The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.
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INVESTIGATION INTO THE EFFECT OF EXTRUSION AND THERMOFORMING PARAMETERS ON THE PROPERTIES OF POLYPROPYLENE CONTAINERS
Extruded polypropylene (PP) sheet is widely used in the production of thin gauge containers for the food and beverage industry using the thermoforming process. In industry there is not a clear understanding of the relationship between the effect of varying extrusion and thermoforming parameters and the resultant changes in end product properties. This paper investigates the effect of parameters such as chill roll temperature and haul off speed during extrusion, and plug speed and sheet temperature during thermoforming on end product properties such as wall thickness distribution, weight and compressive strength. Test results show several parameters have a large effect on end product properties, with greatest variations between different material grades.
STRATEGIES FOR THE REPLACEMENT OF LEAD- AND CHROME-BASED PIGMENTS IN SYTHETIC TURF
Lead- and chrome-based pigments have been used in synthetic turf due to their performance properties and low cost in use. Environmental and regulatory concerns about these heavy metal-based pigments are leading the synthetic turf industry to voluntarily adopt guidelines that will effectively eliminate their use by 2010. Currently, no drop in" replacements exist for lead-based pigments. The variety of polymers used in synthetic turf further complicates finding solutions. Reformulation strategies using organic and inorganic colorants along with light stabilization systems are presented for several polymers."
THE MAP IS NOT THE TERRITORY: AN EXPLORATION OF RADICAL INNOVATION
Radical Innovation (RI) has been defined by the researchers who published the first study on RI in 1994 as 'a product, process, or service with either unprecedented performance features or familiar features that offer potential for significant improvements in performance or cost.' If these conditions hold, dramatic changes in products, processes or services may change existing markets and/or industries and be responsible for creating new ones. This can occur through several routes including technological discoveries, greatly improved services and processes, and novel business models. Traditional product development efforts result in incremental and platform innovations, however, it takes being comfortable with high uncertainty, seeing and thinking differently particularly about technology and business models, and an element of passion to create Radical or Breakthrough Innovations. This type of innovation is surrounded by high uncertainty and requires different maps, such as learning plans, discovery driven thinking, nontraditional success metrics, and portfolio management rather than project management and traditional gating processes and tools. RI territory will be explored through two case studies involving products and businesses with a focus on plastics and polymers.
LOOKING BEYOND THE INVENTION OF NEW TECHNOLOGY OR A NEW PRODUCT
In hundreds of projects across many different companies; we have worked with teams who have invented a new technology or product and then wanted to take a 'cookie cutter' approach to capturing value from the invention. Because each invention, by its definition as an invention, is unique and differentiating, we need to at least consider different options. Pre and post invention and pre and post commercialization. Two examples of alternative ways to capture value from invention are exemplified but there are dozens of additional ways to be innovative beyond the cases highlighted. The lesson is that neither client would have followed any other path than to invent its new product and then sell it to traditional customers with the approach they have already taken. The 'tried and true' process.
PLASTIC MICROFLUIDICS: TRANSFORMATIVE TECHNOLOGY FOR TOMORROW
Abstract #1: Design, Fabrication and Applications of Polymer Microfluidic Biochips Microtechnology is initiated from the electronics industry. In recent years, it has been extended to micro-electro-mechanic system (MEMS) for producing miniature devices based on silicon and semi-conductor materials. However, the use of these hard materials alone is inappropriate for many biomedical devices. Soft polymeric materials possess many attractive properties such as high toughness and recyclability. Some possess excellent biocompatibility, are biodegradable, and can provide various biofunctionalities. I will first give a brief overview of major activities in our center on micro/nanomanufacturing of polymeric materials and microfluidics. An enzyme immunoassay chip will be discussed as an example for a low-cost and mass-producible lab-on-a-chip platform for molecular and biological analyses. The platform is a microfluidic CD for Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assays (ELISA) that reduces cost, accelerates results, and improves reliability of analyses for food borne contaminants, cancer diagnoses and environmental contamination. The presentation will cover (1) optimization and integration of the critical microfluidic and biochip packaging methods developed for CD-ELISA applications, (2) development of manufacturing and detection protocols for the CD-ELISA chips, and (3) evaluation of the performance of CD-ELISA's by validating testing for food borne pathogens and cancer cytokines.?ÿ ?ÿ Abstract #2: Bio-applications of Microfluidics: A flexible microfluidic device to characterize bacterial biofilms We characterize the viscoelasticity of bacterial biofilms by means of a flexible microfluidic device. The biofilms are comprised of Staphylococcus epidermidis and Klebsiella pneumoniae.?ÿ The presence of implanted foreign bodies such as central venous catheters is a key risk factor for infection by bacteria of this kind.?ÿ Because of the sensitivity of biofilm properties to environme
MICROFLUIDICS FOR RAPID PERSONALIZED DIAGNOSTICS – ARE THERMOPLASTICS THE ULTIMATE SOLUTION?
