SPE Library

The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.

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Conference Proceedings

Why Troubleshoot When You Can Prevent? A Bayesian Network Approach
Jason S. Trahan, Paul V. Engelmann, May 2006

Although successfully applied as a diagnostic tool to various fields, few Bayesian networks have been designed for prevention. Lack of time, personnel and resources have been obstacles for this branch of artificial intelligence. A method for constructing a Bayesian network based on established literature and practical knowledge of experts in the field is presented. The model will be applied to shear splay, incorporating factors in material, design and processing. Suggestions for implementation are also addressed.

Dynamic Vulcanisation of EPDM/HDPE-Based Thermoplastic Vulcanisates Studied Along the Extruder Axis
Martin van Duin, Ana Vera Machado, May 2006

Dynamic vulcanisation of EPDM/HDPE blends with resol was studied in an extruder equipped with sampling devices. Upon complete melting of the HDPE pellets the blends reach quickly their final morphology. For the EPDM/HDPE (50/50; w/w) blend at transition from continuous via co-continuous to fully dispersed EPDM is observed, which is driven by complete HDPE melting and crosslinking. Crosslinking of the EPDM phase occurs already when the HDPE is not yet fully molten, but does not prevent phase inversion of the blend.

Cadence Copolyester Resins for Calendered Film
John E. Pomeroy, Marc A. Strand, May 2006

Eastman Chemical Company's Cadence Copolyesters are specially designed for calendering. Calendering is a process for the production of plastic film and sheet. Thickness ranges are typically .002- .030 and widths from 36-120". Production rates range from 1000-10000 pounds per hour. This process is predominantly used for flexible and rigid Polyvinyl Chloride. This unique combination with Cadence Copolyester resins provides the physical performance and attributes of the copolyester polymer with the efficiency and quality advantages of the calendering process."

Improving Weld Line Strength of Polycarbonate Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene (PC/ABS) Blends via Tailored Silicone Copolymers
Srinivas Siripurapu, May 2006

Flame retardant PC/ABS blends with addition of tailored silicone copolymers exhibit improved weld line strength. The effect of copolymer architecture, impact modifier morphology and processing conditions on weld line characteristics is presented. These blends also show better flame resistance with UL94 ratings at thinner gages.

Polymer Replication and Characterization of a Ruled Diffraction Grating
Aleksandar K. Angelov, John P. Coulter, May 2006

The goal of this study was to process thermoplastic cyclo-olefin copolymer (COC) via injection micromolding and to evaluate its use for the production of diffraction gratings. The mold and the replicated gratings were characterized using atomic-force and scanning-electron microscopy. We statistically tested how well the replicas matched the mold. Our results show that molded COC is suitable for making diffraction gratings.

Thermoplastic Starch/Natural Rubber Based Nanocomposites
M. Mondragón, J. Iturbe-Ek, F.J. Rodríguez, May 2006

Novel nanocomposites with superior properties were made from thermoplastic starch-natural rubber blends using montmorillonite (MMT) nanoclay. The nanocomposites were prepared by melt processing, with natural rubber content varying from 9 to 21% by weight and clay content varying from 2 to 6%. Mechanical properties and water absorption of the thermoplastic starch became significantly better when natural rubber and clay were added. X-ray diffraction showed dispersion of clay in the polymer blends.

Thermal Properties of Polyethylene Nanocomposites based on Different Organoclays
Karen Stoeffler, Pierre G. Lafleur, Johanne Denault, May 2006

In this work, alkyl pyridinium, imidazolium and phosphonium intercalants were used to produce organophilic clays with higher thermal stability than commercial alkyl ammonium modified montmorillonite. These organoclays were compounded with LLDPE and an appropriate compatibilizer using a micro twin-screw extruder. The degree of dispersion of the clay platelets was evaluated by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The thermal stability of the nanocomposites was evaluated by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA).

Investigation of Melting in a Single-Screw Extruder
Atakan Altinkaynak, Mahesh Gupta, Mark A. Spalding, Sam L. Crabtree, May 2006

Screw freezing experiments in a single-screw extruder were conducted for an ABS resin. The melting of ABS was also simulated by a full three-dimensional simulation of the two-phase flow in the compression section of the extruder. Numerical simulations as well as experiments exhibit the Maddock melting mechanism. However, numerical predictions and experimental data have some discrepancies, which are discussed.

The Extended Supply Chain and the New Economy
Margaret H. Baumann, May 2006

The extended supply chain represents an opportunity for improved products and services and as a source for new business models. This paper will explore the opportunities that exist for an enterprise when it understands the supply chain and its role in it. This is particularly important for materials and components suppliers in today's changing global economy.

Scale Up of Polypropylene Vis-Breaking for Industrial Application
Franco Guastaferro, Iván Fernández, May 2006

A statistical experimental design was used to find the required concentration of a novel additive in order to obtain the same rheological behavior of higher priced, commercial controlled-rheology polypropylenes. A lab extruder was used to perform the experimental design, minimizing the amount of material needed. According to the results, recommendations were given to process two different lower priced polypropylenes with the additive in an industrial extruder with very good agreement with lab predictions.

