SPE Library

The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.

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Conference Proceedings

Organoclay Networking in Polypropylene-Clay Nanocomposites
Mark A. Treece, James P. Oberhauser, May 2006

This report discusses the networking of organoclays and its influence on the rheology of polymer-clay nanocomposites. Small amplitude (SAOS) and steady state rheological experiments are systematically performed to study the effect of flow and thermal history on solid-like formation dynamics in a 3wt% polypropylene-clay sample. Results indicate that the kinetics of network formation increase with temperature, while the application of a sufficiently large deformation will irreversibly weaken the clay network.

Effect of Artificial Defects on the Fatigue Behavior of RTM Laminates
Gerald Pinter, Elisabeth Ladstätter, Reinhold W. Lang, May 2006

The effect of artificial defects (delaminations, notches) on the tensile fatigue behavior of RTM laminates was evaluated based on the comparison of cycles to failure at different stress levels, the stiffness decrease during the tests and isocyclic stress-strain curves. A reduction of cycles to failure could be found. Moreover the deformation contributions caused by visco-elastic effects and by cumulated damage during the fatigue tests could be assessed and compared.

Multiphase PP Blends for Automotive Interior: Composition Effects on Surface Structure and Scratch Resistance
Doris Machl, Christelle Grein, Klaus Bernreitner, May 2006

This paper will outline surface properties like scratch and gloss performance in PP/EPR blends consisting of a PP matrix and a dispersed EPR phase with crystalline PE core particles. A brief overview of the influence of intrinsic polymer parameters and processing conditions will be given.

How to Handle Being Restructured
Roger F. Jones, May 2006

Many professionals at some point in their careers find themselves at a dead end or restructured out of a job. This is the time in life to think about new directions, maybe to become a musician or painter, but more likely to go in business for yourself. Whether such a move would involve building your own manufacturing company or offering professional services as a consultant will depend on an individual’s personality traits, professional training, experience, and accomplishments. This paper describes ways to make a successful transition from professional employee to professional entrepreneur.

Molecular Diamonds®/Polymer Nanocomposites
Arun Ghosh, David A. Schiraldi, May 2006

Diamondoid nanofillers, found in natural gas/petroleum streams, have face-fused diamond crystal lattice cage. These diamond-like structures of these materials lead to their stability, strength, and rigidity. The diamondoids were used as additives in polypropylene, cyclic olefin copolymer and polycarbonate. The diamondoids examined in this study consisted of pure diamantane, triamantane, the tetramantane isomer, and a methylated tetramantane mixture. Effects of diamondoids on stress-strain, thermal, optical and morphological properties of polymers were studied.

Effect of Nano Particles on Foaming Behaviors of PP
Wenge Zheng, Y.H. Lee, Chul B. Park, May 2006

This research investigates the foaming behaviors of polypropylene (PP) and PP/clay nanocomposites blown with supercritical CO2. The cell nucleation and expansion behaviors of the PP-based nanocomposite foams are studied at various clay contents and die temperatures. The effects of the nano-particles on the cell morphology, the cell density and the expansion ratio of the PP/clay nanocomposite foams are identified.

Material Optimization of PA12 Laser Sintering Powder to Improve Surface Quality
Ernst Schmachtenberg, Michael Schoenfeld, Thomas Seul, May 2006

Laser Sintering can be an alternative for small lot production. However, the surface roughness does not always meet the specifications without finishing. An encapsulation of Laser Sintering particles with surfactants can significantly improve the quality of Laser Sintering parts by improving the separation between melt and powder during the process.

Effect of the Model Properties Over the Injected Part Dimensions
M.V. Candal, R. Morales, May 2006

The influence of the elements number of a finite element mesh in the simulation results (weight and linear shrinkage along the length and width of a specimen) was studied. Besides, simulation results were compared with a mesh obtained from solids modelator software (CAD) and from simulator software (CAE). The convergence simulation results showed similar tendencies with the experimental ones. The modelator mesh gives a faster convergence than the simulator one.

Thermoforming Process Optimization by using the Experiment Design Technique
R. Morales, M.V. Candal, May 2006

The influence of process parameters in the final properties of a thermoformed part was studied. An Experiment Design (DOE) of fractional factorial 24-1 type was employed. Process variables studied were: sheet temperature, vacuum pressure, and cycle and delay time. The experimental results showed the delay time as the most important parameter to obtain good quality parts.

Employing Microwave Energy to Mold Thermoplastic Material
Yogesh Vakharia, Shrujal Vakharia, May 2006

The objective of these experiments is to test the effect of microwave energy on different kinds of tools like metal and composite, and explore the use of the tool that can be heated up in the microwave oven. Following the test result, we shall select the correct combination of tool, microwave power level and time period to mold the plastic. This process of molding thermoplastic material can be economical, quicker, neater, cleaner and more efficient as compared to conventional methods of heating like oven or gas fired heating.