The development of disposable microfluidic devices for rapid point-of-care applications has become central to progress in medical diagnostics and a variety of other fields. Microfluidics is the technology of engineering flow at the micrometer scale, making it possible to perform multiple operations on a single chip. The use of these systems is attractive because they promote reduced sample consumption and analysis time without being restricted to standard laboratory settings. To this end, lab-on-a-chip (LOC) systems have mostly been shown to function in conceptual ways, yet their commercialization and widespread use has been hindered by a number of challenges, which include materials and low-cost fabrication technologies as primary concerns.
NEW STRUCTURAL POLYMER FOR METAL REPLACEMENT APPLICATIONS
Recent developments based on a novel thermoplastic Liquid Crystal Polymer (LCP) molecule and compound formulation have led to a new material which can exceed the properties of traditional plastics and demonstrate metal-like properties for structural applications. Developed with a very high modulus (>20,000MPa), tensile strength (125 MPa) and an extremely high strength-to-weight ratio, this material is isotropic and has a tailored Coefficient of Thermal Expansion (CTE) of 17x10-6/?øC matching aluminum and steel. The material has balanced dimensional stability and ultra-low shrinkage (0.05%) with high temperature stability up to 420?øC. These metal-like properties have been identified as a metal replacement material for structural applications in a variety of applications and markets.
SURFACE ENHANCEMENT OF TPO POLYMERS WITH IMPROVED FLOW AND SCRATCH PROPERTIES
Detailed application data is presented for the newly developed additive formulations designed for their use in surface enhancement of TPO polymers with improved flow and scratch properties. Improvements in impact properties and talc dispersion have been achieved with newly developed additives. Excellent scratch resistance performance has been achieved in TPO when used at 1-3% loadings without negatively affecting key physical properties. Recent work conducted on flow and release property enhancers for polyolefins are discussed. It is shown that significant performance improvements in PP /TPO polymers can be obtained at low loadings of these process aids. In addition to mechanical properties, rheological data is presented. It is shown that tailor making the additive formulations can achieve optimal scratch performance required for automotive interior/exterior applications.
Renewable Resource-Based Composites for the Automotive Industry
The incorporation of renewable resources in composite materials is a viable means to reduce environmental impact and support sustainability efforts in the composites industry. This paper will focus on unsaturatedpolyester resins prepared from renewable resources and their use in composite materials. Applications of these resins in the automotive industry will be described including a comparison of properties and performance vs. typical petroleum-based resins.
Development of Injection Moldable Composites Utilizing Annually Renewable Natural Fibers
In order to advance the commercialization of natural fiber reinforced plastics for automotive use a partnership was formed between academia natural fiber processor material supplier and OEM. This partnership improved the communication along the supply chain and resulted in optimized material properties to meet OEM specifications and application part performance. Several products have been developed that meet current material specifications offer significant weight savings over conventional mineral- and glass-reinforced composites and are competitively priced.