A Multi-Sample Melt Micro-Rheometer
Anthony J. Bur, Kalman B. Migler, May 2006

We have developed a multi-sample melt micro-rheometer (M3R) based on pressure driven channel flow and designed for simultaneous measurement of multiple polymer melts. viscosities The required sample size is between 50 mg and 100 mg. The driving force for the rheometer is pressurized gas from a nitrogen tank that forces polymer melt into a slit. The melt flow is monitored using a video camera that views the flow front through a sapphire window. The device contains no moving parts and no gaskets or O-rings. Measurements of polyethylene and polycarbonate are presented.

Effect of Environmental Stress Cracking Agents on, Fatigue and Creep of a MDPE Pipe
R. Ayyer, A. Hiltner, E. Baer, R. Matheson, May 2006

The effect of environmental liquids on slow crack propagation in MDPE pipe is investigated. At 50°C, the differences in kinetics and mechanism of crack propagation in fatigue and creep are described relative to that in air. The relationship between fatigue and creep was strongly affected by the presence of environmental liquids.

Flow Phenomena in an Intermeshing Twin-Screw Reactor/Devolatilizer
David B. Todd, May 2006

Using an extruder for a devolatilizer or condensation reactor requires balancing the mixing, degree of fill, residence time distribution, and vapor pressure drop effects. Various viscous fluids, rotor configurations, and operating conditions have been examined in a 100 mm diameter intermeshing corotating twin-screw extruder.

Plastic Pallet Design Improvement using a CAE Software
Magda M. Castillo, Agustín Torre, Luis Marín, May 2006

A CAE software was used to simulate the end-use load requirements of a plastic pallet. The simulation results indicated the critical areas of the part that need to be reinforced. Based on this, changes to the design were done using a CAD software until the functionality requirements were fulfilled while maintaining part appearance and ensuring low cost. Deformation results agreed relatively well with the actual deformations under extreme load conditions.

Effect of Shear Induced Flow Imbalance on Multi-Cavity Molds using Gas Assisted Injection Molding
Christopher Sandieson, Matthew Harp, May 2006

This paper presents a study on the effect of shear induced flow imbalances on a thick flanged plate molded with gas assist. Samples were molded with and without melt rotation technology and the results contrasted. Flow imbalances and impact on gas distribution and gas penetration were analyzed. Melt rotation technology corrected the flow imbalances seen in multi-cavity tooling and helped gas penetration and distribution.

Comparison and Optimization of Five-Gallon Container Designs using CAE
Magda M. Castillo, Luis Marín, Agustín Torres, May 2006

The design quality of several five-gallon pails was evaluated using a CAE software. This software simulates the load under actual and worst case storage conditions. According to the results, recommendations were made to improve each design. In addition, the containers properties were measured to analyze the effect of processing conditions on their performance.

Ballistic Impact Resistance of Biaxially Oriented Polypropylene
Y. Yang, G. Thompson, H. Tai, A. Hiltner, E. Baer, May 2006

Biaxially oriented polypropylene (PP) processed by cross-rolling was investigated for application as an improved ballistic resistant material. Cross-rolled PP has greatly improved toughness properties as indicated by both puncture and ballistic tests. Cross-rolling creates a lamellar morphology which is responsible for the unique cone-shape damage mechanism obtained under ballistic deformation conditions.

Polymer-Based Solar Thermal Systems: Past, Present and Potential Products
Jay D. Burch, May 2006

Conventional solar thermal systems primarily use metal and glass materials and metal-processing technology. Polymers offer potential for reduced costs through lower materials and manufacturing costs, weight reduction and parts integration. This paper reviews past and present polymer solar heating systems, and suggests potential opportunities for development of solar thermal products.

Cold Curing Epoxy Adhesives for Building Applications
G. Hülder, G.W. Ehrenstein, May 2006

Polymers open access to many new production techniques. This also applies for the building industry. CFRPstraps bonded with special cold curing adhesives have become an important technique for the supplementary reinforcement of buildings. For the successful application the specific material behaviour, especially of the adhesive, has to be considered. Thermal application limits were investigated with a method based on DMA-curves. They suggest that often stated values close to the glass transitions temperature for such adhesives should be reconsidered.

Rheology of High Molecular Weight Polyethylenes with SCCO2
Matthew D. Wilding, Donald G. Baird, May 2006

The effects of using supercritical carbon dioxide (SCCO2) to melt process high molecular weight polyethylene are studied. High molecular weight polyethylene (HDPE) is studied in an effort to produce high strength fibers and materials in a melt extrusion process. Dynamic, capillary, and slit-die rheometry are used to quantify the effect SCCO2 has on the melt viscosity of high Mw HDPEs. Carbon dioxide uptake is quantified using mass flow measurements.

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