The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.
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Development of Silver Based PE-Nanocomposites for Antimicrobial Applications
An approach to develop PE nanocomposite containing Ag nanoparticles to have an antimicrobial effect is presented. PE was compounded with TiO2 decorated with Agnanoparticles. Morphology of the compound, diffusion of Ag ions and antimicrobial properties for different Ag concentrations were investigated.
Effect of Shear on the Phase Diagram and Morphology of PC/LCP Blends
A number of studies have considered the effect of temperature on phase separation of polycarbonate (PC)/liquid crystalline polymer (LCP). In this work, the effects of shear on the morphology and phase separation temperatures of the blends at different compositions are studied. A polarized light microscope was used in conjunction with a shear cell to observe the phase separation temperatures and to monitor the development of the phase-separated structures.
The Draw Characteristics of Polyethylene and its Controlling Factors
Cast films were prepared from a range of commercially available conventional and metallocene catalysed linear low-density polyethylenes (LLDPE). Drawdown characteristics were compared to both shear and extensional behaviour of the polymers, which was controlled by molecular characteristics. Minimized neck-in and reduced edge beading can be attributed to polymers with low extensional viscosity and extensional thickening behaviour at low extension rates.
Influence of PC-Oligomer Content in PC/ABS Blend Injection Moldings
Effect of PC-oligomer content on morphology and mechanical properties including tensile, flexural, izod impact properties of PC/ABS blend injection moldings were investigated. Different content of PC-oligomer up to 20wt% was blended. Strain at break in tensile tests was found to be significantly increased with only 1wt% PC-oligomer.
Acid and Alkali Resistance Properties of Compatibilized Elastomers
A blend with good mechanical properties and high resistance to chemical substances is prepared using styrene/butadiene rubber (SBR) and acrylonitrile/butadiene rubber (NBR) and silica as filler. They are studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and mechanical properties. High retention of tensile properties after treatment with H2SO4, NaOH and mineral oil is detected.
Use of UV Cured Coatings on Plastics
As plastics fill more roles, they must offer the same physical properties as the materials they replace. Radically reducing VOC emissions and hazardous waste is now mandatory in many areas. Specialized formulation of resins can meet these needs to some degree. Coating the molded parts addresses all these concerns. UV cured coatings meet the most stringent environmental standards, while duplicating the physical properties of glass, wood, light metal and high VOC printing and finishing inks.
Degradation of Aliphatic Polyesters in the Presence of Inorganic Fillers
Aliphatic polyesters were melt mixed with bioactive fillers in order to compare their degradation behavior in a phosphate buffer saline solution as a function of polymer type and crystallinity and type of filler. The samples were tested for weight, pH, IV, and thermal property changes as a function of time.
Assessment of Weld Line Performance of PP/Talc Mouldings Produced in Hot Runner Injection Moulds
Weld lines in injection mouldings are regions of low mechanical strength. The compounding with talc intensifies this effect. In this work it was possible to find a correlation between the processing conditions, the morphology and tensile-impact properties of box type mouldings of PP / talc composites with weld lines.
Assessment of Bioactivity of Aliphatic Polyester Composites
Composites for bone regeneration were produced from polycaprolactone with selected fillers. The fillers were screened for bioactivity using simulated body fluid, and then melt mixed with the polyester. The composites were then characterized by SEM, EDX, XRD, and AA spectroscopic methods and showed different degrees of bioactivity depending on the filler structure.
Estimation of Melt Temperature from In-Mold Temperature Sensor Data
An analytical approach for estimating melt temperature using data from in-mold temperature sensors is presented. The estimated melt temperature obtained by this approach is compared to other process data obtained via the mold temperature sensor data, including the peak mold temperature and the maximum mold temperature increase which is sensed during a molding cycle. The estimated melt temperature was found to be the most reliable means of detecting changes in the actual melt temperature and the injection velocity.
