SPE Library

The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.

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Conference Proceedings

Stresses, Adhesion and the Mechanics of Polymer Coatings
Richard John Farris, May 2006

Novel and powerful methods of characterizing the state of stress, the orthotropic elastic coefficients and the energy of adhesion of thin coatings are described. These methods were developed by my research group to help understand the mechanical behavior of coating materials. The systems studied include epoxies, polyimides, photoresists and even some paints and metals. The techniques address issues such as the origin of coating stresses, the influence of the degree of constraint, determining anisotropic elasticity coefficients, and problems associated with adhesion testing.

Working with Organic Pigments in Yellow Color Space
Damien T. Cole, Roger A. Reinicker, May 2006

Formulators coloring plastics and synthetic fibers can select from a variety of organic colorants in order to achieve a final desired color. The choices can be confusing unless the colorants are previously specified or are well known to the formulator. This paper will deal with a subset of the colorants in yellow color space while clarifying the selection process with respect to some of the most important properties of the colorants for plastics and fibers.

What Every Plastics Professional Should Know About Patents and Patenting - Part 2: Important Considerations in Invention Patenting
Amad Tayebi, May 2006

Deciding on what to claim in a patent application and targeting the claims for specific business objectives are very important legal and business decisions. In this article, important considerations influencing such decisions are discussed, including the prior art, patentability of the claimed invention and defining claim terms. Relevant examples are given to illustrate such considerations.

Statistical Tools for Predicting Flame Resistance of PC/ABS Blends
Srinivas Siripurapu, Naveen Agarwal, May 2006

Flame-retarded products must pass the requirements of UL94 testing. Only a pass/fail type of data is obtained which makes it difficult to predict longterm capability. This paper describes statistical tools to predict UL94 V and 5V capability of PC/ABS blends for robust design of such products. In particular, use of parameters such as probability of first-time-pass, p(FTP), for V-testing, and time-to-drip (TTD) and time-to-hole (TTH) for 5V-testing is described.

Design for Six Sigma and Product Development in the Plastics Industry
Vinny Sastri, May 2006

Developing a product that meets the customer’s requirements requires a collaborative effort from marketing, technology, manufacturing and other functions across the organization. Customer’s requirements should be translated to specific product properties and specifications. The designed product must be robust during manufacturing and should be shipped to the customer on time and with the right quality. This paper describes the value of critical parameter management using Design for Six Sigma rigor with a case study.

Study on Mechanical Properties of Dynamically Cured Novolac/PP Blends
Limei Cui, Yong Zhang, Yinxi Zhang, May 2006

In this paper, the dynamic vulcanization process was applied to polypropylene (PP) and novolac type phenolic resin blends compatibilized with maleic anhydride-grafted PP (MAH-g-PP). The influences of dynamic cure and novolac content on mechanical properties of the PP/novolac blends were investigated. The results showed that the dynamically cured PP/MAH-g-PP/novolac blends had better mechanical properties and thermal stability than that of uncured PP/novolac blends, uncured PP/MAH-g-PP/novolac and dynamically cured PP/novolac blends.

High Strength Cellulose Triacetate Fibers
S.R. Allen, May 2006

Sign (+/-) of birefringence observations are shown to be a powerful tool for development of high strength cellulose triacetate and regenerated cellulose fibers. These simple observations provide a means to monitor both the extent and uniformity of reaction in the preparation of cellulose triacetate using heterogeneous acetylation conditions. Possible deacetylation of the triacetate during liquid crystalline fiber processing from trifluoroacetic acid solvent systems, and relationship to fiber strength are also described.

Recycling Thermosets: The Use of High-Pressure High-Temperature Sintering (HPHTS) and Degraded Material as Means of Producing New Products
Drew E. Williams, Richard J. Farris, May 2006

High-Pressure High-Temperature Sintering (HPHTS) of waste thermosets allowed for the production of new parts from 100% recycled material. This technique along with utilizing degraded material as filler has resulted in the successful recycling of thermosetting materials at high recycle levels. Finally, Chemicals Stress Relaxation experiments offered excellent insight into the mechanism of HPHTS and the degradation process.

Mechanical Properties of Injection-Molded Fiber-Reinforced Parts Theory and Verification
Cristoph Hinse, Reinhard Haag, May 2006

Mechanical properties of fiber-reinforced plastic parts largely depend on fiber orientation obtained from flow simulation to calculate anisotropic properties. This paper describes theoretical and experimental studies which showed the effects of linking process simulation and structural mechanical analysis to optimize the design process.

True 3D Numerical Simulation for Micro Injection Molding
WenHsien Yang, Dan Chang, Venny Yang, PeiChi Chang, ShengJye Hwang, May 2006

The demand for miniature molded parts has been growing over last decade. The filling in micro structure regions are primarily 3D and hence cannot be properly modeled by the 2.5D approach. A 3D model is developed to simulate the micro molding. The numerical results are compared with the experiment.

