SPE Library

The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.

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Conference Proceedings
Challenges to the Formation of Nano-Cells in Foaming Processes
Zhenjin Zhu, Chul B. Park, May 2006
This paper implements a finite element analysis to track the morphological changes of nano-sized cells in a finite PS/CO2 system. The effects of the initial bulk gas concentration, cell size, intercellular distance, and gas diffusion coefficient on cell ripening are examined. Challenges to the formation of nano-cells in polymeric foaming processes are analyzed.
Simulation Analysis of SMD LED
Wen-Ren Jong, Tsung-Hsiang Kuo, Shu-Hui Pen, Hsiu-Hui Chiu, May 2006
Surface mount device light emitting diode (SMD LED), requiring the criteria of low weight and small size, is the most important basic components of 3C products. In this paper, MPI software is used to simulate the injection molding of SMD LED and overcome the short shot due to the runners unbalance from the preliminary design. The results show that the decreasing of filling time and the changing of runner size can effectively improve this short shot behavior.
Lubrication, Single Screw Extrusion Rates and Plasticizer Structure in Flexible PVC Compounds
Paul H. Daniels, May 2006
It is well established that changes in plasticizer structure affect (among other things) flexible PVC compounds' melting temperatures, melt viscosities and lubrication. In turn, these properties affect the extrudability of PVC compounds. The current study looks at the effects of plasticizer structure on PVC compounds' lubrication, melt viscosities, extrusion rates, stock temperatures and shear rates in a single screw extrusion process.
Polyethylene/Polyethylene Ionomer-Based Nanocomposites
Jennifer A. Lee, Marianna Kontopoulou, J. Scott Parent, May 2006
Polyethylene-based nanocomposites containing onium ion-exchanged clay (NR4+-MM) and nanosilica (SiO2) were prepared by melt compounding a polyampholyte derivative of maleated polyethylene (PE-g-PA) with high density polyethylene (HDPE). Depending on the amount of the PE-g-PA in the blend, this approach can generate composites with a high degree of NR4+-MM exfoliation and good SiO2 dispersion.
The Effect of Biaxial Orientation Processing Conditions on Immiscible Polymer Blended Sheet
Jennifer K. Lynch, Thomas J. Nosker, James D. Idol, May 2006
The effect of simultaneous biaxial orientation processing conditions upon the thermal and morphological properties of PS/HDPE and PC/PMMA immiscible polymer blended sheet samples is investigated by singly varying the draw rate and draw range. Bi-component blends were melt-blended by twin screw extrusion at composition ratios selected to result in dual phase, cocontinuous structures. Findings from this work will be applied to a future study of these blended sheet samples as gas separation membranes.
Modification of Polymers by Ionizing Radiation: A Review
Jiri George Drobny, May 2006
Ionizing radiation (gamma rays and electron beam radiation) is widely used in science, technology and medicine. The primary effect of ionizing radiation is based on its ability to excite and ionize molecules, which leads ultimately to the formation of free radicals. Free radicals then can initiate a variety of reactions. In the field of polymers this includes polymerization, cross-linking, grafting and degradation. This contribution is discussing such processes and their practical applications in some detail.
Formability of Solid-State Microcellular Polycarbonate with Varying Levels of Absorbed Carbon Dioxide
J. Erik Benson, Vipin Kumar, May 2006
Tensile tests were conducted on virgin polycarbonate (PC), PC saturated with CO2, and microcellular PC with varying concentrations of gas, with a particular focus on the strength, ductility, and the strain to failure of these materials. It was found that the ductility of gas-saturated PC exceeded that of the virgin material; while microcellular PC still containing gas exhibited the highest ductility. Thus, the presence of dissolved CO2 could provide significant assistance in the deformation processing of PC and microcellular PC.
Harnessing Molecular Forces to Exfoliate Clay in Thermoset Systems
Michael J. Gintert, Sadhan C. Jana, Sandi G. Miller, May 2006
Layered silicate PMR-15 polyimide nanocomposites are being developed for high-performance aerospace applications. The goal is to achieve full exfoliation under quiescent conditions using a novel approach, whereby intra- and extra-gallery modulus and viscosity are engineered to result in a net force pushing clay layers apart during cure. The current study explores treatment of clay with reactive surfactants which are thermally stable and participate in crosslinking with PMR resin, providing higher thermo-oxidative stability than possible with current technologies.
Chemical and Engineering Issues in Polymer Nanocomposites Design
Sadhan C. Jana, Dhawal Dharaiya, Asim Pattanayak, Chang Do Jung, May 2006
The field of polymer nanocomposites has reached a certain level of maturity and we are in a position to design a number of polymer nanocomposite products to deliver certain desired properties. In this paper, two examples are presented where basic engineering principles are applied to design nanocomposite products of thermoplastic polyurethanes and blends of polyamide 6 and polypropylene.
Parametric Study on Scratch Behavior of Polymers
H. Jiang, G.T. Lim, J.N. Reddy, J.D. Whitcomb, H.-J. Sue, May 2006
The effect of material and surface properties of polypropylene (PP) on scratch behavior were discussed by parametric studies using finite element analysis (FEA). Two different loading conditions were examined. It is found that Poisson's ratio has a negligible effect on scratch performance. Increasing yield stress and reducing coefficient of adhesive friction are important ways to positively affect the scratch performance of polymer. However, increasing the Young's modulus does not necessarily improve scratch performance.
