SPE Library

The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.

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Conference Proceedings
ELECTRICAL, THERMAL, AND TENSILE BEHAVIOR OF CARBON NANOTUBE/POLYCARBONATE COMPOSITES
Jeffrey Galloway, Mingjun Yuan, Rich Hoffman, Sanjiv Bhatt, May 2010
Carbon nanotubes (CNT) are effective at increasing the electrical conductivity of polymers at low loading levels without compromising the resulting composite's mechanical properties. In this study, varying amounts (2 to 8 wt%) CNT were added to polycarbonate and the resulting composites were tested for electrical, thermal, and tensile behavior. The percolation threshold was < 1.4 vol % CNT. The addition of CNT to polycarbonate increased the composite electrical and thermal conductivity and tensile modulus.
SLIDING WEAR OF POLYMERS: REVIEW OF MECHANISMS TEST METHODS AND EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN
Jeffrey Galloway , Mingjun Yuan , Rich Hoffman , Sanjiv Bhatt, May 2010
An overview of sliding wear testing of polymers is presented. The primary wear mechanisms for polymers are reviewed. Common wear test methods and other experimental design considerations are discussed. In addition metrics for comparing the wear performance of materials and their advantages and disadvantages are discussed. Since the results of wear testing depend on many different variables careful experimentation is required to obtain meaningful data.
NUMERICAL PREDICTION OF THE FLOW OF COEXTRUDED POLYMERS IN A TUBE
Chunxia Costeux , Joseph Dooley, May 2010
An analytical solution has been developed to predict the flow of ƒ??Nƒ? layer coextruded encapsulated polymers through a round tube such as interface positions and pressure gradients. The predictions show fairly good agreement with the experimental measurements for two layer coextrusion with an equal flow rate in each layer.The effects of flow ratio total flow rate and layer composition on the interface position within the die and on the pressure gradient are examined. The knowledge of interface position and pressure gradient is important for die design and process optimization.
DYNAMIC TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT IN POLYMER PROCESSING
V. Schöppner , E. Enns , K. Anger , E. Giese, May 2010
The use of a fast responding infrared thermometer enables to measure the mass temperature inside the screw channel and the resultant profile over the screw length during the plasticizing process. With a response time of 10 milliseconds this IR-Thermometer is more than 1000 times faster than conventional thermometers.
INSTRUMENTATION AND CONTROLS INVENTIONS AND INNOVATIONS IMPACTING THE POLYMER PROCESSING INDUSTRY
Mark D. Wetzel, May 2010
The processes to compound and shape polymeric materials into a wide variety of products have made significant and prolonged global economic impacts and have provided enormous societal benefits. Since the advent of the plastics industry, many key enabling inventions and innovations in instrumentation and control system technology have been made that engineers now may take for granted. This paper reviews the development and commercialization of several examples of sensing, actuation and control methods that are critical in extrusion, compounding and other polymer processing operations.
BEYOND THE BLING: THE DEVELOPMENT OF DECORATIVE PVD/UV COATING SYSTEMS
Paul Mills, May 2010
Several market and technological developments occuring at the same time are resulting in a surge of interest and development of systems that utilize both decorative physical vapor deposition (PVD) and coatings that utilize ultraviolet light curing mechanisms.
REBUILDING A PLASTIC ENGINEERING CAREER IN YOUR FOURTH DECADE
James Gavin, May 2010
Downsizing is affecting technical employees in mature industries, such as plastics. This paper examines the statistical probability of being impacted by these organizational changes. Strategies are presented to plan for the financial, professional and emotional impacts. If properly planned, rebuilding a technical career can be a rewarding experience.
PROCESSING COSTS AND ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT OF BIO-PLASTICS
Julius Vogel , Dr. David Grewell , Rob Anex, May 2010
This work studied bio-plastics such as polylactic acid (PLA) and protein based plastics form corn and compared to petroleum based plastics such polyethylene (PE) and polystyrene in terms of their ecological as well as economical performance from a 'Cradle to Grave' perspective. This study included energy input, emissions output of green house gases and costs from their life cycle steps of raw material acquisition to the final product disposal. It was found that products manufactured from bio-based feedstocks were relatively higher in cost, they resulted in less green house gas emissions.
A COMPARISON OF VELOCITY TO PRESSURE TRANSFER CONTROL STRATEGIES FOR INJECTION MOLDING
Art Schubert, May 2010
Injection molders commonly use a ram position setting to control switchover. As in-mold sensors have become more widespread, using them to control switchover ensures more consistent part quality than machine-based control.Herein we explore several control strategies applied to an array of different mold configurations and materials.We evaluate each method's ability to minimize in-cavity variation when material viscosity changes. The results provide the molder with information for choosing a control strategy appropriate to each application.
SIMULATION OPTIMIZATION APPLICATIONS IN INJECTION MOLDING
Oliver Henze, Erik Waßner, Rüdiger Krech, May 2010
A simulation optimization methodology based on design of experiments and metamodeling is applied to injection molding in this work. The proposed method is used first to select the best processing conditions for injection molding a Kodak disposable camera front plate; and, secondly to decide on the best injection gates configuration from three different injection scenarios, as well as the values of mold temperature and melt temperature for a real automotive part in order to minimize variability. The optimization results are discussed in light of the qualities of the simulation optimization method.