A New Methodology for Measuring Flammability Parameters of Plastics
A methodology that separately reproduces the gas and condensed phase processes of flaming combustion in a single laboratory test is described. Anaerobic pyrolysis of solid plastics under controlled heating conditions and thermal oxidation (nonflaming combustion) of the volatile products provides the rate and amount of heat released by the solid during burning. The physical basis for the methodology, the measurement of flammability parameters, and their relationship to fire response and flame resistance of plastics are described.
Multi-Objective Velocity Profile Optimization
A methodology is presented for optimizing multiple stages in an injection velocity profile between critical junctions in the runner and cavity geometry. During a short shot study, the injection velocity is sequentially optimized for each consecutive velocity stage by minimizing the total injection molding cost. The results indicate that velocity profiling has a marginal role on nominal molding costs, but a significant role on part quality (the part thickness in this study) and processing yields.
Effect of Molecular Weight on the Interfacial Properties of GF/PP Injection Molded Composites
For the fabrication of GF/PP injection molded composite, 3 types of PP with different molecular weights were used in order to simulate the recycling process of PP. Effects of weight-average molecular weight on interfacial adhesion between GF and PP were investigated. Moreover, effects of fiber length was also examined through high-back and low-back pressure at the injection molding condition.
In Mold Punching - Processing and Mechanical Properties
The effects of punching and injection molding conditions on the amount of deformation and the tensile strength for punched polycarbonate parts in a mold during injection molding were investigated. Both punching and injection molding conditions affected the amount of deformation. Only punching conditions have been found to influence the tensile strength. Two ways could be proposed to secure small degree of deformation and high tensile strength.
Hygrothermal Ageing of GF/PP Injection Molded Composites
The effects of hygrothermal ageing on mechanical interfacial shear properties of injection molded glass fiber (GF) reinforced polypropylene (PP) composites (GFPP) were elucidated. The degradation at the interface initially occurred during the aging process. The interfacial shear strength of GF/PP before and after immersion was investigated by using the Kelly-Tyson formula. As the immersion time increased, the interfacial shear strength became lower.
Prediction of Modulus by Considering Distribution of Cell Shape
The distribution of the cell shape in the polyurethane foam was measured by using the image processing method. In addition, the cell shape was simply modeled. The analysis limited within the range of elasticity was done by using this model. As a result, the prediction of the mechanical properties was tried by applying the rule of mixture to the foam. The validity was examined.
Morphology in WPC during Extrusion Foaming with N2
Incorporating a fine-celled structure in wood-fiber/plastic composites (WPC) foam is important for achieving improved ductility and impact strength. This paper investigates the effects of processing and materials parameters on the morphological changes of WPC during extrusion foaming with N2.
Real-Time Diagnosis for Micro Powder Injection Molding Using Ultrasound
Real-time diagnostics of ceramic powder injection molding with a micromolding machine was performed using ultrasound. Miniature ultrasonic sensors were integrated onto the mold insert. Melt front, solidification and part detachment of the feedstock inside the moldcavity were observed. The assistance of ultrasonic velocity in feedstock inside the mold cavity, the ultrasonic contact time during which the part and mold are in contact and holding pressure may minimize part dimension variation.
Rheology and Thermoforming of Rigid Medical Packaging Materials
Rheological properties were measured on two materials to evaluate their behavior in the thermoforming process. An impact-modified acrylic-based terpolymer compound displayed higher extensional viscosity and melt strength measurements versus a copolyester. The findings in this study showed that lower extensional viscosity and melt strength led to higher molded-in-stress and thinner walls of thermoformed parts.
Mechanical Testing and Characterization of Biopolymers
Biopolymers are generally defined as polymers that are found in nature, derived from nature, or utilized as medical implants. Polymeric biomaterials which are utilized as medical implants are typically characterized for end-use performance as well as processability. While lactic acid is found in the human body, polylactic acid is derived from natural resources and utilized as medical implants. This paper will utilize poly(lactic acid) as an example of a biopolymer where the morphological and isomeric structure has an influence on end-use properties such as mechanical properties, biodegradability, and biocompatibility.
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