The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.
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Stresses, Adhesion and the Mechanics of Polymer Coatings
Novel and powerful methods of characterizing the state of stress, the orthotropic elastic coefficients and the energy of adhesion of thin coatings are described. These methods were developed by my research group to help understand the mechanical behavior of coating materials. The systems studied include epoxies, polyimides, photoresists and even some paints and metals. The techniques address issues such as the origin of coating stresses, the influence of the degree of constraint, determining anisotropic elasticity coefficients, and problems associated with adhesion testing.
Mechanical Properties of Soy Protein Isolate/Soy Hydrolysate Plastics
Biodegradable plastics based on soy protein isolate were prepared with soy hydrolysate as a plasticizer via different methods, and the mechanical properties of the samples from the different processing methods were tested and compared. The results indicated that the tensile strength and the elongation at break of the samples with soy hydrolysate were enhanced when the preparation process consisted of extrusion followed by injection molding or compression molding, but no improvement was noticed in the case of the compression molding without prior extrusion.
Laser Transmission Welding of Colored Thermoplastic Elastomers and Hard Plastics
Automobile and other part manufacturers have looked for ways to join dissimilar materials. Welding different kinds of resin together has been looked at for this purpose.Olefin thermoplastic elastomers colored with a transparent black colorant can be welded with polypropylene while keeping higher welding strength compared to the case of non-colored elastomers. Laser welding using black-colored thermoplastic elastomers has a variety of potential applications in the manufacture of automotive parts and electronic components.
A New TPU Featuring Low Tackiness
Thermoplastic polyurethanes are relatively tacky compared to other thermoplastic elastomers. The general practice in the plastic industry is to add waxes, lubricants or inorganic fillers to reduce the tackiness. Unfortunately, these additives have negative impact on final product performance and aesthetic property.A series of new TPU products featuring low tackiness, contact transparency and process efficiency that can be used in applications requiring low coefficient of friction in film, sheet, tubing etc. This paper will illustrate the features of the new products and their mechanical properties.
Working with Organic Pigments in Yellow Color Space
Formulators coloring plastics and synthetic fibers can select from a variety of organic colorants in order to achieve a final desired color. The choices can be confusing unless the colorants are previously specified or are well known to the formulator. This paper will deal with a subset of the colorants in yellow color space while clarifying the selection process with respect to some of the most important properties of the colorants for plastics and fibers.
What Every Plastics Professional Should Know About Patents and Patenting - Part 2: Important Considerations in Invention Patenting
Deciding on what to claim in a patent application and targeting the claims for specific business objectives are very important legal and business decisions. In this article, important considerations influencing such decisions are discussed, including the prior art, patentability of the claimed invention and defining claim terms. Relevant examples are given to illustrate such considerations.
Statistical Tools for Predicting Flame Resistance of PC/ABS Blends
Flame-retarded products must pass the requirements of UL94 testing. Only a pass/fail type of data is obtained which makes it difficult to predict longterm capability. This paper describes statistical tools to predict UL94 V and 5V capability of PC/ABS blends for robust design of such products. In particular, use of parameters such as probability of first-time-pass, p(FTP), for V-testing, and time-to-drip (TTD) and time-to-hole (TTH) for 5V-testing is described.
Design for Six Sigma and Product Development in the Plastics Industry
Developing a product that meets the customer’s requirements requires a collaborative effort from marketing, technology, manufacturing and other functions across the organization. Customer’s requirements should be translated to specific product properties and specifications. The designed product must be robust during manufacturing and should be shipped to the customer on time and with the right quality. This paper describes the value of critical parameter management using Design for Six Sigma rigor with a case study.
Study on Mechanical Properties of Dynamically Cured Novolac/PP Blends
In this paper, the dynamic vulcanization process was applied to polypropylene (PP) and novolac type phenolic resin blends compatibilized with maleic anhydride-grafted PP (MAH-g-PP). The influences of dynamic cure and novolac content on mechanical properties of the PP/novolac blends were investigated. The results showed that the dynamically cured PP/MAH-g-PP/novolac blends had better mechanical properties and thermal stability than that of uncured PP/novolac blends, uncured PP/MAH-g-PP/novolac and dynamically cured PP/novolac blends.