Particulate Fillers on Morphology Development in Chaotic Mixing
Sadhan C. Jana, Dhawal Dharaiya, Madhusudan Sau, May 2006
The influence of particulate fillers such as carbon black and layered silicate clay on morphology development in chaotic mixing of immiscible polymers was studied and results compared with those of a wellknown compatibilizer. The formation of much smaller droplets in the presence of fillers was explained using reduced interfacial tension and rapid thinning of lamellas and fibrils in chaotic mixing.
Preparation, Intercalation and Exfoliation of ?-Zirconium Phosphate with Varying Dimensions
Luyi Sun, Woong J. Boo, Hung-Jue Sue, Abraham Clearfield, May 2006
Synthetic ?-zirconium phosphate (?-ZrP) platelets with varying dimensions have been prepared via three different approaches. The ?-ZrP can be easily intercalated by amines and then exfoliated in epoxy to prepare polymer nanocomposites. Such nanocomposites containing exfoliated ?-ZrP sheets with varying aspect ratios can be used to study the structure-property relationship in polymer nanocomposites.
Chemical Analysis of the Polyester/Metal Surface of a Delamination Failure
Eldridge M. Mount III, May 2006
A polymer film lamination shows an unexpected delamination failure. The lamination is produced by adhesive laminating a previously printed metallized polyester film to a LLDPE sealant. In use the lamination is found to fail by delamination between the polyester film and the metal layer. Chemical surface analysis of the failure surface by X-ray photon spectroscopy (XPS) indicates a degraded polyester surface creating a weak boundary layer at the polyester/metal interface which is the cause of the delamination. Possible causes for the degraded polyester surface are discussed.
The Development of Soft TPO for Automobile Interior Skin That Enhance Recyclability
Seong Min Cho, Dong Myeong Shin, Dong Woo Lee, May 2006
This study investigates soft thermoplastic olefin (TPO) for automobile interior skin such as instrument and door trim panel skin in order to replace polyvinyl chloride(PVC) resin, enhance recyclability and solve environmental problem. In this study, we investigated TPO material requirement by each process and results indicated optimum material composition for each process.
Comparison of Two Different Cooling Methods for Extrusion Processes
Timothy W. Womer, Walter S. Smith, Richard P. Wheeler, May 2006
This paper will compare the total power consumption of two different means of heating/cooling systems: air and water. For a single 90mm extruder, the total power consumption, output rate, and thermal control will be used to compare the two cooling means. Four different resins will be used.
Modeling Agglomerate Dispersion in Single Screw Extruders
Natália Domingues, Marco Camesasca, Miron Kaufman, Ica Manas-Zloczower, António Gaspar-Cunha, José António Covas, May 2006
We present a new model for assessing mixing in extrusion processes. The model combines numerical simulations of flow patterns in the extruder with a Monte Carlo method of clusters rupture and erosion mediated by the local fragmentation number. Particle size distributions and Shannon entropy are used for mixing characterization.
Structure-Property and Pigment/Organoclay Interaction in PP Nanocomposites
I.F.M. Major, C.Y. Lew, H. Lu, G.M. McNally, A.H. Clarke, May 2006
PP nanocomposites (PLN) were prepared by twinscrew mixing with organoclay and phthalocyanine blue pigment. Significant clay/pigment interaction was observed. Exfoliated organoclay exhibited carrier effect on the pigment. Pigmented PLN exhibited better mechanical properties than the unpigmented PLN.
Processing CNT/PVDP Composites for Enhanced Strength
Kern Peng, Hornberger, Cattien V. Nguyen, Umesh Sopory, May 2006
The key to increasing the mechanical strength of a carbon nanotube (CNT)/polymer composite is to achieve uniform dispersion and alignment of the nanotubes in the polymer matrix. In this study, CNT dispersion and alignment were significantly improved by using a surfactant and a variety of unique processing steps to manufacture a 10wt% multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWNT)/ polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) composite. The resulting tensile strength of the composite was nearly double that of unreinforced PVDF.
Why Troubleshoot When You Can Prevent? A Bayesian Network Approach
Jason S. Trahan, Paul V. Engelmann, May 2006
Although successfully applied as a diagnostic tool to various fields, few Bayesian networks have been designed for prevention. Lack of time, personnel and resources have been obstacles for this branch of artificial intelligence. A method for constructing a Bayesian network based on established literature and practical knowledge of experts in the field is presented. The model will be applied to shear splay, incorporating factors in material, design and processing. Suggestions for implementation are also addressed.
Dynamic Vulcanisation of EPDM/HDPE-Based Thermoplastic Vulcanisates Studied Along the Extruder Axis
Martin van Duin, Ana Vera Machado, May 2006
Dynamic vulcanisation of EPDM/HDPE blends with resol was studied in an extruder equipped with sampling devices. Upon complete melting of the HDPE pellets the blends reach quickly their final morphology. For the EPDM/HDPE (50/50; w/w) blend at transition from continuous via co-continuous to fully dispersed EPDM is observed, which is driven by complete HDPE melting and crosslinking. Crosslinking of the EPDM phase occurs already when the HDPE is not yet fully molten, but does not prevent phase inversion of the blend.


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Brown, H. L. and Jones, D. H. 2016, May.
"Insert title of paper here in quotes,"
ANTEC 2016 - Indianapolis, Indiana, USA May 23-25, 2016. [On-line].
Society of Plastics Engineers
Available: www.4spe.org.

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