The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.
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The Processing and Performance of Nylon 12/PEBAX Blends
This work studied the effect of a polyether block amide (PEBA) on the rheological, mechanical and thermal properties of nylon 12 polymers. The results showed significant differences in melt viscosity, tensile properties and phase transition temperatures (tan ?) with varying PEBA concentration.
The Effect of Processing Conditions on the Properties of TPUs
In this study a range of thermoplastic polyurethanes were manufactured by various processing methods, temperatures and shear rates. The results indicate that these parameters had a significant effect on the morphological properties, especially at elevated temperatures and shear rates.
Strain Rate Dependent Failure of Plastic Materials
The response of plastic materials to mechanical stress is contingent on many variables. One very important characteristic is the rate at which the stress is applied, otherwise known as the strain rate. The effects of strain rate are reviewed and three case studies are used to illustrate failure resulting from rapid stress loading.
Phenomenon of Gas Fading in Thermoplastic Elastomer in Automotive Interior Applications
Thermoplastic Elastomers (TPE) are suitable materials for automotive interior applications. TPE can be adequately stabilized for protection against extended exposure to UV and heat during compounding, subsequent fabrication, and end use. Under certain environmental conditions, material discoloration can occur. We will explore the nature of this discoloration, and review the current technology to eliminate it.
Mechanisms and Alleviation of Polybenzoxazole Fiber Degradation
Mechanical properties of PBO make it appropriate for use in anti-ballistic applications but are degraded by exposure to moisture, sunlight and mild chemical environments. This work explores the mechanisms of degradation by these factors and proposes routes to preserving fiber properties.
Development of High Performance Energy Conversion Materials
High performance damping polymers were produced by the incorporation of special additives to the base polymer material. Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) with the new additives absorbs mechanical energy. The relaxation frequencies obtained by mechanical and dielectric methods lie on the same straight lines of Arrhenius plotting. The results show that the additives restrict the movement of the polymer molecules.
Impact of Silane-Treated Fillers on the Performance of Filled Polyolefins
Performance of reinforced polymers depends on the filler, and the polymer-filler interaction at the interface. As such, the filler dispersion is critical. Silanes are widely used as coupling agents, adhesion promoters but also as dispersing aid for fillers. We wish to review the dispersion mechanism and the effect of the silane treatment of fillers on the final performance of polymer composites.
Feed Screw Failure: How Carbide Coatings Protect Against Common Wear Modes
Feed screw failure can result from abrasive or adhesive wear, corrosion or a combination of these. The paper compares traditional wear protection with HVOF coatings of tungsten or chromium carbide. Standard ASTM test data are presented as well as field experience from installed equipment.
Evaluation of Fracture Toughness for Thin-Wall Injection Moulded Plastics
Evaluation of fracture toughness was studied by means of essential work of fracture (EWF), using 1mm thickness injection moulded double-edge notched tensile (DENT) specimens with two types of materials, ABS and PP. A round-robin result was discussed in order to improve the reproducibility of testing.
Enhanced Adhesive Characterizaton of Pressure Sensitive Adhesives
The adhesive behavior of a series of pressure sensitive adhesives (PSA) was studied using the Texture Analyzer, a probe-indentation based instrument. Specifically, the effects of the indentation conditions on the resulting load-deflection curves were studied. These curves offer insight into the performance of these materials that can not be obtained from ‘single-point’ type tests. The resulting load-time data have been used to complement conventional applications test data in the development of next generation adhesives.
Improvements in Material Characterization by Uniaxial Hot Tensile Test
Due to its simplicity, uniaxial hot tensile tests are widely used to obtain the mechanical properties of materials. Several difficulties of this type of tests are frequently reported in the literature, especially when high temperatures are employed. This work describes a new device developed to enhance the degree of reliability of uniaxial hot tensile tests; confining the specimen stretching to its neck-down portion and minimizing the grip-slip, the grip extrusion and/or the specimen-grip adhesion that may occur.
Eco-Design of Plastics Products
An unintended consequence of the growing consumption of plastics is the increase in amount of plastics products discarded daily by consumers worldwide contributing to growing share of plastics in municipal waste streams. With the product life cycle of most products getting shorter each day, product designers have a responsibility to minimize the negative impacts of their designs on the environment. This paper describes best practices for incorporating environmental impact considerations during various stages of plastics product development, and provides specific guidelines to assist designers for eco-design of plastics products.
Microcellular Open-Cell Foams for Noise Control in Automotive Body Structures
Foaming process is controlled for production of novel foams with various microcellular structures and morphologies. The objective is to produce lighter weight sound insulation packages with superior acoustical performance for passive noise control in automotive structures using microcellular foams. This was achieved through the control of the foaming process for production of variable microcellular structures and morphologies for the novel foams under investigation.
Understanding Today's Alphabet Soup in Packaging Regulations?
Global packaging regulations are changing. A review and update of toxicological and regulatory changes made in United States and EU packaging laws along with an outline of the applicable regulations relating to coloring packaging and its effects on colorant selection will be discussed.
The Performance of PVDF in Fuel Handling Applications
PVDF was immersed in automotive fuel constituents at various temperatures ranging from 4°C to 60°C. The mass uptake, swelling, changes in the mechanical properties as well as glass transition temperature and storage modulus were also recorded during the immersion period. Large differences in permeation rates and mechanical properties were observed in certain solvents, particularly at temperatures above 40°C. The changes to the glass transition and the storage modulus were less pronounced, with only minor decreases to the Tg and the storage modulus being observed.
Using Rapid Prototyping and Reverse Engineering to Grow Jobs in Western North Carolina
This paper will describe the development of a prototype for a thermoforming mold that will be used by a promising organization in Western North Carolina. Based upon a flimsy sample, WCU faculty and students reverse-engineered the product, generated a 3D parametric model, produced a working prototype mold, and delivered it to the organization in less than three weeks. The partnership illustrates an excellent industry-education collaboration, and its effect on growing jobs in the region.
Extruded Open-Cell Foams Using Brittle Polymers with CO2
This paper presents an extrusion-based, open-cell foaming process using thermoplastic polymers such as polystyrene (PS) and polycarbonate (PC) with supercritical CO2. The effects of CO2 content, surface quenching, die geometry, and temperature on foam morphologies were investigated. Low-density, microcellular, open-cell foams were successfully produced. The large intercellular pores were observed from micrographs for both PS and PC foams at optimum processing conditions.
Modification of Acrylic Coatings with Nanofillers
This work focuses on modifying the properties of waterborne acrylic coatings by incorporating nanofillers of different structure, aspect ratio, hydrophilicity and purity. The composites were characterized by SEM for morphology, WAXD for filler dispersion, water permeability and mechanical properties.
The Use of Non-Polar Processing Aids to Improve Efficiencies
The addition of non-polar processing aids has been shown to widen the processing window for manufacturers of film and other extruded products. Opportunities exist to stably run lines at faster speeds with power savings. The benefits of using a non-polar processing aid in blown film are discussed.
On the Design of a Strong Contour Laser Weld Joint Geometry for Closed Hollow Chambers
A combined mechanical-thermal stress analysis of the welding process and further FEA analysis of the subsequent hydraulic pressure failure behaviour was used to create a very strong joint geometry in a simple hollow vessel. The pressure test results exceeded those of vibration welds for the same part.
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