High Strength Cellulose Triacetate Fibers
Sign (+/-) of birefringence observations are shown to be a powerful tool for development of high strength cellulose triacetate and regenerated cellulose fibers. These simple observations provide a means to monitor both the extent and uniformity of reaction in the preparation of cellulose triacetate using heterogeneous acetylation conditions. Possible deacetylation of the triacetate during liquid crystalline fiber processing from trifluoroacetic acid solvent systems, and relationship to fiber strength are also described.
Recycling Thermosets: The Use of High-Pressure High-Temperature Sintering (HPHTS) and Degraded Material as Means of Producing New Products
High-Pressure High-Temperature Sintering (HPHTS) of waste thermosets allowed for the production of new parts from 100% recycled material. This technique along with utilizing degraded material as filler has resulted in the successful recycling of thermosetting materials at high recycle levels. Finally, Chemicals Stress Relaxation experiments offered excellent insight into the mechanism of HPHTS and the degradation process.
Mechanical Properties of Injection-Molded Fiber-Reinforced Parts Theory and Verification
Mechanical properties of fiber-reinforced plastic parts largely depend on fiber orientation obtained from flow simulation to calculate anisotropic properties. This paper describes theoretical and experimental studies which showed the effects of linking process simulation and structural mechanical analysis to optimize the design process.
True 3D Numerical Simulation for Micro Injection Molding
The demand for miniature molded parts has been growing over last decade. The filling in micro structure regions are primarily 3D and hence cannot be properly modeled by the 2.5D approach. A 3D model is developed to simulate the micro molding. The numerical results are compared with the experiment.
True 3D CAE Visualization of Intra-Cavity" Filling Imbalance in Injection"
The intra-cavity flow imbalanced phenomena have been discovered in either a single cavity or a multi-cavity mold, and result in the uneven product quality within one cavity. In this paper, 3D numerical simulation method is applied to realize this imbalanced phenomenon and its physical mechanism.
Drop Test of a Compound Structure Composed of PC Plate and PCB
This paper proposes a feasible procedure in which both experiment and simulation are iteratively used to assess the responses to drop tests. An example of compound structure, which is basically comprised of a PC plate and PCB, was tested and simulated to show the performance of the proposed procedures. Compared with the results of a patented drop test platform, our test results not only achieved good correlations, but computational cost could also be considerably reduced.
Barrier Properties of Linear Polyethylene Films
Barrier and permeability is important in several PE applications. This study gives a broad mapping of how permeability depends on the PE and on film thickness.PE’s were blown to films and permeability for water vapor measured. The results were expressed by:Permeability coefficient = (Amorphous fraction)* (Amorphous fraction dependent factor) * (Correction factor) / Thickness.The amorphous fraction dependent factor has two different regimes depending on amorphous fraction.The correction factor, which is basically 1, increases with decreasing amorphous fraction, MFR and film thickness.
Cae Analysis of Rapid Thermal Response Molding Process for Thin Wall Parts
The present work covers simulation of thin wall molding using the Rapid Thermal Response (RTR) molding process. In order to account for the unique thermal boundary conditions of the RTR mold, coupled analysis with heat transfer simulation is suggested. Both numerical and experimental results show good flow estimation and birefringence prediction under rapid mold heating.
True 3D and Fully Transient Mold Temperature Simulation for RHCM Process
In the Rapid Heat Cycle Molding (RHCM) Process, the mold temperatures are usually quit high during filling and get cooled quickly in the cooling phase. A true 3D and transient thermal response heating and cooling analysis model is proposed to help analysis and optimize the process.
Rapid Mold Temperature Control on Micro Injection Molded Parts with High Aspect Ratio Micro-Features
Electromagnetic induction heating combined with water cooling are utilized to achieve a rapid mold surface temperature control for micro-feature injection molding process. Replication in molding micro features is greatly improved by rapid mold surface temperature rise within 60° to 140° using induction heating for about 2 to 3.5 seconds. Simulation shows that the E.M. wave can penetrate into micro channel bottom and cause about 2° difference temperature uniformity. For PMMA, complete replication of the 600µm depth and 30-50µm thick micro feature was achieved.
Three-Dimensional Numerical Approach for Core Plate Deflection
Non-uniform melt flow around the core plate during injection molding process can cause the plate to deflect during filling and packing stage. Moreover, this core deflection might result variations in wall thickness, especially for thin parts. In this paper, an effective 3D numerical approach is developed to simulate uneven melt pressure around core during injection molding and further predict the core deflection. One case is reported to indicate the success of the present model.
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