SPE Library

The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.

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Conference Proceedings

Modification of Polymers by Ionizing Radiation: A Review
Jiri George Drobny, May 2006

Ionizing radiation (gamma rays and electron beam radiation) is widely used in science, technology and medicine. The primary effect of ionizing radiation is based on its ability to excite and ionize molecules, which leads ultimately to the formation of free radicals. Free radicals then can initiate a variety of reactions. In the field of polymers this includes polymerization, cross-linking, grafting and degradation. This contribution is discussing such processes and their practical applications in some detail.

Formability of Solid-State Microcellular Polycarbonate with Varying Levels of Absorbed Carbon Dioxide
J. Erik Benson, Vipin Kumar, May 2006

Tensile tests were conducted on virgin polycarbonate (PC), PC saturated with CO2, and microcellular PC with varying concentrations of gas, with a particular focus on the strength, ductility, and the strain to failure of these materials. It was found that the ductility of gas-saturated PC exceeded that of the virgin material; while microcellular PC still containing gas exhibited the highest ductility. Thus, the presence of dissolved CO2 could provide significant assistance in the deformation processing of PC and microcellular PC.

Chemical and Engineering Issues in Polymer Nanocomposites Design
Sadhan C. Jana, Dhawal Dharaiya, Asim Pattanayak, Chang Do Jung, May 2006

The field of polymer nanocomposites has reached a certain level of maturity and we are in a position to design a number of polymer nanocomposite products to deliver certain desired properties. In this paper, two examples are presented where basic engineering principles are applied to design nanocomposite products of thermoplastic polyurethanes and blends of polyamide 6 and polypropylene.

Parametric Study on Scratch Behavior of Polymers
H. Jiang, G.T. Lim, J.N. Reddy, J.D. Whitcomb, H.-J. Sue, May 2006

The effect of material and surface properties of polypropylene (PP) on scratch behavior were discussed by parametric studies using finite element analysis (FEA). Two different loading conditions were examined. It is found that Poisson's ratio has a negligible effect on scratch performance. Increasing yield stress and reducing coefficient of adhesive friction are important ways to positively affect the scratch performance of polymer. However, increasing the Young's modulus does not necessarily improve scratch performance.

Particulate Fillers on Morphology Development in Chaotic Mixing
Sadhan C. Jana, Dhawal Dharaiya, Madhusudan Sau, May 2006

The influence of particulate fillers such as carbon black and layered silicate clay on morphology development in chaotic mixing of immiscible polymers was studied and results compared with those of a wellknown compatibilizer. The formation of much smaller droplets in the presence of fillers was explained using reduced interfacial tension and rapid thinning of lamellas and fibrils in chaotic mixing.

Preparation, Intercalation and Exfoliation of ?-Zirconium Phosphate with Varying Dimensions
Luyi Sun, Woong J. Boo, Hung-Jue Sue, Abraham Clearfield, May 2006

Synthetic ?-zirconium phosphate (?-ZrP) platelets with varying dimensions have been prepared via three different approaches. The ?-ZrP can be easily intercalated by amines and then exfoliated in epoxy to prepare polymer nanocomposites. Such nanocomposites containing exfoliated ?-ZrP sheets with varying aspect ratios can be used to study the structure-property relationship in polymer nanocomposites.

The Development of Soft TPO for Automobile Interior Skin That Enhance Recyclability
Seong Min Cho, Dong Myeong Shin, Dong Woo Lee, May 2006

This study investigates soft thermoplastic olefin (TPO) for automobile interior skin such as instrument and door trim panel skin in order to replace polyvinyl chloride(PVC) resin, enhance recyclability and solve environmental problem. In this study, we investigated TPO material requirement by each process and results indicated optimum material composition for each process.

Comparison of Two Different Cooling Methods for Extrusion Processes
Timothy W. Womer, Walter S. Smith, Richard P. Wheeler, May 2006

This paper will compare the total power consumption of two different means of heating/cooling systems: air and water. For a single 90mm extruder, the total power consumption, output rate, and thermal control will be used to compare the two cooling means. Four different resins will be used.

Modeling Agglomerate Dispersion in Single Screw Extruders
Natália Domingues, Marco Camesasca, Miron Kaufman, Ica Manas-Zloczower, António Gaspar-Cunha, José António Covas, May 2006

We present a new model for assessing mixing in extrusion processes. The model combines numerical simulations of flow patterns in the extruder with a Monte Carlo method of clusters rupture and erosion mediated by the local fragmentation number. Particle size distributions and Shannon entropy are used for mixing characterization.

Structure-Property and Pigment/Organoclay Interaction in PP Nanocomposites
I.F.M. Major, C.Y. Lew, H. Lu, G.M. McNally, A.H. Clarke, May 2006

PP nanocomposites (PLN) were prepared by twinscrew mixing with organoclay and phthalocyanine blue pigment. Significant clay/pigment interaction was observed. Exfoliated organoclay exhibited carrier effect on the pigment. Pigmented PLN exhibited better mechanical properties than the unpigmented PLN.

