SPE Library

The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.

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Conference Proceedings
ANALYZING EXTRUDER ENERGY CONSUMPTION
Kirk M. Cantor, May 2010
An experiment was conducted to measure the energy consumed during extruder runs with two different polymers (one crystalline and one amorphous), each utilizing three different screw designs. Energy contributions from the individual heating zones on the extruder were measured and analyzed. Also, the energy consumed by the motor was measured to provide comparison of the contributions from the heaters and the motor. Results show value both in analyzing material behavior and in evaluating screw performance from an economic and a productivity standpoint.
APPLICATIONS OF PHOTO DSC AND UV-DMA TO OPTICALLY CURED MATERIALS.
Kevin Menard , Andrew Salamon , Witold Brostow , Noah Menard , W. Chonkaew , Carmem Pffiefer , Sherman Newman, May 2010
The application of DSC and DMA to photo-initiated reactions specifically curing and degradations are discussed. The influence of the light source its duration and intensity are investigated in regards to the final properties of the material. The use of Hyper DSC techniques as well as simultaneous DMA-NIR in the study of optically cured materials is discussed.
APPLICATIONS OF PHOTO DSC AND UV-DMA TO OPTICALLY CURED MATERIALS.
Kevin Menard , Andrew Salamon , Witold Brostow , Noah Menard , W. Chonkaew , Carmem Pffiefer , Sherman Newman, May 2010
The application of DSC and DMA to photo-initiated reactions, specifically curing and degradations, are discussed. The influence of the light source, its duration and intensity are investigated in regards to the final properties of the material. The use of Hyper DSC techniques as well as simultaneous DMA-NIR in the study of optically cured materials is discussed.
A STUDY OF ELECTROSPUN POLYCAPROLACTONE (PCL) FIBERS FOR POSSIBLE BIO-ABSORBABLE MESH REPLACEMENT IN VAGINAL SURGERY
Sandeep Manandhar , Nandika D’Souza , Philippe Zimmern, May 2010
The importance of electrospun fibers as tissue scaffolds has been an area of significant growth. In this work, we will utilize electrospinning in conjunction with a biodegradable polymer, Polycaprolactone (PCL) to make thin fibers. These PCL fibers can be made into a mesh for tissue scaffolds. Electrospinning utilizes electrostatic force to draw fibers from solution.
CHARACTERIZATION OF RADIATION CROSSLINKED POLYETHYLENES
Ken Miyata, Yuuki Ichikawa, Keiji Katsuno, Akihiro Nishioka, Tomonori Koda, Go Murasawa, May 2010
Tyco Electronics has over fifty years of experience in the field of radiation crosslinked polymers. We have incorporated the use of rheological and solvent swelling techniques to characterize crosslinked networks. Insufficient beam dose or processing errors can result in materials that appear crosslinked upon initial testing, but are not fully crosslinked. We evaluated various characterization methods on three different morphologies of polyethylene (HDPE, LDPE and VLDPE). Each method had its own strengths and limitations.
PROPERTIES OF MELT STRENGTH ON BLENDS OF POLYPROPYLENE /POLYAMIDE-6/ORGANOCLAY NANOCOMPOSITES
Huang Guo-wang , Peng Xiang-fang , Xia Hua-Xin , Xie Xiao-li, May 2010
The present study was devoted to the effect of nanoparticle on melt strength of blends. And the reinforcing mechanism of PP/PA6/organoclay nanocomposites had been investigated by DSC and SEM analysis. The results showed that the maximal melt strength existed and appeared as the weight ratio of organoclay was 2 wt%. In addition blends presented the best integrated properties at this ratio.
PROPERTIES OF MELT STRENGTH ON BLENDS OF POLYPROPYLENE/POLYAMIDE-6/ORGANOCLAY NANOCOMPOSITES
Huang Guo-wang , Peng Xiang-fang , Xia Hua-Xin , Xie Xiao-li, May 2010
The present study was devoted to the effect of nanoparticle on melt strength of blends. And the reinforcing mechanism of PP/PA6/organoclay nanocomposites had been investigated by DSC and SEM analysis. The results showed that the maximal melt strength existed and appeared as the weight ratio of organoclay was 2 wt%. In addition, blends presented the best integrated properties at this ratio.
EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF THE UNDERWATER PELLETIZING SYSTEM FOR PRODUCING PELLETS
Kun Chang Lin , Chia-Hsun Chen , Chen-Feng Kuan , Hsu-Chiang Kuan , Sin-Jhih Peng, May 2010
Underwater pelletizing currently is the most promising, most innovative and, concerning the range of plastics materials to be processed, the most flexible technique for the production of high-quality plastics pellets.In this work, we established the experimental analysis of the underwater pelletizing system for producing pellets. The key process conditions for producing small pellets (<1.5mm) are low extrusion throughput, high cutter rotating speed, and low possibility of die freeze-off.
ULTRASONIC EXTRUSION AND FILM BLOWING OF PA6/CLAY NANOCOMPOSITES
Nan Chen, Mohammad Monirul Hasan, Takashi Kuboki, Chul B. Park, May 2010
Polyamide 6 (PA6)/Clay 30B nanocomposites of various concentrations were prepared at different amplitudes using an ultrasonic extruder. The die pressure and ultrasonic power consumption were measured. X-ray patterns, thermal, mechanical and rheological properties of extruded nanocomposites were obtained. Films were manufactured from prepared nanocomposites by film blowing process and their structural and mechanical properties in the machine and transverse directions were studied.
EFFECT OF CROSSLINKING ON THE SOLUBILITY OF N2 IN ETHYLENE-VINYL ACETATE (EVA)
Nan Chen , Mohammad Monirul Hasan , Takashi Kuboki , Chul B. Park, May 2010
In this paper, the effect of the crosslinking degree on the solubility of N2 in Ethylene-Vinyl Acetate (EVA) was investigated. Determining the solubility of the blowing agent is crucial for achieving fine-cell products in both the continuous and batch foaming processes with crosslinking. The variation of the crosslinking degree was controlled for the EVA samples, and a magnetic suspension balance (MSB) was employed to run the sorption tests. The solubility results were analyzed and discussed based on the experimental data.
THE MECHANISMS OF CHLORINE DIOXIDE OXIDATION ON PLASTIC PIPING SYSTEMS
Sarah Chung , Tieqi Li , Ken Oliphant , Patrick Vibien, May 2010
There have been several studies on the impact of chlorine on plastic piping systems in potable water applications and methodologies of ensuring performance have been successfully developed. The impact of chlorine dioxide is less well known. In this paper laboratory exposed plastic pipe samples are examined to study the impact of chlorine dioxide on oxidative degradation in potable water applications. The mechanisms of oxidation are characterized and recommendations for long-term performance validation are presented.
ULTRASONIC EXTRUSION AND FILM BLOWING OF LLDPE/CLAY NANOCOMPOSITES
H. C. Chen, S. C. Chen, P.M. Hsu, H. S. Peng, Y. C. Wang, May 2010
LLDPE/Clay 20A nanocomposites of various concentrations were prepared at different amplitudes using an ultrasonic extruder. The die pressure and ultrasonic power consumption were measured. X-ray patterns, thermal, mechanical and rheological properties of extruded nanocomposites were measured. Films were manufactured from prepared nanocomposites by film blowing process and their structural and mechanical properties in the machine and transverse directions were studied.
MODELING MOLD CAVITY TEMPERATURE USING ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORK PARAMETER ESTIMATION TECHNIQUES
Scott E. Everett, Mauricio J. Hernandez, Rickey Dubay, May 2010
In injection molding, final product quality is influenced by the cycle average mold cavity temperature, which depends on the mold coolant flow-rate. The design of a generic average temperature controller is difficult due to the nonlinear characteristics of the in-mold part cooling process. In this investigation, the parameters of a lumped-model are obtained using artificial neural network techniques to develop a generic model-based control scheme that can be implemented in a variety of molds with minimal open loop testing.
MODELING MOLD CAVITY TEMPERATURE USING ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORK PARAMETER ESTIMATION TECHNIQUES
Scott E. Everett , Mauricio J. Hernandez , Rickey Dubay, May 2010
In injection molding final product quality is influenced by the cycle average mold cavity temperature which depends on the mold coolant flow-rate. The design of a generic average temperature controller is difficult due to the nonlinear characteristics of the in-mold part cooling process. In this investigation the parameters of a lumpedmodel are obtained using artificial neural network techniques to develop a generic model-based control scheme that can be implemented in a variety of molds with minimal open loop testing.