Applicability of Polymer Process Models for the Simulation of Starch Processes
H. Potente, A. Thümen, N. Böhm, May 2006

In the plastics industry it is common to use simulation software tools for designing processes. In contrast there are even no software tools which are 100% suitable for performing these tasks in case of starch processes. In case of simulating starch processes these one-dimensional process models mainly meet one problem: the different material behaviour of starch. In the study at hand the applicability of the available process models was investigated.

Electron-Beam Cured Resin Systems for Wood Composites
W.L. Griffith, G.F. Dorsey, D.P. Harper, W.W. Moschler, Jr., T.G. Rials, Ting Song, P.M. Winistorfer, Song Cheng, May 2006

In wood composites, low-temperature electron-beam curable resin systems offer tremendous energy savings and unique opportunities to develop novel products. Mechanical properties (strength and stiffness) and compositional properties (such as durability of resin-towood bonds) were investigated.

Load-Dependent Thermo-Mechanical Application Limits
C. Dallner, G.W. Ehrenstein, May 2006

The common approach to determine thermomechanical application limits as the beginning of the decrease of the temperature-dependent modulus from DMA-measurements results in optimistic thermo-mechanical application limits. The reason for it is analyzed and allowable estimations are suggested. Also the time-, stress- and temperature-dependent deformation behaviour at static loading is investigated to derive time- and stress-dependent thermal application limits.

Mixed Field Irradiation - Induced Modification of Thermally Cured Castor Oil Based Polyurethanes
Aba Mortley, H.W. Bonin, V.T Bui, May 2006

Thermal curing of castor oil based polyurethanes is limited by increasing polymer viscosity. To enhance further crosslinking, they were subjected to intermediate doses from a mixed ionizing radiation field. Limitations of thermal curing and increases in mechanical strength due to radiation-induced crosslinking were confirmed by changing 13C-NMR and FTIR spectra.

Optimisation of PET Beverage Bottle Design Using Pro/Mechanica FEM
S.H. Masood, Carli Tjioe, May 2006

Achieving the best product to production and into the market quickly and efficiently requires an integrated approach to product design. Manual trial and error methods in design optimization and development will be time consuming and costly. This paper presents the design optimization process for designing and analysing a 600ml PET bottle using the Pro/Mechanica Structure finite element method (FEM), investigating the optimization of its shape, size, and features for reduced material usage without affecting its capacity, functionality, and strength.

Quality Increase and Fine Fluff Avoidance in Vibration Welding
Helmut Potente, Hans-Peter Heim, Joachim Schnieders, Maik Büssing, May 2006

Fine fluff and impurities in the vibration welding process frequently cause optical impairments and technical defects. In order to prevent the appearance of fine fluff in the future, two different methods were examined, based on geometrical variation on the one hand and on the preheating of the workpiece on the other hand.

Modern Flexible Coating Lines, Optimized for the Demanding Coatings of Today and Tomorrow
John Lowens, May 2006

Traditional coating lines are designed for a specific process, and usually require extensive modification to successfully handle a new process. Traditional coating lines are designed using a quasi-flowchart method.Just as software programmers discovered that changing their basic design philosophy from flowcharting to object orientated state analysis brought many advantages, particularly in inherent flexibility, so many of these advantages can be endowed into a coating line by adopting this methodology into the initial design stages.

Containerized Mobile /Modular Compounding Plants: Flexible, Efficient and Cost Effective
Allan Boye Hansen, Frank Lechner, Michael Hampf, Alfred Kurz, Paul Andersen, May 2006

Interest in transportable modular production plants is on the rise. These containerized solutions combine flexibility with minimal installation and start up expense. This presentation will highlight the issues surrounding a successful implementation of this concept for an insulated pipe construction used for offshore crude oil transport.

Using Extreme Barrel Diameters to Verify the Numerical Simulation of Single-Screw Extruders
Mark A. Spalding, Greg A. Campbell, Fredrick Carlson, Kambiz Nazrisdoust, May 2006

Numerous models exist for the prediction of pressure profiles in the metering section of single-screw extruders. For the most part, these models were verified using experimental data from small diameter extruders. Verification using data from large diameter machines, however, has not been fully explored due to the lack of experimental data. The analysis here will show the effect of barrel diameter on the ability of a model to predict pressure profiles in the metering channel.

Characterization of Beam Profile for High-Power Diode Lasers with Application to Laser Welding of Polymers
L.S. Mayboudi, M. Chen, G. Zak, A.M. Birk, P.J. Bates, May 2006

This paper presents and compares the results of knife-edge and pinhole approaches for laser beam power profiling. A high-power diode laser, which is typically used for laser transmission welding (LTW) of thermoplastics, is characterized. Benefits of the knife-edge method are speed and simplicity. Its major drawback is that it does not provide details about the internal features of the three-dimensional (3-D) beam intensity distribution that is examined in depth by the pinhole method.

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ANTEC 2016 - Indianapolis, Indiana, USA May 23-25, 2016. [On-line].
Society of Plastics Engineers
Available: www.4spe.org.

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