IMPROVEMENT OF TRANSPARENCY AND PROCESSING PROPERTIES OF HARD TPU MATERIALS
Oliver Henze , Erik Waßner , Rüdiger Krech, May 2010
A statistical model is discussed which will help to understand the sequence length distribution of thermoplastic polyurethane block copolymers. Using this model processing range and transparency of some TPU materials were correlated to the theoretical segment length distribution. Considering this analysis some new Elastollan® 1200 materials (E 1200 materials) were developed. Due to the wide processing range and the high transparency of these new materials they are suitable to an increased number of applications.
DESIGNING FOR DIVERSE LOADING CONDITIONS AND PREDICTABLE FAILURE IN A COMPOSITE HYDROFOIL
Wesley Petersen , Nicole Larson, May 2010
A hydrofoil is subjected to many unique and varied loading situations. It must both withstand design loads and fail in a way that does not pose a hazard to the vessel it is attached to or the operators and/or passengers on board. This research investigates designing for several loading situations, while an attempt is made to ensure potential failure occurs in a specific, predictable and contained manner
PHYSICAL FOAMING OF ELASTOMERS IN THE INJECTION MOLDING PROCESS
W. Michaeli, U. Masberg, May 2010
Besides material and cost reduction the production of foamed elastomer parts offers the possibility to adjust part properties by modifying the cellular structure. This paper describes the physical foaming of rubber from its first step which is the dissolving of inert gases in the material to the foaming itself, its necessary equipment and different ways of conducting the process. Furthermore it discusses how to obtain desired part properties by varying process parameters.
A REAL-TIME SYSTEM FOR THE INSPECTION OF TEXTURED SURFACES
Pavel Huta?, Martin Šev?ík, Luboš Náhlík, Ivaylo Mitev, Andreas Frank, Gerald Pinter, May 2010
Embossed or printed plastic surfaces are widely used as decoration elements. However, no inspection systems exist that can inspect products with irregular textures such as artificial leather or imitation wood. This paper describes a system for the inline inspection of extruded surfaces with irregular textures. By incorporating algorithms for texture analysis into an inspection system, defects can be reliably detected and classified at real-time.
SOFT TIP ABRASION RESISTANT PRY BAR FOR ROTATIONAL MOLDING
Yogesh Vakharia, May 2010
The current practice of using steel pry bars to open a rotational mold and de-mold the parts during the rotational molding process is one of the primary causes of damage to expensive aluminum molds and molded parts. Pry bars with soft but tough and abrasion resistant molded tips will reduce the mold damage during the de-molding process. Introduction
SOFT TIP ABRASION RESISTANT PRY BAR FOR ROTATIONAL MOLDING
Yogesh Vakharia, May 2010
The current practice of using steel pry bars to open a rotational mold and de-mold the parts during the rotational molding process is one of the primary causes of damage to expensive aluminum molds and molded parts.Pry bars with soft but tough and abrasion resistant molded tips will reduce the mold damage during the de-molding process.
ISOTHERMAL CRYSTALLIZATION STUDIES ARE ENHANCED BY DSC FAST COOLING
Andrew W. Salamon , Peng Ye , Kevin Menard, May 2010
Isothermal crystallization experiments provide useful information for applications concerning the processing of fibers films soda bottles and injection molding. This isothermal crystallization study demonstrates a new extraordinary and unique extreme-precision-cooling-rate of a Double Furnace Power Compensation DSC. This new cooling technique called Ballistic Cooling. Plastics foods pharmaceutical and other applications will benefit from these new cooling techniques.
ISOTHERMAL CRYSTALLIZATION STUDIES ARE ENHANCED BY DSC FAST COOLING
Andrew W. Salamon , Peng Ye , Kevin Menard, May 2010
Isothermal crystallization experiments provide useful information for applications concerning the processing of fibers, films, soda bottles, and injection molding. This isothermal crystallization study demonstrates a new, extraordinary, and unique, extreme-precision-cooling-rate of a Double Furnace Power Compensation DSC. This new cooling technique called Ballistic Cooling. Plastics, foods, pharmaceutical, and other applications will benefit from these new cooling techniques.
MEASUREMENTS OF BIAXIAL STRESSES DURING THE COMPRESSION OF BULK RESIN FEED
Aaron P. R. Eberle, Gregorio M. Velez, Donald G. Baird, Peter Wapperom, May 2010
Compression of the bulk solids feed resin is important in solids conveying in single screw extruders. The compressive stresses in the solid bed act with friction to produce solids conveying flow. Classically, the stresses have been assumed isotropic. However, a laboratory test given here demonstrates the biaxial stress in solids feed. Measurements were made of the biaxial stresses during compression for HDPE, LDPE, LLDPE, PET pellets, and PET powder, and the results are correlated with some extruder solids conveying performance.
MANAGEMENT 101: LEADERSHIP AND MANAGEMENT LESSONS LEARNED FROM MY YEARS IN CORPORATE AMERICA
Ivan D. Lopez, Fritz Klaiber, Tim A. Osswald, May 2010
Reductions in force, layoffs and early retirements have left a management and leadership voids in many corporations. As a result, many good candidates have been pushed into leadership positions without the training, skills development and/or experiences that their predecessors have had in the past. This article is intended to summarize a series of lessons learned from my management experiences during my twentyƒ??seven year tenure at Xerox Corporation.


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How to reference articles from the SPE Library:

Any article that is cited in another manuscript or other work is required to use the correct reference style. Below is an example of the reference style for SPE articles:

Brown, H. L. and Jones, D. H. 2016, May.
"Insert title of paper here in quotes,"
ANTEC 2016 - Indianapolis, Indiana, USA May 23-25, 2016. [On-line].
Society of Plastics Engineers, ISBN: 123-0-1234567-8-9, pp. 000-000.
Available: www.4spe.org.

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