MICROPATTERNING PROTEINS ON PLA FILMS USING PHOTOLITHOGRAPHY
Rahul M. Rasal , Douglas E. Hirt, May 2010
In this research proteins were micropatterned on poly (lactic acid) (PLA) films. Poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) was micropatterned using photolithograph. These micropatterns were characterized using ATR-FTIR spectroscopy and toluidine blue dye staining. Acid groups were subsequently conjugated with amine terminated biotin using carbodiimide chemistry. Biotin micropatterned PLA films were then immersed in a solution of fluorescenceconjugated streptavidin. The streptavidin adsorption behavior was examined by fluorescence microscopy.
PACLITAXEL ATTACHMENT TO PLA-PHA BLEND FILMS
Courtney J. Taylor, May 2010
The overall objective of this research was to prepare paclitaxel-delivering poly(L-lactic acid) (PLA) - poly(hydroxyalkanoate) (PHA) blend films focusing on drug attachment to the films. Blend films (10 wt% PHA) were melt extruded using a single screw extruder. A sequential two step photografting approach was used to photograft poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) to the film surface.Acid groups from PAA were then reacted with a specific ƒ?? OH group on paclitaxel using water soluble carbodiimide chemistry. To assess the extent of drug attachment the resultant films were characterized using ATR-FTIR spectroscopy.
PACLITAXEL ATTACHMENT TO PLA-PHA BLEND FILMS
Courtney J. Taylor, May 2010
The overall objective of this research was to prepare paclitaxel-delivering poly(L-lactic acid) (PLA) - poly(hydroxyalkanoate) (PHA) blend films, focusing on drug attachment to the films. Blend films (10 wt% PHA) were melt extruded using a single screw extruder. A sequential two step photografting approach was used to photograft poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) to the film surface. Acid groups from PAA were then reacted with a specific – OH group on paclitaxel using water soluble carbodiimide chemistry. To assess the extent of drug attachment, the resultant films were characterized using ATR-FTIR spectroscopy.
MODELING THREE DIMENSIONAL SECONDARY FLOWS IN NON-CIRCULAR DUCTS
H. Inoya, Y. W. Leong, S. Thumsorn, S. Thitithanasarn, H. Hamada, May 2010
Viscoelastic secondary flows occurring in square ducts are simulated using the open source finite volume-based software, OpenFOAM. To validate a viscoelastic solver, experimental observations by other researchers were successfully reproduced, as well as compared to finite element results and recent results of a meshless technique known as the Radial Function Method (RFM). A single mode Giesekus and a multi-mode Phan-Thien Tanner (PTT) model are implemented to reproduce full three-dimensional (3D) flow through a square duct.
CONTRASTING DEFORMATIONAL CHARACTERISTICS BETWEEN LAMELLAR AND CYLINDRICALLY PHASE SEPARATED TPES
Mohit Mamodia , Alan J. Lesser, May 2010
In this study we investigate and compare the deformation behavior of SEBS triblock copolymers with lamellar and cylindrical morphology. Structural changes that occur at various length scales have been studied using a simultaneous small- and wide-angle X-ray diffraction (SAXD/WAXD) technique during uni-axial tensile deformation. Further deformation calorimetry is used to investigate the energetics involved during the deformation of these materials. Series of results from these various techniques indicate that the deformation takes place in three stages.
A NEW METHOD FOR CONTROLLING THE BARREL TEMPERATURE IN AN INJECTION MOLDING MACHINE
Meaghan Charest, Jose Mauricio Hernandez, Rickey Dubay, May 2010
A new method of obtaining open loop responses of a three barrel injection moulding machine is investigated. The method involves limiting the amount of heat transfer between adjacent zones by using a controller to create an artificial adiabatic wall. Since most barrel zones are run at or near to the same temperature, the system identified by the adiabatic wall method better represents industrial operating conditions. A predictive controller was designed to handle the dynamics of the adiabatic system and compared to a conventionally-tuned controller


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Society of Plastics Engineers, ISBN: 123-0-1234567-8-9, pp. 000-000.
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