Processing CNT/PVDP Composites for Enhanced Strength
Kern Peng, Hornberger, Cattien V. Nguyen, Umesh Sopory, May 2006

The key to increasing the mechanical strength of a carbon nanotube (CNT)/polymer composite is to achieve uniform dispersion and alignment of the nanotubes in the polymer matrix. In this study, CNT dispersion and alignment were significantly improved by using a surfactant and a variety of unique processing steps to manufacture a 10wt% multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWNT)/ polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) composite. The resulting tensile strength of the composite was nearly double that of unreinforced PVDF.

Why Troubleshoot When You Can Prevent? A Bayesian Network Approach
Jason S. Trahan, Paul V. Engelmann, May 2006

Although successfully applied as a diagnostic tool to various fields, few Bayesian networks have been designed for prevention. Lack of time, personnel and resources have been obstacles for this branch of artificial intelligence. A method for constructing a Bayesian network based on established literature and practical knowledge of experts in the field is presented. The model will be applied to shear splay, incorporating factors in material, design and processing. Suggestions for implementation are also addressed.

Dynamic Vulcanisation of EPDM/HDPE-Based Thermoplastic Vulcanisates Studied Along the Extruder Axis
Martin van Duin, Ana Vera Machado, May 2006

Dynamic vulcanisation of EPDM/HDPE blends with resol was studied in an extruder equipped with sampling devices. Upon complete melting of the HDPE pellets the blends reach quickly their final morphology. For the EPDM/HDPE (50/50; w/w) blend at transition from continuous via co-continuous to fully dispersed EPDM is observed, which is driven by complete HDPE melting and crosslinking. Crosslinking of the EPDM phase occurs already when the HDPE is not yet fully molten, but does not prevent phase inversion of the blend.

Cadence Copolyester Resins for Calendered Film
John E. Pomeroy, Marc A. Strand, May 2006

Eastman Chemical Company's Cadence Copolyesters are specially designed for calendering. Calendering is a process for the production of plastic film and sheet. Thickness ranges are typically .002- .030 and widths from 36-120". Production rates range from 1000-10000 pounds per hour. This process is predominantly used for flexible and rigid Polyvinyl Chloride. This unique combination with Cadence Copolyester resins provides the physical performance and attributes of the copolyester polymer with the efficiency and quality advantages of the calendering process."

Improving Weld Line Strength of Polycarbonate Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene (PC/ABS) Blends via Tailored Silicone Copolymers
Srinivas Siripurapu, May 2006

Flame retardant PC/ABS blends with addition of tailored silicone copolymers exhibit improved weld line strength. The effect of copolymer architecture, impact modifier morphology and processing conditions on weld line characteristics is presented. These blends also show better flame resistance with UL94 ratings at thinner gages.

Polymer Replication and Characterization of a Ruled Diffraction Grating
Aleksandar K. Angelov, John P. Coulter, May 2006

The goal of this study was to process thermoplastic cyclo-olefin copolymer (COC) via injection micromolding and to evaluate its use for the production of diffraction gratings. The mold and the replicated gratings were characterized using atomic-force and scanning-electron microscopy. We statistically tested how well the replicas matched the mold. Our results show that molded COC is suitable for making diffraction gratings.

Thermoplastic Starch/Natural Rubber Based Nanocomposites
M. Mondragón, J. Iturbe-Ek, F.J. Rodríguez, May 2006

Novel nanocomposites with superior properties were made from thermoplastic starch-natural rubber blends using montmorillonite (MMT) nanoclay. The nanocomposites were prepared by melt processing, with natural rubber content varying from 9 to 21% by weight and clay content varying from 2 to 6%. Mechanical properties and water absorption of the thermoplastic starch became significantly better when natural rubber and clay were added. X-ray diffraction showed dispersion of clay in the polymer blends.

Thermal Properties of Polyethylene Nanocomposites based on Different Organoclays
Karen Stoeffler, Pierre G. Lafleur, Johanne Denault, May 2006

In this work, alkyl pyridinium, imidazolium and phosphonium intercalants were used to produce organophilic clays with higher thermal stability than commercial alkyl ammonium modified montmorillonite. These organoclays were compounded with LLDPE and an appropriate compatibilizer using a micro twin-screw extruder. The degree of dispersion of the clay platelets was evaluated by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The thermal stability of the nanocomposites was evaluated by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA).

Investigation of Melting in a Single-Screw Extruder
Atakan Altinkaynak, Mahesh Gupta, Mark A. Spalding, Sam L. Crabtree, May 2006

Screw freezing experiments in a single-screw extruder were conducted for an ABS resin. The melting of ABS was also simulated by a full three-dimensional simulation of the two-phase flow in the compression section of the extruder. Numerical simulations as well as experiments exhibit the Maddock melting mechanism. However, numerical predictions and experimental data have some discrepancies, which are discussed.

The Extended Supply Chain and the New Economy
Margaret H. Baumann, May 2006

The extended supply chain represents an opportunity for improved products and services and as a source for new business models. This paper will explore the opportunities that exist for an enterprise when it understands the supply chain and its role in it. This is particularly important for materials and components suppliers in today's changing global economy.

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