The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.
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Applicability of Polymer Process Models for the Simulation of Starch Processes
In the plastics industry it is common to use simulation software tools for designing processes. In contrast there are even no software tools which are 100% suitable for performing these tasks in case of starch processes. In case of simulating starch processes these one-dimensional process models mainly meet one problem: the different material behaviour of starch. In the study at hand the applicability of the available process models was investigated.
Electron-Beam Cured Resin Systems for Wood Composites
In wood composites, low-temperature electron-beam curable resin systems offer tremendous energy savings and unique opportunities to develop novel products. Mechanical properties (strength and stiffness) and compositional properties (such as durability of resin-towood bonds) were investigated.
Load-Dependent Thermo-Mechanical Application Limits
The common approach to determine thermomechanical application limits as the beginning of the decrease of the temperature-dependent modulus from DMA-measurements results in optimistic thermo-mechanical application limits. The reason for it is analyzed and allowable estimations are suggested. Also the time-, stress- and temperature-dependent deformation behaviour at static loading is investigated to derive time- and stress-dependent thermal application limits.
The Use of Electron Beam Irradiation to Control the Degradation of a Medical Device by Altering the Through Thickness Molecular Weight Profile
This paper investigates the effect of electron beam radiation on the through thickness molecular weight profile of a bioresorbable polymer. Stacks of thin layers of two bioresorbable polymers were irradiated and the molecular weight of each layer determined. Experiments were carried out to determine the reduction in mass of each layer over time. It was found that there was a clear decrease in molecular weight in the layers nearest the beam, resulting in faster degradation.
Mixed Field Irradiation - Induced Modification of Thermally Cured Castor Oil Based Polyurethanes
Thermal curing of castor oil based polyurethanes is limited by increasing polymer viscosity. To enhance further crosslinking, they were subjected to intermediate doses from a mixed ionizing radiation field. Limitations of thermal curing and increases in mechanical strength due to radiation-induced crosslinking were confirmed by changing 13C-NMR and FTIR spectra.
Optimisation of PET Beverage Bottle Design Using Pro/Mechanica FEM
Achieving the best product to production and into the market quickly and efficiently requires an integrated approach to product design. Manual trial and error methods in design optimization and development will be time consuming and costly. This paper presents the design optimization process for designing and analysing a 600ml PET bottle using the Pro/Mechanica Structure finite element method (FEM), investigating the optimization of its shape, size, and features for reduced material usage without affecting its capacity, functionality, and strength.
Quality Increase and Fine Fluff Avoidance in Vibration Welding
Fine fluff and impurities in the vibration welding process frequently cause optical impairments and technical defects. In order to prevent the appearance of fine fluff in the future, two different methods were examined, based on geometrical variation on the one hand and on the preheating of the workpiece on the other hand.
Modern Flexible Coating Lines, Optimized for the Demanding Coatings of Today and Tomorrow
Traditional coating lines are designed for a specific process, and usually require extensive modification to successfully handle a new process. Traditional coating lines are designed using a quasi-flowchart method.Just as software programmers discovered that changing their basic design philosophy from flowcharting to object orientated state analysis brought many advantages, particularly in inherent flexibility, so many of these advantages can be endowed into a coating line by adopting this methodology into the initial design stages.
Containerized Mobile /Modular Compounding Plants: Flexible, Efficient and Cost Effective
Interest in transportable modular production plants is on the rise. These containerized solutions combine flexibility with minimal installation and start up expense. This presentation will highlight the issues surrounding a successful implementation of this concept for an insulated pipe construction used for offshore crude oil transport.
Using Extreme Barrel Diameters to Verify the Numerical Simulation of Single-Screw Extruders
Numerous models exist for the prediction of pressure profiles in the metering section of single-screw extruders. For the most part, these models were verified using experimental data from small diameter extruders. Verification using data from large diameter machines, however, has not been fully explored due to the lack of experimental data. The analysis here will show the effect of barrel diameter on the ability of a model to predict pressure profiles in the metering channel.
