The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.
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Modeling of Water Debinding of Metal Injection Molded Parts
An experimental protocol for measuring mass diffusivity during water debinding of metal injection molded parts is proposed. The diffusivity found, although dependent on part geometry and debinding time, can be averaged to model the polymer extraction.
Resistance Welding of Glass-Fiber-Reinforced PP: Modeling and Experiments
This research models the temperature profiles generated during resistance implant welding of polypropylene composites. The experimental current-time conditions at which meltdown occurs and experimentally measured temperatures compare favorably with the model results.
Development of a Device to Measure Rheological Properties at High Frequency
A commercially available linear vibration welder has been modified to allow measurements of complex viscosity, storage and loss moduli of polymeric materials at frequencies relevant to those encountered in vibration welding. In order to make these measurements, a parallel plate fixture was constructed and mounted on a linear vibration welder. Piezoelectric shear force sensors and two accelerometers were used to accurately measure the forces and accelerations imposed on the polymeric materials. The device has been used to test two model viscoelastic materials.
Post-Yield Deformation of Glassy Networks: Effects of Molecular Architecture
The post-yield deformation of epoxy-based networks with controlled architectures is investigated. Particular attention is paid to changes in crosslink density and backbone structure and how they affect the strain hardening response of the glass. Scaling effects with temperature are also considered. In addition, differences in the stain at failure and rupture energy of the networks are explored.
Dimensional Stability of Single Site and Ziegler-Natta Ethylene Coplymers in Rotational Molding
Experiments were carried out to evaluate the dimensional stability of rotational molding grade resins. The development of residual stresses was modeled using a thermo-elastic approach. Results confirmed that both crystallization behavior and cooling conditions contribute to warpage.
Honeycombs Impregnation by Polymers with Nanofillers
Main mechanical properties of honeycombs are improved by impregnation of their walls by polymers containing nanofillers. Maximal effect is achieved by carbon nanofibers application. Structure of walls becomes of sandwich-like, what is increasing the effective stiffness and especially compression and shear strength of honeycombs, which is determined by walls buckling.
Confinement in Layered Silicate Modified Thin Films
In this paper we have studied the effect of montomorillonite layered silicate (MLS) nanoclay in polymer thin films by considering the effect of concentration and different film thickness on linear coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) and glass transition temperature (Tg). CTE and Tg of thin polymer and nanocomposite films were calculated by using ellipsometry. They were also correlated with the interaction between the substrate and film and their chain mobility.
TPU/Nanoclay Composites Produced via Reactive Extrusion
In this study, reactive extrusion was used to polymerize a typical thermoplastic polyurethane in situ with an organically modified layered silicate. Depending on the incorporation method, varying degrees of nanoclay dispersion were achieved. However, even with good nanoclay exfoliation, significant improvements in tensile and barrier properties were not achieved. Compared to analogous composites produced via melt compounding, composites produced via reactive extrusion exhibited superior properties.
Recycling Non-Halogen FR-PC/ABS
PC/ABS composites used extensively for laptop housings have grown significantly in the plastic waste stream. For these systems, required flame retardancy is done either through system design or composite formulations. Many manufacturers opt for non-halogen FRs such as triaryl phosphates. This paper will look at these options, measuring properties relative to recycling issues and using common industrial practices, present performance in a realistic recycling program. This study also considers additives found useful as stabilizers.
Designing with TPO for Innovative High Gloss Mold-In-Color Automotive Applications
Thermoplastic Polyolefins (TPO) are used extensively in interior and exterior automotive applications due to their various advantages. The ultimate goal, to replace a painted part with high gloss mold-incolor (MIC) plastic, is now within reach with a new line of TPO products. Design Challenges, performance, system cost and colorability of this new technology are reviewed in this paper.
Supramolecular Polymers at Interfaces
When macromolecular superstructures are defined by very specific chemical interactions, their properties are likely to be very sensitive to the steric constraints of interfaces. Modular systems of molecules, constructed for the purpose of obtaining structure-activity relationships, provide extremely useful molecular tools for probing polymer physics in two regimes: (1) linear polymers reversibly assembled along their main chains, and (2) covalent polymer brushes reversibly crosslinked by thermodynamically similar, but kinetically dissimilar, intermolecular interactions.
Outgassing Behavior of E Beam Irradiated HDPE and ETFE
Electron Beam irradiated high density polyethylene (HDPE) and ethylene tetra fluoro ethylene (ETFE) was studied by performing organic outgassing studies.Effects of radiation levels and aging are beyond the scope of this work.It was found that the outgassing in HDPE and ETFE increased with increased exposure to E Beam, decreased with time, and increased with temperature. ETFE, due its unique combination of tetra fluoro ethylene and ethylene, showed greater outgassing as a function of temperature.This work is limited to total outgassing analysis. Analysis of the species within the total is beyond the scope.
Modeling the Morphology Development of Ethylene Copolymers in Rotational Molding
Morphology development was modeled using the phase field theory. The model successfully captures variations caused by changes in material formulation and molding conditions. Since morphological features are contributing factors to product performance, the model will be useful for process optimization.
Polymer Nanocomposites Fibers and Applications
Different polymer nanocomposite (polypropylene-clay and polyethylene terephthalate-hydroxyapatite) fibers were produced by melt blowing. Fibers exhibit interesting mechanical properties attributed to polymer and nanoparticle orientation. Fibers could be organized and consolidated into 3D structures with retained improved mechanical properties. Structural and biomedical of these structures are presented.
Cool Colors in Plastics
Reference to cool colors are those that either absorb a minimum of solar energy or are transparent to solar energy. Last year we presented a paper showing work on colorants that were used in plastics that would meet TSR ratings in coatings applications. We have extended this work into PP, HDPE, PS and TPO.
Structure Development of Polypropylene/Ethylene-Butene Copolymer Blends in Melt Spinning
Polypropylene/ethylene-butene copolymer blends have been melt-spun into filaments. The morphology and orientation of the filaments are studied by SEM, WAXD, and birefringence.
Mechanics of Foam-Filled Honeycombs
Foam-filled honeycombs are prospective core materials for sandwich structures used in cryogenic isolation, hydrogen storage, etc. Mechanical properties of such materials are calculated according the developed models and studied experimentally. Such core has better mechanical properties and resistance to leakage than conventional ones.
The Calorimetric Glass Transition of Free Standing Polystyrene Thin Films
The absolute heat capacity and the glass transition are measured for stacked polystyrene thin films using the step scan differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) method. We find that the absolute heat capacity in both the glass and liquid states decreases with decreasing film thickness and that the Tg also decreases with decreasing film thickness. The results indicate that an understanding of Tg at the nanoscale is elusive.
Measurement of the Bulk Modulus Using Pressurizable Dilatometry
A new piston-cylinder type pressurizable dilatometer controlled by a stepper motor has been developed to measure the time-dependent bulk modulus of viscoelastic materials. The PVT behavior and bulk modulus measurements for polystyrene are reported.
Solid State Structure and Properties of Novel High Performance Olefin Elastomers
Exciting new developments in polyolefin synthesis give rise to blocky olefin copolymers with properties typical of the thermoplastic-elastomers. This paper describes the materials science of these unique polymers including the microphase separated morphology and its relationship to elastomeric behavior.
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