True 3D CAE Visualization of Intra-Cavity" Filling Imbalance in Injection"
Jimmy C. Chien, Chao-Tsai Huang, Wen-Hsien Yang, David C. Hsu, May 2006

The intra-cavity flow imbalanced phenomena have been discovered in either a single cavity or a multi-cavity mold, and result in the uneven product quality within one cavity. In this paper, 3D numerical simulation method is applied to realize this imbalanced phenomenon and its physical mechanism.

Drop Test of a Compound Structure Composed of PC Plate and PCB
Shia-Chung Chen, Lei-Ti Huang, Zong-Wei Huang, Tong-Yue Wu, May 2006

This paper proposes a feasible procedure in which both experiment and simulation are iteratively used to assess the responses to drop tests. An example of compound structure, which is basically comprised of a PC plate and PCB, was tested and simulated to show the performance of the proposed procedures. Compared with the results of a patented drop test platform, our test results not only achieved good correlations, but computational cost could also be considerably reduced.

Cae Analysis of Rapid Thermal Response Molding Process for Thin Wall Parts
Keun Park, Byung Kim, Donggang Yao, May 2006

The present work covers simulation of thin wall molding using the Rapid Thermal Response (RTR) molding process. In order to account for the unique thermal boundary conditions of the RTR mold, coupled analysis with heat transfer simulation is suggested. Both numerical and experimental results show good flow estimation and birefringence prediction under rapid mold heating.

True 3D and Fully Transient Mold Temperature Simulation for RHCM Process
YuFeng Chen, Venny Yang, WenHsien Yang, Rong-Yeu Chang, May 2006

In the Rapid Heat Cycle Molding (RHCM) Process, the mold temperatures are usually quit high during filling and get cooled quickly in the cooling phase. A true 3D and transient thermal response heating and cooling analysis model is proposed to help analysis and optimize the process.

Three-Dimensional Numerical Approach for Core Plate Deflection
Allen Y. Peng, David C. Hsu, Chia-Hsun Chen, May 2006

Non-uniform melt flow around the core plate during injection molding process can cause the plate to deflect during filling and packing stage. Moreover, this core deflection might result variations in wall thickness, especially for thin parts. In this paper, an effective 3D numerical approach is developed to simulate uneven melt pressure around core during injection molding and further predict the core deflection. One case is reported to indicate the success of the present model.

Mold Deformation Effects on Ultra-Thin Wall Injection-Molded Parts
Rong-Yeu Chang, Allen Y. Peng, Wen-Hsien Yang, May 2006

Ultra-thin-walled injection molding is becoming important due to the explosive growth of requirement of thinner and lighter plastic parts, especially for portable electronic devices. However, the flow pressure and the uneven mold temperature in injection molding will cause variations in cavity dimension, and further reduce the precision of molding. In this paper, a 3D numerical approach is developed to predict the mold deformation effects and the variations of ultra-thin-walled part dimensions.

Polypropylene/SEBS Thermoplastic Elastomer - Nanocomposite Films
C.M Small, G.M. Mc Nally, P. McShane, I. Kenny, May 2006

Nanocomposite (PP/SEBS/organoclay) films were sheet extruded with differing clay concentrations. Blends were compounded using a high shear single screw reciprocating kneader. Higher clay content increased the Shore A hardness of the films but induced a significant improvement in both O2 and CO2 barrier performance.

Oxypolypropylene as a Compatibiliser in Polypropylene-Nanocomposite Films
C.M. Small, G.M. Mc Nally, G.S. Garrett, A.H. Clarke, C-Y. Lew, May 2006

Nanocomposite films were prepared from polypropylene-organosilicate compounds, incorporating both oxypolypropylene (OxyPP) and a range of PP grafted maleic anhydride compatibilisers. X-ray diffraction suggested enhanced organosilicate exfoliation and dispersion, attributed to improved enthalpic interaction with the OxyPP compared with neat PP/organosilicate structures.

Performance of Mono-Layer Films Manufactured from EVOH/PP Compounds
C.M. Small, I.F.M. Major, G.M. Mc Nally, G.S. Garrett, A.H. Clarke, May 2006

Blown films were extruded from EVOH/PP compounds manufactured on a single screw extruder with a static diffuser. Oxypolypropylene and maleated PP oligomer were evaluated as compatibilisers. Results indicated improved gas barrier versus non-compounded blends and virgin PP films.

Structure and Performance of Novel Acrylonitrile-Styrene-Acrylate Nanocomposite
E.H. Qua, I.F.M. Major, C.Y. Lew, G.M. McNally, A.H. Clarke, May 2006

ASA nanocomposites were prepared by melt compounding with synthetic layered-silicate as a higher performance alternative to ABS. Mixed intercalated/exfoliated morphology was observed in the ASA nanocomposites, conferring marked improvement in modulus, thermal stability and flame retardancy.

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