilities of a new generation of high-speed hotplate welding machines and the first results for the welding of low-viscosity thermoplastics. Possibilities for a new form of quality assurance and also a means of adjusting the optimum process parameters are presented.
Compatibilization of Polypropylene/Polysulfone Membranes
Polypropylene (PP) and polysulfone (PSU) have not been previously blended due to viscosity and processing temperature variations. These blends made using an environmentally-friendly process showed structureproperty improvements with the addition of functional polyolefins.
Rheology Phenomena of Nano-Extrudate Flow
The purpose of this paper is to study the die swell phenomena in a nano-extrudate flow from the molecular dynamics simulation. We have studied a polyethylene (PE) melt extruding into vacuum surrounding through a 4-to-1 nano-extrusion die. The results indicate the extrusion velocity has a strong influence on the stability of extrudate with the die swell. Also, there is a particularly noteworthy surface effect that some molecules are adsorbed on the outer surface of capillary under the lower extrusion velocity.
Effect of Surface Treatment on Mechanical Properties of GF/Phenol Composite
Effects of surface treatment agent (amino silane, epoxy silane, methacryl silane and vinyl silane) on tensile and bending properties of glass fabric/phenol resin composites were examined. The tensile and bending properties of the composites with epoxy silane treating glass fabrics were higher than that of the other specimens. On the other hand, these properties of the composites with vinyl silane treating glass fabrics were the lowest in all specimens.
Nanocomposites Based on Cyclic Oligomers
We have been investigating the synthesis and polymerization of cyclic oligomers of bisphenol A polycarbonates (BPACY), and cyclic ester oligomers (CEO) for a number of different applications. Both the BPACY and the CEO are low viscosity liquids. It is possible to form nanocomposites by liquid-liquid phase separation during polymerization of cyclic oligomers or by adding nanoclay.
Interfacial Characteristics in Film Insert Molded PC/ABS and PC Film
Adhesion properties between PC/ABS blend substrate and PC films of various thicknesses, bonded through film insert molding, were investigated. The usage of different Mw of PC and PC-oligomer in the blend has been found to severely affect the adhesion strength and alter the delamination characteristics at the film-substrate interface. Thicker films have also been found to have a profound effect in enhancing the film-substrate adhesion.
Structure and Properties of Biaxially Oriented Polypropropylenes (BOPP)
The solid state structure, mechanical properties, and gas transport of biaxially oriented polypropylenes are investigated. Specifically, the effect of chain architecture on processing conditions and resulting properties of the oriented films is probed. Relationships between the process, solid state structure, and properties are described.
Matrix-Free Polymer Composites: Process-Structure-Property Relationship
High-temperature high-pressure sintering coupled with thermoforming is a novel process to make shapeable matrix-free polymer composites by consolidating and molding UHMWPE fabric. The process-structure-property relationship was studied to provide a profound understanding of this creative method.
Partially Oxidized Graphite in Polypropylene Grafted Maleic Anhydride
Natural graphite flakes (NGF) were partially oxidized with potassium permanganate (KMnO4) in order to increase their dispersion during melt mixing in polypropylene (PP) grafted maleic anhydride (MA) (PPg- MA). Electrical conductivity of the composite, as well as X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectrometry, and rheological properties were assessed against the level of oxidation.
Influence of Hybridization of Glass-Fiber and Talc on the Mechanical Performance of Polypropylene Composites
Polypropylene composites with glass fibers or talc are widely used in various technical applications. In many applications weld lines are formed in injection molding and reduce mechanical performance. When large aspect ratio reinforcements are used this detrimental effect is more pronounced. This results from the preferential orientation of reinforcements in the plane of weld line. In this paper, the hybridization of two different aspect ratio reinforcements is shown to be beneficial to the weld resistance.
A See-Through" Extruder to Teach Principles of Polymer Melt Extrusion"
The design and construction of a simple and inexpensive single screw extruder with a transparent quartz barrel is presented. The utility of such an extruder as an effective teaching tool to visually portray the mechanisms of polymer melting and mixing during extrusion is outlined.
Characterizing Surface Orientation Caused by Shear-Induced Flow
The effect of the near-exterior, oriented layer on the mechanical properties and related behavior of plastic injection-molded parts was studied. Standard tensile test specimens were molded from two different melt flow rate variations of Dow Magnum ABS: a 12.0 g/10-min MFR (347EZ), and a 5.0 g/10-min MFR (9555). Four families of specimens were investigated: as molded, as molded then annealed, machined, and machined then annealed. Results showed that very similar reductions in tensile strength occurred when samples were either annealed, or machined.
Ethylene-Octene Based Foam-Film Structures via Microlayer Coextrusion Technology
Prevention of gas escape during foam sheet extrusion has been a challenge, particularly in the manufacture of elastomer foams. It has been demonstrated for the first time that coextrusion of multiple alternating layers of foam and film is a means to achieve low density elastomer based foam structures. Materials with soft touch and high toughness have been obtained with the appropriate choice of layer structure, constituent materials, and fabrication conditions.
Effects of Shear-Induced Flow on Impact Strength
The effects of shear induced orientation were studied. IZOD impact tests were performed on a high and low molecular weight Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS) polymer. Oriented samples were compared against unoriented samples to quantify the effects of orientation on impact strength. It was discovered that the outer orientated layers contribute significantly to the impact strength of the molded parts.
The Influence of Wall Thickness on the Creep Rupture Performance of Polyethylene (PE) Pipe
A thermal gradient is inherent to the solidification of extruded profiles such as pipes. Depending on the magnitude of the gradient, varying levels of residual stresses are frozen-in during the pipe fabrication step. In this investigation, the residual stress state of a polyethylene (PE) pipe was altered by changing its wall thickness. Creep rupture testing of the subject pipes provided an insight on how residual stresses influences both ductile and brittle fracture processes.
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