The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.
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Measuring the Depth of Penetration of the Laser Beam in the Absorbing Material for Through-Transmission Welding Processes
The numerical modeling of various TTLW processes has the potential to be very useful for predicting laser welding results. However these models must assume either an absorption coefficient, or a depth of penetration in which the beam is absorbed. Accurately measuring the coefficient is not generally convenient, and is sensitive to small changes in carbon black concentration from batch to batch. A simpler test procedure for estimating the depth of penetration in the absorbing layer is described in this paper.
A Novel Isobutylene-Based TPV
A fully crosslinked Isobutylene-based TPV has been developed with exceptional gas and moisture barrier properties. Other property benefits are improved, compression set and service temperature, compared with thermoplastic alternatives.
Flow and Cure Modelling of RIM Mouldings -Thermal and Flow Validation
The RIM process involves simultaneous flow and exothermal curing reactions. The optimisation of these events enables to produce parts with better quality and improved properties. The integration of appropriate mathematical models simulating the thermal and flow aspects is experimentally verified.
Ultrasonic Bonding of 3M™ Dual Lock™ Reclosable Fasteners to Polypropylene Substrates
Polypropylene (PP) is becoming the plastic of choice for many industrial and automotive applications. There are a limited number of methods to attach a 3M™ Dual Lock™ reclosable fastener to a low surface energy (LSE) polypropylene substrate. Pressure sensitive adhesive and pop-in attachment methods have some limitations. Ultrasonic bonding of Dual Lock reclosable fasteners to polypropylene substrates is a new method that overcomes many of these limitations.
Heat Deflection and Mechanical Properties of PVC/PMMA/Clay Composites
PVC/PMMA/clay composites were prepared by melt mixing. Heat deflection temperature and flexural properties of the PVC/PMMA/clay composites were higher than for PVC/clay or neat PVC. XRD showed that PMMA improves the dispersion of the clay in PVC. Clay particles were measured to be 1 ?m.
The Effect of Fiber Contents on the Ejection Force of Deep Tubular Mouldings
The knowledge of the ejection force is useful for optimizing the design of ejection system in injection moulds. The effect of mould temperature and fiber weight fraction on the ejection force required for deep tubular moldings is studied. The ejection force increases with the fiber weight fraction and decreases with the mould temperature.
Effect of Temperature on Creep and Tensile Properties of LLDPE Nanocomposites
Creep and tensile properties of LLDPE and LLDPE nanocomposite balloon films are studied. Tensile and creep tests were conducted at a range of temperatures. Creep results were fit to the Burgers model. The results indicate that nanocomposites based on the use of maleated polyethylene incorporation into the base polyethylene and montmorillonite layered silicate (MLS) composite have higher mechanical properties.
Absorption and Permeation Properties of Composite Proton Exchange Membranes (PEM)
The properties of PEMs with SXLPS particles dispersed and aligned in a crosslinked PDMS matrix were examined. Included in this study was the influence of SXLPS quantity and size on the water and methanol uptake, and on methanol permeability. In addition, the state of water linked with the SO3H groups was examined.
Crystallization Dynamics in Polypropylene-Clay Nanocomposites
This study explores the crystallization dynamics of polypropylene-clay nanocomposites. Calorimetry and optical microscopy tools are employed to study the effect of nanoclay on quiescent crystallization kinetics. While a mini-extruder, designed to apply a shear pulse, is used with turbidity and birefringence measurements to explore the flow-induced crystallization dynamics in nanocomposite systems. Data presented indicates that clay can act as a nucleating agent in both flow and quiescent cases, and subsequently cause enhanced crystallization kinetics.
Thin-Film Thermosiphon Solar Collector Design
A very low cost, unglazed Thermosiphon Solar Collector constructed from polyethylene film and having an internal heat exchanger has been developed. The collector operates at relatively low temperature and low material stress, decreasing thermal degradation, material creep, and weight. Prototype systems have been built and tested, and processing equipment designed.
Extrusion Foaming of Poly(Lactic Acid) (PLA) Blown with CO2
This paper presents a thorough investigation of the continuous extrusion foaming of PLA using CO2 as the blowing agent. Detailed results are given for the plasticization induced as determined from on-line rheometry as well as resulting foam characteristics.
Impact of Polymer Processing on Sorption of Organic and Moisture Vapors by a Gravimetric Approach
Sorption of benzaldehyde and moisture vapors in polypropylene resin, sheet, and containers was studied via a Rubotherm magnetic suspension microbalance. Polymer processing has an impact on polymer structure and morphology. A comparison of sorption among the three polypropylene forms demonstrated the marked impact of processing on inducing changes in the barrier properties of the polymer. The simultaneous sorption of organic compounds and moisture demonstrated the combined effect on the sorption.
Dewetting Transition in Thin Polymer Films
We use a combinatorial method of investigation to obtain a near-universal scaling curve describing a wetting-dewetting transition line for polystyrene films of fixed thickness by introducing reduced temperature and surface energy variables dependent on molecular weight.
Teaching Polymer Processing Principles to Engineering Technology Undergraduate Students Utilizing a Positive, Dimensional Approach
Utilizing a positive, dimensional approach to transport phenomena provides undergraduate plastics engineering technology students with a solid foundation upon which to build the fundamental principles of polymer processing. Students are encouraged to visualize, and sketch, on three scales: molecular, microscopic, and macroscopic. They also are encouraged to progress through three levels of learning: translation to a visual mode; solution of determinate problems; and the solution of indeterminate problems.
Characterization of Material Properties in the Depth Direction of an Oriented PET Reheat Stretch Blow Molded Container
The properties of PET vary thru the depth of a blow molded article due to variation in blow up ratio. By blowing a preform constructed by injection molding three concentric sleeves, the wall of the blow molded article can be dissected and barrier and physical properties of discreet layers can be measured and correlated with process variables.
Surface Modifications of Automotive Weather Seals
Automotive sealing systems produced with thermoplastic vulcanizates (TPVs) can be modified to improve their functional performance and aesthetic appeal using techniques such as low friction co-extrusion coating, low friction spray coating, flock tape co-extrusion, electrostatic flocking, high gloss co-extrusion coating, high gloss colored or metallic tape co-extrusion, etc.
Coolant Flow Rate Manipulation for Cavity Pressure Control
Cavity pressure control in injection molding is important to maintain product quality in injection molding process. The coolant flow rate and temperature are parameters affecting the cavity pressure profile during cooling stage. A coolant flow rate control system has been designed and implemented to provide consistent heat removal from the mold cycle-to-cycle. Good and effective cavity pressure control was obtained by controlling the coolant flow rate using a predictive controller.
Experimental Investigation of PP Film Casting
In film casting, a polymer melt is extruded through a flat die before rapid cooling on a chill roll. We study experimentally the effects of draw ratio and molecular weight on polypropylene film formation. The temperature, width and velocity profiles in the air gap are measured. Neck-in and temperature profiles are affected by both draw ratio and molecular weight. The machine direction velocity decreases from the centerline value near the film edges.
Polypropylene Clay Nanocomposites with Improved Stability of Morphology to Processing
The rate of restacking of platelets in extrusion of polypropylene clay nanocomposites can be reduced significantly by edge functionalization of the clay.
ESC Failure of Polycarbonate Components: Two Case Studies
A chemical that is typically compatible with a given plastic can act as a stress-cracking agent in certain conditions. This presentation will address key contributing factors to ESC of polycarbonate components used in the medical device and health industries. Case studies will be presented.
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