SPE Library

The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.

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Conference Proceedings
A See-Through" Extruder to Teach Principles of Polymer Melt Extrusion"
David E. Higbee, Hemina KrishnaBachia, Rajendra K. Krishnaswamy, May 2006
The design and construction of a simple and inexpensive single screw extruder with a transparent quartz barrel is presented. The utility of such an extruder as an effective teaching tool to visually portray the mechanisms of polymer melting and mixing during extrusion is outlined.
Characterizing Surface Orientation Caused by Shear-Induced Flow
Luke Kwisnek, Richard Haibach, May 2006
The effect of the near-exterior, oriented layer on the mechanical properties and related behavior of plastic injection-molded parts was studied. Standard tensile test specimens were molded from two different melt flow rate variations of Dow Magnum ABS: a 12.0 g/10-min MFR (347EZ), and a 5.0 g/10-min MFR (9555). Four families of specimens were investigated: as molded, as molded then annealed, machined, and machined then annealed. Results showed that very similar reductions in tensile strength occurred when samples were either annealed, or machined.
Ethylene-Octene Based Foam-Film Structures via Microlayer Coextrusion Technology
Aditya Ranade, Anne Hiltner, Eric Baer, Mark Barger, Joseph Dooley, May 2006
Prevention of gas escape during foam sheet extrusion has been a challenge, particularly in the manufacture of elastomer foams. It has been demonstrated for the first time that coextrusion of multiple alternating layers of foam and film is a means to achieve low density elastomer based foam structures. Materials with soft touch and high toughness have been obtained with the appropriate choice of layer structure, constituent materials, and fabrication conditions.
Effects of Shear-Induced Flow on Impact Strength
Matthew B. Jackson, Millington Adkins IV, May 2006
The effects of shear induced orientation were studied. IZOD impact tests were performed on a high and low molecular weight Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS) polymer. Oriented samples were compared against unoriented samples to quantify the effects of orientation on impact strength. It was discovered that the outer orientated layers contribute significantly to the impact strength of the molded parts.
The Influence of Wall Thickness on the Creep Rupture Performance of Polyethylene (PE) Pipe
Rajendra K. Krishnaswamy, May 2006
A thermal gradient is inherent to the solidification of extruded profiles such as pipes. Depending on the magnitude of the gradient, varying levels of residual stresses are frozen-in during the pipe fabrication step. In this investigation, the residual stress state of a polyethylene (PE) pipe was altered by changing its wall thickness. Creep rupture testing of the subject pipes provided an insight on how residual stresses influences both ductile and brittle fracture processes.
Development of Silver Based PE-Nanocomposites for Antimicrobial Applications
S. Khare, M. Moneke, N. Plachkov, R. Hempelmann, N. Lenz, M. Bureik, May 2006
An approach to develop PE nanocomposite containing Ag nanoparticles to have an antimicrobial effect is presented. PE was compounded with TiO2 decorated with Agnanoparticles. Morphology of the compound, diffusion of Ag ions and antimicrobial properties for different Ag concentrations were investigated.
Effect of Shear on the Phase Diagram and Morphology of PC/LCP Blends
Kam-Wa D. Lee, Musa R. Kamal, Philip K. Chan, May 2006
A number of studies have considered the effect of temperature on phase separation of polycarbonate (PC)/liquid crystalline polymer (LCP). In this work, the effects of shear on the morphology and phase separation temperatures of the blends at different compositions are studied. A polarized light microscope was used in conjunction with a shear cell to observe the phase separation temperatures and to monitor the development of the phase-separated structures.
The Draw Characteristics of Polyethylene and its Controlling Factors
B.G. Millar, C. Small, G.M. Mc Nally, W.R. Murphy, May 2006
Cast films were prepared from a range of commercially available conventional and metallocene catalysed linear low-density polyethylenes (LLDPE). Drawdown characteristics were compared to both shear and extensional behaviour of the polymers, which was controlled by molecular characteristics. Minimized neck-in and reduced edge beading can be attributed to polymers with low extensional viscosity and extensional thickening behaviour at low extension rates.
Influence of PC-Oligomer Content in PC/ABS Blend Injection Moldings
Sungeon Kim, Kazutoshi Umemura, Toshihiro Yoshida, Masaya Kotaki, Hiroyuki Hamada, May 2006
Effect of PC-oligomer content on morphology and mechanical properties including tensile, flexural, izod impact properties of PC/ABS blend injection moldings were investigated. Different content of PC-oligomer up to 20wt% was blended. Strain at break in tensile tests was found to be significantly increased with only 1wt% PC-oligomer.
Acid and Alkali Resistance Properties of Compatibilized Elastomers
L. Pérez, L.F. Giraldo, B. López, May 2006
A blend with good mechanical properties and high resistance to chemical substances is prepared using styrene/butadiene rubber (SBR) and acrylonitrile/butadiene rubber (NBR) and silica as filler. They are studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and mechanical properties. High retention of tensile properties after treatment with H2SO4, NaOH and mineral oil is detected.
Use of UV Cured Coatings on Plastics
John Stansfield, May 2006