Economical Preform Production for Conventional & Natural Fiber Composites
This paper presents an independent cost analysis for a novel slurrybased preform technology in order to understand its potential benefits across a range of component and reinforcement scenarios. Specifically the economics for small medium and large automotive composites reinforced with glass carbon and natural fibers through the use of manual sprayup automated P-4 and slurry preforming are examined and compared through technical cost analysis. The molding economics of SMC RTM and SRIM are also addressed in detail.
Renewably Sourced Engineering Polymers for High-Performance End-Use Applications
External trends have continued to drive end users in consumer and industrial applications to seek renewably sourced and sustainable solutions to use in more and more demanding applications. To meet this need a portfolio of renewably sourced engineering materials was developed. The products are designed to provide performance and functionality equivalent to or better than today’s petroleumbased materials while reducing the environmental footprint. The portfolio includes glass-reinforced thermoplastic grades for high strength and stiffness.
Improved Matrix Materials for High-Performance Carbon Fiber Aromatic Thermosetting Copolyester
The use of new aromatic thermosetting copolyester (ATSP) is described and compared to the best available epoxies for high performance composites. ATSP oligomers display liquid crystalline behavior which was identified using optical microscopy with cross-polarizers.ATSP tailored to have a liquid crystalline structure has reduced stresses at the fiber/matrix interface and better thermal fatigue resistance compared to epoxy.
Low Temperature Cure Polyurethane Adhesive for Primerless" Composite Bonding "
A new polyurethane adhesive has been developed that provides excellent adhesion to SMC HSU and RTM without surface preparation and requiring only a room-temperature cure or greatly reduced postbake temperatures. This presentation will review where such an adhesive will find application its general chemistry and supporting data.
Bentley Motors Develops Unique Directional Carbon Fibre Preforming Process for Chassis Rails
Details are presented on an automated process for manufacturing net-shape charges for compression moulding using a spray-deposition technique. The novel process uses a resin-spray technique and magnetic fibre to position and hold fibres onto the tool face. The process is intended for producing structural components using discontinuous bundles for medium-volume applications.
Reducing Setup Costs: Tooling Force Prediction in Resin Transfer Moulding (RTM) & Compression RTM
Mould tools used for processes such as RTM and compression RTM must withstand significant forces generated by the fluid resin and the fibrous reinforcement. Prediction of these forces will allow for optimizations in setup costs and time and maximize the usage of the capabilities of peripheral equipment (such as presses). SimLCM is being developed at the University of Auckland as a simulation package with the capability to predict clamping forces and stress distributions during complete moulding cycles for RTM and CRTM.
Pushtrusion™ Direct In-Line (D-LFT) Compounding Technology versus LFT Pellets & GMT Sheet
PlastiComp’s direct in-line (D-LFT) compounding process provides processors of fiber-reinforced thermoplastics a simple and affordable alternative to pre-compounded pellets and GMT sheet while yielding equivalent and in some cases slightly higher mechanical properties. This paper summarizes a comparative study of the properties of D-LFT vs. traditional LFT pellets in an injection-molding process as well as D-LFT vs. GMT sheet in a compression-molding process.
A Formulation Study of Long Fiber Thermoplastic Polypropylene (Part 1): The Effects of Coupling Agent Type & Properties
The relationship between the resin and fiber properties in polypropylene long fiber thermoplastics is further analyzed in the second part of this work. The properties of the maleic anhydride grafted polypropylene additives (coupling agents) are studied and correlations between the maleic anhydride content melt flow and base polymer used is presented. Polypropylene long fiber thermoplastics pellets were compounded with various coupling agents. The materials were then molded and tested. The results of the study are presented.
High Performance Reinforcement: A Pathway to Density Reduction while Maintaining Physical Properties of Polyolefin Composites
To achieve significant part weight reductions of 15-20% Milliken Chemical's high performance reinforcing (HPR) additive may be an excellent choice for the replacement of talc and other mineral fillers in polypropylene composites. For instance vs. talc HPR will typically provide comparable or superior performance with only about one-third of conventional talc concentrations. Furthermore these improvements may be realized without any detrimental effects on aesthetic properties.
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