SPE Library

The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.

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Conference Proceedings

Electron-Beam Cured Resin Systems for Wood Composites
W.L. Griffith, G.F. Dorsey, D.P. Harper, W.W. Moschler, Jr., T.G. Rials, Ting Song, P.M. Winistorfer, Song Cheng, May 2006

In wood composites, low-temperature electron-beam curable resin systems offer tremendous energy savings and unique opportunities to develop novel products. Mechanical properties (strength and stiffness) and compositional properties (such as durability of resin-towood bonds) were investigated.

Load-Dependent Thermo-Mechanical Application Limits
C. Dallner, G.W. Ehrenstein, May 2006

The common approach to determine thermomechanical application limits as the beginning of the decrease of the temperature-dependent modulus from DMA-measurements results in optimistic thermo-mechanical application limits. The reason for it is analyzed and allowable estimations are suggested. Also the time-, stress- and temperature-dependent deformation behaviour at static loading is investigated to derive time- and stress-dependent thermal application limits.

Mixed Field Irradiation - Induced Modification of Thermally Cured Castor Oil Based Polyurethanes
Aba Mortley, H.W. Bonin, V.T Bui, May 2006

Thermal curing of castor oil based polyurethanes is limited by increasing polymer viscosity. To enhance further crosslinking, they were subjected to intermediate doses from a mixed ionizing radiation field. Limitations of thermal curing and increases in mechanical strength due to radiation-induced crosslinking were confirmed by changing 13C-NMR and FTIR spectra.

Optimisation of PET Beverage Bottle Design Using Pro/Mechanica FEM
S.H. Masood, Carli Tjioe, May 2006

Achieving the best product to production and into the market quickly and efficiently requires an integrated approach to product design. Manual trial and error methods in design optimization and development will be time consuming and costly. This paper presents the design optimization process for designing and analysing a 600ml PET bottle using the Pro/Mechanica Structure finite element method (FEM), investigating the optimization of its shape, size, and features for reduced material usage without affecting its capacity, functionality, and strength.

Quality Increase and Fine Fluff Avoidance in Vibration Welding
Helmut Potente, Hans-Peter Heim, Joachim Schnieders, Maik Büssing, May 2006

Fine fluff and impurities in the vibration welding process frequently cause optical impairments and technical defects. In order to prevent the appearance of fine fluff in the future, two different methods were examined, based on geometrical variation on the one hand and on the preheating of the workpiece on the other hand.

Modern Flexible Coating Lines, Optimized for the Demanding Coatings of Today and Tomorrow
John Lowens, May 2006

Traditional coating lines are designed for a specific process, and usually require extensive modification to successfully handle a new process. Traditional coating lines are designed using a quasi-flowchart method.Just as software programmers discovered that changing their basic design philosophy from flowcharting to object orientated state analysis brought many advantages, particularly in inherent flexibility, so many of these advantages can be endowed into a coating line by adopting this methodology into the initial design stages.

Containerized Mobile /Modular Compounding Plants: Flexible, Efficient and Cost Effective
Allan Boye Hansen, Frank Lechner, Michael Hampf, Alfred Kurz, Paul Andersen, May 2006

Interest in transportable modular production plants is on the rise. These containerized solutions combine flexibility with minimal installation and start up expense. This presentation will highlight the issues surrounding a successful implementation of this concept for an insulated pipe construction used for offshore crude oil transport.

Using Extreme Barrel Diameters to Verify the Numerical Simulation of Single-Screw Extruders
Mark A. Spalding, Greg A. Campbell, Fredrick Carlson, Kambiz Nazrisdoust, May 2006

Numerous models exist for the prediction of pressure profiles in the metering section of single-screw extruders. For the most part, these models were verified using experimental data from small diameter extruders. Verification using data from large diameter machines, however, has not been fully explored due to the lack of experimental data. The analysis here will show the effect of barrel diameter on the ability of a model to predict pressure profiles in the metering channel.

Characterization of Beam Profile for High-Power Diode Lasers with Application to Laser Welding of Polymers
L.S. Mayboudi, M. Chen, G. Zak, A.M. Birk, P.J. Bates, May 2006

This paper presents and compares the results of knife-edge and pinhole approaches for laser beam power profiling. A high-power diode laser, which is typically used for laser transmission welding (LTW) of thermoplastics, is characterized. Benefits of the knife-edge method are speed and simplicity. Its major drawback is that it does not provide details about the internal features of the three-dimensional (3-D) beam intensity distribution that is examined in depth by the pinhole method.

Unexpected and Unusual Failures of Polymeric Materials
Myer Ezrin, Gary Lavigne, May 2006

Some failures are predictable, such as due to exposure to environmental conditions. In this paper the focus is on failures that there was no reason to expect. While they may become obvious, they are unpredictable. Some are unusual, involving a cause and effect on the plastic that are not obvious. Examples are cracking of nitrile rubber, contamination of GPC samples by a filter syringe, and PVC plasticizer used for many years being declared unsafe.

