SPE Library

The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.

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Conference Proceedings
Structure and Properties of TPO-Based Nanocomposites
Do Hoon Kim, Paula D. Fasulo, William R. Rodgers, Donald R. Paul, May 2006
Thermoplastic polyolefin nanocomposites with different ratios of maleated polypropylene (PP-g-MA) to organoclay were prepared in a twin-screw extruder. Mechanical and thermal properties were measured and compared with composite theory. These properties will be discussed in terms of the morphology of the dispersed clay and elastomer phases and the characteristics of the matrix and dispersed phases.
Isothermal Enthalpy Recovery in a Polymer Glass After Carbon Dioxide Jumps
Lameck Banda, Mataz Alcoutlabi, Gregory B. McKenna, May 2006
A novel technique to measure enthalpy recovery in polymer glasses after carbon dioxide pressure jumps has been developed in our laboratory. Specifically, we modified a Setaram C80 Calvet differential scanning (DSC) calorimeter to work under moderate CO2 pressures. In the present work, we show first results for such experiments for polystyrene in which the pressure is changed from 4 MPa to 2 MPa, 1 MPa and ambient conditions.
Layered, Nano Foams from PS Blends
X. Liao, A.V. Nawaby, P. Handa, May 2006
This paper reports on the single-phase blend of polystyrene with syndiotactic polystyrene, its fluid phase behavior with CO2, and on the layered and nano foams obtained therefrom.
Experimental Studies and Modeling of Fiber Breakage in Co-Rotating Twin Screw Extruder
Sughun Bumm, Kyunha Ban, James L. White, May 2006
An experimental study of glass fiber breakage in corotating twin screw extruder for isotactic polypropylene and polyamide12 is presented. Comparisons are made using different screw configurations, fiber length, diameter, and loading. We have developed a model for the kinetics of fiber breakage and evaluated the kinetic constants for various conditions.The glass fiber breaks up and the fiber length was reduced to a steady state length. The steady state length primarily depends on the screw configurations and initial fiber length.
Mechanical Properties of PP/Ethylene Acrylate Copolymer/TiO2 Blends
Xiyun S. Fan, May 2006
An ethylene methyl acrylate copolymer (EMA) produced from a tubular reactor was found to be effective in toughening polypropylene even at low concentrations. The addition of a small amount of TiO2 pigment enhanced the EMA toughening effect. Microscopy and thermal analysis helped to reveal the possible EMA toughening mechanisms. The effects of two processing methods, dry-blending and melt-blending, on the compound mechanical properties were also studied.
Structure Development In Melt Spinning the New Generation of Polyolefins
Haifeng Shan, James L.White, Dongman Choi, May 2006
In the period of the late 1930s to the 1950s, the first generation of polyolefins including polyethylene, isotactic polypropylene and other isotactic polyolefins were introduced. The structures developed in these polymer have since that time been investigated. In the 1990s, polypropylene of various tacticities and new copolymers of ethylene with varying compositions have been introduced. We describe here studies of the structure development of these new polymers during melt spinning processing.
Using sc-CO2 as a Processing Aid for Improving the Properties of Polymer Nanocomposites
Quang T. Nguyen, Donald G. Baird, May 2006
Supercritical carbon dioxide (sc-CO2) is used in this work as a processing aid for improving the dispersion of the clay nanoparticles in the melt intercalation process of HDPE-clay nanocomposites. Some preliminary experiments were performed to study the effect of sc-CO2 on the melt intercalation process. Results from the mechanical properties and rheological studies show a direct effect of the sc-CO2, suggesting that the presence of sc-CO2 in the melt blending process can enhance the degree of mixing and the dispersion of the nanoclays into the polymer matrices.
Reactive Extrusion of PBT for Low Density Foaming
B. Jeong, M. Xanthos, K. Hyun, May 2006
Branching or partial cross-linking of polybutylene terephthalate (PBT) resins by reactive modification with multi-functional epoxides was investigated. The rheology of the PBT products could be controlled by varying material and operational conditions of the reactive extrusion process. The modified PBT was adaptable to low density foam extrusion, where higher melt strength is necessary.
Application of Recycled Industrial Polyolefins in Pail Design Using FEM
S. Haider Rizvi, S.H. Masood, Igor Sbarski, May 2006
This paper presents the application of recycled industrial HDPE and PP and their blends with virgin resins in pail design using finite element analysis. Results predict that these blends can be used in pails for the packaging of non food grade materials such as paints, oil and grease.
Interfacial Adhesion in Bamboo Fiber/Biodegradable Polymer Composites
M. Nakamura, K. Kitagawa, H. Okumura, U.S. Ishiaku, M. Kotaki, H. Hamada, May 2006
Surface treatment with natural resin on bamboo fibers is hypothesized to improve the interfacial adhesion between bamboo fibers and biodegradable polymers. Effect of the surface treatment on the interfacial adhesion was investigated by evaluation of mechanical properties and fracture behavior of the composites.
Carbon Composite Bipolar Plates for Fuel Cell
Sun Ho Park, Chang Min Hong, Young Jun Lee, May 2006
The shape and intrinsic conductivity of conductive fillers affect to performance of bipolar plate, therefore the effect of conductive fillers and morphology of polymer/ conductive filler composites on conductivity were evaluated to utilize in fuel cell. The mixture of conductive fillers such as graphite/carbon black, graphite/carbon nanofiber, and graphite/carbon nanotube were also estimated to minimize the loading of conductive fillers in bipolar plates.
