The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.
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Innovative PPS Blow-Molded Air Duct for Turbocharged Diesel Engine
A new patented in-mold assembly process forms an optimized assembly using a combination of blow molding and injection molding for a turbo-charged diesel charge air duct. The process incorporates a 15%-GF-reinforced blow-molding grade and a 30%-GF-reinforced injection molding grade of polyphenylene sulfide. PPS was the material of choice due to its superior heat and chemical resistance.
Advances in Thermoplastic Composites Using CBT
The use of cyclic-polybutylene terephthalate (C-PBT) for manufacturing high-performance composites is taking on new roles. Advances in injection molding RTM molding pultrusion and composite tooling are benefiting from the use C-PBT thermoplastic resins leading to the development of new C-PBT technologies and applications.
Alternative Methods to Enable the Powder Priming of SMC
Previous work has shown that the newly developed SMC systems are powder-primer ready in straight-through operations. However after an extended stoppage in the operation – such as July shutdown – the success of the powder application depends on the severity of temperature ramp in the oven. To overcome this issue alternative methods are proposed such as 4 min. of preheating in the oven at 180°C or 3 min. of IR exposure.
The Influence of SMC Formulation Inner Panel Thickness & Bond Stand-Offs on Bond-Line Read-Through Severity
Two experiments designed to understand the relationship between material and process factors and bond-line read-through (BLRT) severity will be discussed. Regression analyses of the data collected in these experiments were able to establish relationships between the experimental factors and BLRT severity with at least 80% correlation.
Flexibility in the Direct Strand Moulding Compound (D-SMC) Process
Recent Advances in Class A Polyurethane Long Fiber Injection (LFI) Composites
Recent advances in related polyurethane chemistry have increased the commercial viability of the long fiber injection (LFI) process for producing very-large composite parts such as entry-door skins truck body and spa panels and recreational boat hulls. These advances enable the LFI process to achieve previously unattainable extended gel times on an open hot mold retain a relatively short demold time and form defect-free surfaces that can lead to the Class A surfaces required for large automotive body panels.
Composite Power-Train Components: Reducing Warranty Costs & Improving Part Quality
Sheet-molding compound has been used in underhood applications and is extending its reach to drivetrain components. This presentation will show how vehicle manufacturers have reduced costs and improved quality through product designs that eliminate hardware enhance capability and improve system performance.
Automotive Composites Consortium Structural Composite Underbody
The Automotive Composites Consortium Focal Project 4 (ACC FP4) is a joint program between GM Ford and Chrysler to develop structural automotive components from composite materials. Part of this project is a structural composite underbody capable of carrying crash loads. Phase 2 of the project involves a full design of the underbody including design for durability and feasible component manufacturing and vehicle assembly scenarios.
BMC Composites: High Value Metal Replacement Material Alternative for Automotive Powertrain Applications
Performance requirements for underhood components are increasing making historically used thermoplastics unsuitable for next-generation engines. The need for higher thermal chemical and mechanical resistance is opening the door to thermoset bulk-molding compounds (BMC) for critical metal-replacement opportunities successful examples of which will be presented.
Application of Digimat Micromechanical Modeling to Polymer Composites
DIGIMAT micromechanics-modeling software was evaluated to predict the nonlinear stiffness and strength properties of glass-filled nylon. In this particular case due to the high aspect ratio of the fibers the properties of reverse engineered effective actual matrix properties were needed to accurately correlate both the matrix" rather than theflow and transverse to flow stress-strain behavior."
Advanced Simulation of Fiber-Reinforced Automotive Radiator End Tanks by Capturing Anisotropic Material Properties
This study aims to capture realistic anisotropic properties of a plastic material in a structural analysis. Moldflow software has been used to obtain the fiber-orientation details for a plastic radiator tank. This fiberorientation output data have been transferred to the structural analysis software (ABAQUS using commercially available interface software (DIGIMAT). This integrated simulation technique helps in accurate prediction of burst pressure strength of the plastic tank.
Material Characterization & Modelling of Long Glass-Fiber Composites
Modeling the stiffness of parts injection molded from long-fiber materials is similar to yet different from behavior using short-fiberfilled materials. This work discusses the effects of various modeling assumptions and methods on stiffness predictions using a coupled Moldflow-Digimat-Abaqus analysis methodology.
Fatigue Properties of Injection Molded 33% E-Glass Fiber Reinforced Polyamide-66
This paper presents the effects of melt temperature injection pressure hold pressure and injection speed on the tensile and fatigue properties of 33-wt% E-glass fiber-reinforced polyamide-66. It was observed that these process parameters had a greater influence on the fatigue properties than on the tensile properties. Melt temperature had the greatest effect followed by injection pressure. Both hold pressure and injection speed had smaller but significant effects on the fatigue life.
Identification Selection & Development of Composite Test Standards - A Case Study from the Development of a Design Standard for Composites
This paper examines the identification selection and development of appropriate composite test methods as required in the composites design process. Examples from the development of a load and resistance factor design (LRFD) standard for pultruded composites are presented. The issues addressed for this case study discussion are applicable to any segment of the composites market that is looking to establish design procedures or develop design standards.
Study of Braided Composites for Energy Absorption
The goal of this research project was to provide data to build FEA tools and to improve the understanding of braiding technology in order to expand predictive abilities for post-yield behavior of carbon fiber products braided with multiple hybrid fibers.
Mesoscopic Finite Element Simulation of the Compression Forming of Sheet Molding Compound Woven-Fabric Composites
This paper describes a mesoscopic approach of using beam and shell finite elements to model the forming of composite parts using an SMC woven fabric. Nonlinear constitutive models are implemented in ABAQUS/Explicit via user-defined material subroutines to describe the shear and tensile mechanical behavior of the woven fabric. Both single-ply and multiple-ply layups are modeled.
An Investigation of ‘Green’ Class-A SMC
Saturated- and unsaturated-polyester resins containing glycols made from renewable or recycled sources are being developed as a way to become less dependent on petroleum-based glycols. In this study SMC performance of standard-density Class A automotive SMC containing polyester resins produced from petroleum-based glycols was compared to standard-density Class A automotive SMC containing polyester resins produced from renewable-source glycols. The evaluation included processing aesthetics and adhesion performance. Finally a new low-density Class A automotive SMC containing polyester resins produced from renewable-source glycols will be introduced.
Bio-Based Polymers from Soy Chemistry
Research on the use of soybeans to produce polyurethane polyols unsaturated polyester resins and thermoplastic fibers has been funded by the United Soybean Board (USB). The USB funds a wide range of activities including research and development of new industrial products made from soy. These developments have resulted in new patented technology. Commercialization of this technology has resulted in the production of unsaturated-polyester resins for fiberglass-reinforced composites and urethane polyols for polyurethane foams. The commercial applications of these bio-based polymers are found in a wide range of applications in the transportation markets.
Epoxy Thermosets Modified with Novel Nano-Scaled Self-Assembled Block Copolymers: Toughening Mechanisms and Extension to Composites
A unique approach to toughening thermosets has been identified by introducing small amounts of amphiphilic block copolymer. The result is a good viscosity-Tg-toughness balance. In this work the fracture behavior of these modified epoxies was carefully studied in an attempt to understand the toughening mechanisms that exist. The findings suggest that cavitation in even these nano-sized spherical micelles is the primary mechanism of toughening. These findings were also found to be a strong function of the cross-link density of the host network with higher levels of plastic deformation at the crack tip being observed in the low-cross-link density systems. Glass-fiber-reinforced composites made with epoxies modified with these toughening agents were found to have improved fatigue resistance.
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