As plastics fill more roles, they must offer the same physical properties as the materials they replace. Radically reducing VOC emissions and hazardous waste is now mandatory in many areas. Specialized formulation of resins can meet these needs to some degree. Coating the molded parts addresses all these concerns. UV cured coatings meet the most stringent environmental standards, while duplicating the physical properties of glass, wood, light metal and high VOC printing and finishing inks.
Degradation of Aliphatic Polyesters in the Presence of Inorganic Fillers
G. Chouzouri, M. Xanthos, May 2006
Aliphatic polyesters were melt mixed with bioactive fillers in order to compare their degradation behavior in a phosphate buffer saline solution as a function of polymer type and crystallinity and type of filler. The samples were tested for weight, pH, IV, and thermal property changes as a function of time.
Assessment of Weld Line Performance of PP/Talc Mouldings Produced in Hot Runner Injection Moulds
Carolina L. Morelli, José Alexandrino de Sousa, António S. Pouzada, May 2006
Weld lines in injection mouldings are regions of low mechanical strength. The compounding with talc intensifies this effect. In this work it was possible to find a correlation between the processing conditions, the morphology and tensile-impact properties of box type mouldings of PP / talc composites with weld lines.
Assessment of Bioactivity of Aliphatic Polyester Composites
G. Chouzouri, M. Xanthos, May 2006
Composites for bone regeneration were produced from polycaprolactone with selected fillers. The fillers were screened for bioactivity using simulated body fluid, and then melt mixed with the polyester. The composites were then characterized by SEM, EDX, XRD, and AA spectroscopic methods and showed different degrees of bioactivity depending on the filler structure.
Estimation of Melt Temperature from In-Mold Temperature Sensor Data
Stephen Johnston David Kazmer, Robert X. Gao, May 2006
An analytical approach for estimating melt temperature using data from in-mold temperature sensors is presented. The estimated melt temperature obtained by this approach is compared to other process data obtained via the mold temperature sensor data, including the peak mold temperature and the maximum mold temperature increase which is sensed during a molding cycle. The estimated melt temperature was found to be the most reliable means of detecting changes in the actual melt temperature and the injection velocity.
A New Methodology for Measuring Flammability Parameters of Plastics
Richard E. Lyon, Richard N. Walters, Stanislav I. Stoliarov, May 2006
A methodology that separately reproduces the gas and condensed phase processes of flaming combustion in a single laboratory test is described. Anaerobic pyrolysis of solid plastics under controlled heating conditions and thermal oxidation (nonflaming combustion) of the volatile products provides the rate and amount of heat released by the solid during burning. The physical basis for the methodology, the measurement of flammability parameters, and their relationship to fire response and flame resistance of plastics are described.
Multi-Objective Velocity Profile Optimization
Peter Knepper, David Kazmer, May 2006
A methodology is presented for optimizing multiple stages in an injection velocity profile between critical junctions in the runner and cavity geometry. During a short shot study, the injection velocity is sequentially optimized for each consecutive velocity stage by minimizing the total injection molding cost. The results indicate that velocity profiling has a marginal role on nominal molding costs, but a significant role on part quality (the part thickness in this study) and processing yields.
Effect of Molecular Weight on the Interfacial Properties of GF/PP Injection Molded Composites
H. Okumura, T. Yoshida, U.S. Ishiaku, A?Nakai, H. Hamada, May 2006
For the fabrication of GF/PP injection molded composite, 3 types of PP with different molecular weights were used in order to simulate the recycling process of PP. Effects of weight-average molecular weight on interfacial adhesion between GF and PP were investigated. Moreover, effects of fiber length was also examined through high-back and low-back pressure at the injection molding condition.
In Mold Punching - Processing and Mechanical Properties
Takayuki Inuzuka, Akihiro Fujita, Asami Nakai, Hiroyuki Hamada, May 2006
The effects of punching and injection molding conditions on the amount of deformation and the tensile strength for punched polycarbonate parts in a mold during injection molding were investigated. Both punching and injection molding conditions affected the amount of deformation. Only punching conditions have been found to influence the tensile strength. Two ways could be proposed to secure small degree of deformation and high tensile strength.
Hygrothermal Ageing of GF/PP Injection Molded Composites
T. Yoshida, H. Okumura, A. Nakai, U.S. Ishiaku, H. Hamada, May 2006
The effects of hygrothermal ageing on mechanical interfacial shear properties of injection molded glass fiber (GF) reinforced polypropylene (PP) composites (GFPP) were elucidated. The degradation at the interface initially occurred during the aging process. The interfacial shear strength of GF/PP before and after immersion was investigated by using the Kelly-Tyson formula. As the immersion time increased, the interfacial shear strength became lower.


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Brown, H. L. and Jones, D. H. 2016, May.
"Insert title of paper here in quotes,"
ANTEC 2016 - Indianapolis, Indiana, USA May 23-25, 2016. [On-line].
Society of Plastics Engineers
Available: www.4spe.org.

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