Modeling of Non-Isothermal Film Blowing Process by Using Variational Principles
M. Zatloukal, H. Mavridis, J. Vlcek, P. Saha, May 2006
A recently proposed model of the film blowing process (Zatloukal and Vlcek) was generalized and consequently applied to the case of high-stalk tubular film blowing of HMW-HDPE. It was found that the proposed model has a good capability to describe and predict the relevant experimental data. In the second part of the paper, a non-isothermal version of the film blowing model is developed and tested. Finally, a novel version of the generalized Newtonian model is proposed, which allows one to take into account the effect of extensional melt rhelogy.
Investigation of PPA Interactions with Polymer Melts in Coextrusion Flows
M. Zatloukal, J. De Witte, C. Lavallée, May 2006
Recently proposed new slip model based on 'effective continuum methods' was developed and used for investigation of process aids interactions with polymer melts in single as well as multi-layer flows. Specific attention has been paid to understanding the role of process aids on stabilization of the zig-zag type of interfacial instabilities in film blowing coextrusion.
Modeling of Viscoelastic Multi-Layer Flows for Different Polymer Melts
M. Zatloukal, M.T. Martyn, J. Vlcek, P.D. Coates, May 2006
Modified Leonov model has been employed in the modeling of the coextrusion flows with same as well as differerent polymer melts. Flow visualization measurements were used for verification of the used numerical scheme. Specific attention is paid here to the possible numerical difficulties which may occur during modeling of the merging area with different polymer materials. Both, measurements as well as FEM analysis of the coextrusion flows were discussed from the wave type of interfacial instabilities point of view.
Investigation of Advanced Constitutive Equations Under Different Flow Conditions
M. Zatloukal, R. Pivokonský, T. Gough, P.D. Coates, May 2006
The predictive capabilities of three models (eXtended Pom-Pom, PTT- XPP and modified Leonov model) are tested for both, steady as well as transient shear and uniaxial extensional flows of LDPE. In the second part of the paper, the modified Leonov model is employed in FEM modeling of the abrupt contraction flow and predicted stress fields are compared with the stress measurements from the flow visualization cell.
The Elimination of Weld Line Witness Marks in Injection Moulding
Peter S. Allan, Keith W. Rawson, Michael J. Bevis, May 2006
The surface witness marks of weld lines in injection mouldings can be particularly unsightly in certain resin compounds. This paper will describe a method that offers the potential to eliminate weld line witness marks. The process involves the combination of selectively heating the mould surface and the application of melt shearing in the mould cavity.
Shape Memory Binary Blends: Compositionally Tailored Fixing and Recovery
Cheryl J. Campo, Patrick T. Mather, May 2006
Semicrystalline-amorphous blends exhibit shape memory due to (1) the elastomeric nature imparted by crystallites that act as physical crosslinks and (2) temporary shape fixing made possible by the vitrification of a continuous, miscible amorphous phase. PVDF-containing binary blends were studied using calorimetry and rheology in order to characterize the morphological control afforded by subjecting such materials to different thermal histories. The sensitivity of the aforementioned techniques to changes in blend morphology will also be discussed.
Fracture Behaviour of Injection Moulding Post-Consumer Wood/Plastic Composite Foams
R. Gosselin, B. Riedl, D. Rodrigue, May 2006
This study investigates fibre reinforced microcellular foams produced via injection moulding using recycled polymers. The objective is to determine the effect of wood, blowing agent and coupling agent contents on impact and tensile properties. Birch wood fibres were blended with a post-consumer HDPE/PP matrix to produce the composites. Azodicarbonamide was used as a blowing agent while maleic anhydride polypropylene copolymer was used as a compatibilizer. Optimal results were obtained with 20 wt.% wood contents.
The Effect of Sharp Corners and Runner Length on Melt Flow Imbalances
Raymond W. McKee, Joshua A. Hoover, May 2006
This study revealed that the use of 90 degree sharp corners has virtually no effect on mold filling imbalance. The study also found that mold fill rates can have a significant impact on the shear induced imbalances found in multi-cavity molds. Further, the study found that increasing the length of the secondary runner will initially decrease the shear induced imbalance developed in the primary runner. Continuing to increase the length has a diminishing effect on the degree the imbalance decreases.
Replication of Injection Molded Parts with Micro-Scale Features
Osamu Murakami, Kazushi Yamada, Masaya Kotaki, Hiroyuki Hamada, May 2006
The effects of melt viscosity and molding conditions on the replication of microscopic v-groove features in injection molded parts were examined for polycarbonate (PC). A polarized Raman spectroscopy was used to characterize the microstructure of these molded parts. It has been found that high replication of micro-scale features can be achieved by higher mold temperature and higher melt temperature even with high viscosity PC. The difference of the molecular orientation at the inside of the injection molded v-groove was observed among the different molding conditions.

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"Insert title of paper here in quotes,"
ANTEC 2016 - Indianapolis, Indiana, USA May 23-25, 2016. [On-line].
Society of Plastics Engineers
Available: www.4spe.org.

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