SPE Library

The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.

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Conference Proceedings
ADDITIVE PROCESSING – NEW MATERIALS FOR FUSED DEPOSITION MODELLING
Bettina Wendel , Claus M. Dallner , Ernst Schmachtenberg, May 2010
Additive processes are increasingly used to generate functional components in almost any geometry layer by layer directly from CAD-files without using tools and molds. Within the scope of this paper it is shown how the limited variety of materials can be extended for fused deposition modelling to reach new areas of application and how these new materials are to be manufactured. First functional prototypes could successfully be produced and characterized.
PROCESSING AND PERFORMANCE OF HDPE POLYMER BLENDS INCLUDING POST CONSUMER RECYCLED HDPE
T. Beiss, C. Dallner, E. Schmachtenberg, May 2010
With the rapid increase in the market for recycled polyethylene from various sources, there is an urgent need to quantify the performance of these materials. Blends of recycled high density polyethylene (HDPE) were prepared to obtain specific mechanical properties and MFI. The results show that the MFIs had significant effect on the rheological, mechanical and phase morphology characteristics of the various blends.
VIBRATION JOINING OF FILAMENT REINFORCED THERMOSETS
T. Beiss , C. Dallner , E. Schmachtenberg, May 2010
At the Institute of Polymer Technology (LKT) a vibration joining technique was developed that offers short cycle times and represents a modification of hotmelt bonding using the machine technology from vibration welding. It is suitable to join thermoplastics with thermoset materials or thermosets using a thermoplastic interlayer by taking advantage of short cycle time and excellent lap-shear strength compared to bonding with reactive adhesives.
PROPYLENE BLOCK COPOLYMER AS A COMPATIBILIZER FOR POST CONSUMER HDPE/PP BLENDS
Nora Catalina Restrepo Zapata, Juan Manuel Vélez Restrepo, May 2010
Melt compounded polymer blends such as PP/HDPE blends from post consumer waste have often been reported to exhibit poor mechanical properties. This work reports on the potential improvement in performance of PP/HDPE blends using polypropylene copolymers as compatibilizers. The properties of the PP/HDPE blends in general progressively varied from that of 100% HDPE to 100% PP. Analysis showed some improvements in mechanical performance of the blends with the addition of PP copolymers, but DMTA results suggest no improvement in compatibility.
POLYMER FLOW ANALYSIS ON AN AUTOMOTIVE INSTRUMENT PANEL
Harsh Bhagat, May 2010
Mold filling simulations are sophisticated programs providing immense benefits for the plastics injection molding industry. The use of simulation techniques has improved the processability of large tools resulting in improved finished part quality.
POLYMER FLOW ANALYSIS ON AN AUTOMOTIVE INSTRUMENT PANEL
Harsh Bhagat, May 2010
Mold filling simulations are sophisticated programs, providing immense benefits for the plastics injection molding industry. The use of simulation techniques has improved the processability of large tools resulting in improved finished part quality.
LASER WELDING OF THERMOPLASTIC URETHANE FILMS
Ryan Marsico , William H. Cawley , Rolf Klein, May 2010
Laser welding is increasingly becoming a technology of choice in the plastics joining industry. The use of infrared absorbers to laser weld thermoplastic materials including thermoplastic elastomers is also of interest to the plastics industry. Therefore an investigation of the laser welding characteristics of four classes of thermoplastic urethanes using organic infrared absorbing materials was undertaken. In addition the use of thermoplastic urethanes as intermediate layers with dissimilar plastics has also been examined. This paper reviews the results of these welding studies.
LASER WELDING OF THERMOPLASTIC URETHANE FILMS
Ryan Marsico , William H. Cawley , Rolf Klein, May 2010
Laser welding is increasingly becoming a technology of choice in the plastics joining industry. The use of infrared absorbers to laser weld thermoplastic materials, including thermoplastic elastomers, is also of interest to the plastics industry. Therefore, an investigation of the laser welding characteristics of four classes of thermoplastic urethanes using organic infrared absorbing materials was undertaken. In addition, the use of thermoplastic urethanes as intermediate layers with dissimilar plastics has also been examined. This paper reviews the results of these welding studies.