Characterization of Beam Profile for High-Power Diode Lasers with Application to Laser Welding of Polymers
This paper presents and compares the results of knife-edge and pinhole approaches for laser beam power profiling. A high-power diode laser, which is typically used for laser transmission welding (LTW) of thermoplastics, is characterized. Benefits of the knife-edge method are speed and simplicity. Its major drawback is that it does not provide details about the internal features of the three-dimensional (3-D) beam intensity distribution that is examined in depth by the pinhole method.
Unexpected and Unusual Failures of Polymeric Materials
Some failures are predictable, such as due to exposure to environmental conditions. In this paper the focus is on failures that there was no reason to expect. While they may become obvious, they are unpredictable. Some are unusual, involving a cause and effect on the plastic that are not obvious. Examples are cracking of nitrile rubber, contamination of GPC samples by a filter syringe, and PVC plasticizer used for many years being declared unsafe.
Fighting the Flow - How Predicting the Way Plastic Moves Saved Us Money
Over the past seven years Symbol Technologies, Inc. has been using a tool that helps to make plastic housings faster, better and cheaper: FEA analysis of the molding process. This paper details a number of examples where Symbol has used this technology to save money.
WEEE and RoHS - Environmental Design Strategies
Tough new environmental laws are rapidly spreading around the world that directly impact product design. Failure to heed them will result in lost revenue and increase the cost of doing business. This paper explains what they are and details essential strategies for dealing with them.
Selecting Equipment to Minimize Production Costs and Maximize Profitability
Specifying and installing the proper equipment for a process is key to minimizing the long-term cost of producing products. But often the objective to purchasing equipment is to minimize the initial capital cost. Minimizing this initial purchase cost, however, may require the purchaser to add costly modifications to the line after installation, creating higher operating costs, length troubleshooting, and a delay to market entry. Principals and strategies are presented here that show how to avoid this mistake, and case studies are provided as learning tools.
The Effects of Electron Beam Cured Coatings on Polymer Substrates
Performance of two co-extruded and two metallized polypropylene films with EB-cured coatings were studied to determine whether any changes occurred because of the coating and curing process. Selected mechanical properties showed some statistically significant but relatively small differences between the control (uncoated and uncured) and treated (coated and cured) films.
Rheology and Properties of Linear and Branched Polypropylene Blends
The rheological, thermal and mechanical properties of linear and branched polypropylene blends with varying melt flow rates are characterized. These blends are miscible in the melt state and have high melt elasticity while retaining good flow and mechanical properties.
Dispersed Nanoclay in GFRP as a Barrier Against Environmental Attack
E-glass fiber-reinforced vinyl ester plastics with up to 5 wt% montmorillonite dispersed in the matrix were immersed in distilled water for nine weeks. At one week intervals, samples were removed and sectioned, both perpendicular and parallel to the fiber direction. Scanning electron microscopy revealed progressive degradation of the matrix and the glass reinforcement. However, the rate of moisture attack decreased with increasing amount of dispersed clay; this was confirmed by strength, stiffness and ductility measurements.
Recycling of Latex Based Paint as Polymer Feedstock Materials
This work investigates the recycling of used latex paints into non-paint products. Waste latex paint was collected, dried, and prepared for mixing as polymer feedstock. This feedstock was melt-blended with high-density polyethylene (HDPE) and polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) at various composition ratios by injection molding. Tensile mechanical properties and thermal properties of paint/HDPE and paint/PMMA polymer blends were determined. Thermal analysis revealed that these blends are immiscible.
Mechanical Properties and Morphology of PP and TPO / Nanosilica Nanocomposites
Nanosilica (SiO2) was used as a reinforcing filler in PP and PP/elastomer (TPO) blends. The partitioning of SiO2 in each polymer phase and its relation to reinforcement was investigated. SiO2 partitioned preferentially in the PP phase, when maleated PP was used as a compatibilizer. A separated morphology, where SiO2 resides in the PP phase, is required to achieve efficient reinforcement.
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