Fighting the Flow - How Predicting the Way Plastic Moves Saved Us Money
Timothy B. Austin, May 2006

Over the past seven years Symbol Technologies, Inc. has been using a tool that helps to make plastic housings faster, better and cheaper: FEA analysis of the molding process. This paper details a number of examples where Symbol has used this technology to save money.

WEEE and RoHS - Environmental Design Strategies
Timothy B. Austin, May 2006

Tough new environmental laws are rapidly spreading around the world that directly impact product design. Failure to heed them will result in lost revenue and increase the cost of doing business. This paper explains what they are and details essential strategies for dealing with them.

The Effects of Electron Beam Cured Coatings on Polymer Substrates
Norbismi Nordin, Susan E. Selke, May 2006

Performance of two co-extruded and two metallized polypropylene films with EB-cured coatings were studied to determine whether any changes occurred because of the coating and curing process. Selected mechanical properties showed some statistically significant but relatively small differences between the control (uncoated and uncured) and treated (coated and cured) films.

Rheology and Properties of Linear and Branched Polypropylene Blends
Tara McCallum, Chul B. Park, May 2006

The rheological, thermal and mechanical properties of linear and branched polypropylene blends with varying melt flow rates are characterized. These blends are miscible in the melt state and have high melt elasticity while retaining good flow and mechanical properties.

Dispersed Nanoclay in GFRP as a Barrier Against Environmental Attack
Naveenkamal Ravindran, Rakesh K. Gupta, May 2006

E-glass fiber-reinforced vinyl ester plastics with up to 5 wt% montmorillonite dispersed in the matrix were immersed in distilled water for nine weeks. At one week intervals, samples were removed and sectioned, both perpendicular and parallel to the fiber direction. Scanning electron microscopy revealed progressive degradation of the matrix and the glass reinforcement. However, the rate of moisture attack decreased with increasing amount of dispersed clay; this was confirmed by strength, stiffness and ductility measurements.

Recycling of Latex Based Paint as Polymer Feedstock Materials
Jennifer K. Lynch, Thomas J. Nosker, Robert Hamill, Richard L. Lehman, May 2006

This work investigates the recycling of used latex paints into non-paint products. Waste latex paint was collected, dried, and prepared for mixing as polymer feedstock. This feedstock was melt-blended with high-density polyethylene (HDPE) and polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) at various composition ratios by injection molding. Tensile mechanical properties and thermal properties of paint/HDPE and paint/PMMA polymer blends were determined. Thermal analysis revealed that these blends are immiscible.

Mechanical Properties and Morphology of PP and TPO / Nanosilica Nanocomposites
Yiqun Liua, Marianna Kontopoulou, May 2006

Nanosilica (SiO2) was used as a reinforcing filler in PP and PP/elastomer (TPO) blends. The partitioning of SiO2 in each polymer phase and its relation to reinforcement was investigated. SiO2 partitioned preferentially in the PP phase, when maleated PP was used as a compatibilizer. A separated morphology, where SiO2 resides in the PP phase, is required to achieve efficient reinforcement.

Challenges to the Formation of Nano-Cells in Foaming Processes
Zhenjin Zhu, Chul B. Park, May 2006

This paper implements a finite element analysis to track the morphological changes of nano-sized cells in a finite PS/CO2 system. The effects of the initial bulk gas concentration, cell size, intercellular distance, and gas diffusion coefficient on cell ripening are examined. Challenges to the formation of nano-cells in polymeric foaming processes are analyzed.

Simulation Analysis of SMD LED
Wen-Ren Jong, Tsung-Hsiang Kuo, Shu-Hui Pen, Hsiu-Hui Chiu, May 2006

Surface mount device light emitting diode (SMD LED), requiring the criteria of low weight and small size, is the most important basic components of 3C products. In this paper, MPI software is used to simulate the injection molding of SMD LED and overcome the short shot due to the runners unbalance from the preliminary design. The results show that the decreasing of filling time and the changing of runner size can effectively improve this short shot behavior.

Lubrication, Single Screw Extrusion Rates and Plasticizer Structure in Flexible PVC Compounds
Paul H. Daniels, May 2006

It is well established that changes in plasticizer structure affect (among other things) flexible PVC compounds' melting temperatures, melt viscosities and lubrication. In turn, these properties affect the extrudability of PVC compounds. The current study looks at the effects of plasticizer structure on PVC compounds' lubrication, melt viscosities, extrusion rates, stock temperatures and shear rates in a single screw extrusion process.

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ANTEC 2016 - Indianapolis, Indiana, USA May 23-25, 2016. [On-line].
Society of Plastics Engineers
Available: www.4spe.org.

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