A COMPARISON OF STATISTICAL PROCESS CONTROL (SPC) AND PRINCIPLE COMPONENTS ANALYSIS (PCA)
David Kazmer , Sarah Westerdale , Daniel Hazen, May 2010
The performance of statistical process control (SPC) compared to principal components analysis (PCA) for the purpose of quality control. Both methods used a nine run perturbation design of experiments to develop the initial model and control limits. Twelve molding faults were then imposed to characterize the performance of the two methods to identify process changes and molding defects. SPC identified 5 of the 12 process faults and 18 of the 24 molding defects. PCA identified 10 of the 12 process faults and 23 of the 24 molding defects.
RHEO-OPTICAL MEASUREMENTS IN MICROMOULDING
B.R. Whiteside , R. Spares , P.D. Coates, May 2010
Flow visualisation has previously been used to study injection moulding. The smaller length scales associated with micro-moulding allow some additional measurements to be taken but pose new challenges due to the lower filling and cooling times. We have developed an experimental toolset for visual observation in micromoulding cavities via a sapphire window system that allows the study of mould filling post filling shrinkage of the polymer away from the cavity surface and determine the evolution of birefringence during solidification.
RHEO-OPTICAL MEASUREMENTS IN MICROMOULDING
B.R. Whiteside , R. Spares , P.D. Coates, May 2010
Flow visualisation has previously been used to study injection moulding. The smaller length scales associated with micro-moulding allow some additional measurements to be taken, but pose new challenges due to the lower filling and cooling times. We have developed an experimental toolset for visual observation in micromoulding cavities via a sapphire window system that allows the study of mould filling, post filling shrinkage of the polymer away from the cavity surface, and determine the evolution of birefringence during solidification.
A PLASTICS MANUFACTURING SYSTEMS EDUCATION
EC Brown, BR Whiteside, R Spares, PD Coates, May 2010
Plastics manufacturing is an interdisciplinary endeavor crossing chemical, mechanical, and electrical engineering as well as other fields. In this paper, a systems approach is described for the decomposition and development of a plastics manufacturing system. The case study involves the design, implementation, and validation of a thermal imprint lithography machine used in an undergraduate process control course. Its development motivated systems thinking about open and closed loop control, variances between theory and practice, performance measurement, and process optimization.
SHEAR STRESS AND MELTING FLUX FOR POLYCARBONATE RESINS
Atakan Altnkaynak , Mahesh Gupta , Mark A. Spalding , Sam L. Crabtree, May 2010
Frictional forces (for temperatures less than the melting or devitrification temperature) and shear stresses are keys to the solids conveying and melting processes in plasticating single-screw extruders. For most processes the shear stress at the polymer-metal interface however is unknown. This paper presents shear stresses and melting fluxes for three polycarbonate (PC) resins with different melt flow rates. The data are related back to the extrusion process.
EVALUATION OF FATIGUE LIFE PREDICTION MODEL FOR GFRP COMPOSITE MATERIALS
Shen Changyu, Zhou Yingguo, Chen Jingbo, May 2010
A fatigue life prediction model for GFRP composites using the internal strain energy release rate as the damage metric for predicting fatigue life from a minimum of empirical data points has been proposed. This evaluation of the modelƒ??s accuracy demonstrates its simplicity and ability to model fatigue life for coupons and components. The model was able to fit fatigue data and predict fatigue life to within 5% log error with a high success rate.
LIFETIME PREDICTION OF PLASTIC PIPES FOR GAS DISTRIBUTION AND HOT WATER SUPPLY
Hiroyuki Nishimura, Takafumi Kawaguchi, May 2010
This paper describes a comparison of the lifetime of polyethylene (PE) pipes between actual field failures and accelerated experimental failures for gas distribution. The results of deformation behavior of PE pipes are also indicated in differential settlements and earthquakes. The lifetime of plastic pipes for hot water supply and space heating were also evaluated by the stress rupture tests. A 30-year-or-more service life of the system for central heating will be guaranteed at 90 degrees C under an inner pressure of 0.25 MPa.
VISCOELASTIC PROPERTIES OF EPOXY AND VINYL ESTER NANOCOMPOSITES
Nanjia Zhou , Andrey Beyle , Christopher C. Ibeh, May 2010
The influence of different nanoparticles (nanoclay silicon carbide) concentrations on viscoelastic properties of vinyl ester and epoxy nanocomposites and nanofilled conventional fiber reinforced polymers were studied using Differential Mechanical Thermal Analysis (DMTA). The shift of the glass transition temperature with addition of nanoparticles was detected. The dependencies of storage and loss moduli on temperature on type of nanoparticles and on their concentrations are compared. Maximal tangent of mechanical loss angle was found changed with concentrations of nanoparticles.
FAILURE OF HUMAN BIOPOLYMERS
Yu-Te Liao, Shi-Chang Tseng, Meng-Chih Chen, Chao-Tsai Huang, Yuan-Jung Chang, May 2010
Failure of Human Biopolymers was introduced to the SPE Failure Analysis and Prevention Special Interest Group at the 2009 ANTEC. It broadens failure of synthetic polymers (plastics) to include biopolymers that control human life. It is a vast field in which synthetic polymers and human biopolymers intersect. Both polymer types share susceptibility to failure by oxygen, free radicals, UV and X-ray radiation, heat and stress. Combining each type with the other benefits both. The basics will be reviewed briefly and other aspects of the subject will be presented.
A STUDY OF THERMALLY AND FLOW INDUCED RESIDUAL STRESSES IN INJECTION MOLDING
Yu-Te Liao , Shi-Chang Tseng , Meng-Chih Chen , Chao-Tsai Huang , Yuan-Jung Chang, May 2010
During the injection molding process mold filling may introduce residual stresses. And the sequential cooling process may result in thermal stresses. Some cases show flow induced residual stresses dominate the final stresses. Sequential multi-component molding is one of good examples of thermal stresses. On the other hand in the higher speed injection molding cases higher shear stresses may be the major contribution to final residual stresses.
EFFECTS OF STEAM EXPLOSION CONDITIONS ON THE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF LDPE/COTTON BAST COMPOSITES
Emad Abdalla, Remon Pop-Iliev, May 2010
The effects of cotton bast (CB) content and steam explosion parameters (including steam pressure, holdup time, and moisture content) on the mechanical properties of low density polyethylene (LDPE)/CB composites were investigated. The results show that LDPE/steam exploded cotton bast (SECB) composites show superior tensile and flexural properties compared with pure LDPE and LDPE/unmodified CB composites. The superficial area of CB is increased by steam explosion pretreatment, thus enhancing the mechanical properties of composites.
ELECTRICAL, THERMAL, AND TENSILE BEHAVIOR OF CARBON NANOTUBE/POLYCARBONATE COMPOSITES
Jeffrey Galloway, Mingjun Yuan, Rich Hoffman, Sanjiv Bhatt, May 2010
Carbon nanotubes (CNT) are effective at increasing the electrical conductivity of polymers at low loading levels without compromising the resulting composite's mechanical properties. In this study, varying amounts (2 to 8 wt%) CNT were added to polycarbonate and the resulting composites were tested for electrical, thermal, and tensile behavior. The percolation threshold was < 1.4 vol % CNT. The addition of CNT to polycarbonate increased the composite electrical and thermal conductivity and tensile modulus.


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"Insert title of paper here in quotes,"
ANTEC 2016 - Indianapolis, Indiana, USA May 23-25, 2016. [On-line].
Society of Plastics Engineers, ISBN: 123-0-1234567-8-9, pp. 000-000.
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