SPE Library

The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.

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Conference Proceedings
Effect of Injection Molding Process Parameters on the Morphology and Quality of Microcellular Foams
Jingyi Xu, May 2006
The effects of injection process parameters for microcellular foams are investigated by two stages: plasticizing to make single-phase solution, and molding to make microcellular foam. The quality of the foam is evaluated by the morphology. It is obvious that the parameters from these two stages have different effects on the quality of the foam. The quantity analyses of molding and plasticizing parameters result in some new injection processing guidelines for the quality of microcellular foams.
Effects of Gas Content and Pressure Drop Rate on Foaming
Siu N. Leung, Chul B. Park, May 2006
Computer simulations of polystyrene (PS) /carbon dioxide (CO2) batch foaming processes were conducted to elucidate the effects of gas content and pressure drop rate on cell-nucleating and growth phenomena. The simulation results were carefully compared with in-situ visualization data obtained experimentally. The results indicate that increases in both dissolved gas content and pressure drop rate will augment the final cell density, reduce the average cell sizes, and improve the bubble size uniformity.
Accelerated Quality Assurance Tests for PE Pipe Grades
Gerald Pinter, Markus Haager, Reinhold W. Lang, May 2006
Three different lots of two PE 100 materials were investigated with fracture mechanics procedures under cyclic and impact loads. Lot-to-lot variations in the materials crack resistance were found and a correlation to crystallization kinetics (stepwise isothermal segregation), melt flow rate and density measurements could be established. The used characterization techniques are quick and inexpensive tests and have the potential to be included in quality assurance procedures.
Organoclay Networking in Polypropylene-Clay Nanocomposites
Mark A. Treece, James P. Oberhauser, May 2006
This report discusses the networking of organoclays and its influence on the rheology of polymer-clay nanocomposites. Small amplitude (SAOS) and steady state rheological experiments are systematically performed to study the effect of flow and thermal history on solid-like formation dynamics in a 3wt% polypropylene-clay sample. Results indicate that the kinetics of network formation increase with temperature, while the application of a sufficiently large deformation will irreversibly weaken the clay network.
Effect of Artificial Defects on the Fatigue Behavior of RTM Laminates
Gerald Pinter, Elisabeth Ladstätter, Reinhold W. Lang, May 2006
The effect of artificial defects (delaminations, notches) on the tensile fatigue behavior of RTM laminates was evaluated based on the comparison of cycles to failure at different stress levels, the stiffness decrease during the tests and isocyclic stress-strain curves. A reduction of cycles to failure could be found. Moreover the deformation contributions caused by visco-elastic effects and by cumulated damage during the fatigue tests could be assessed and compared.
Multiphase PP Blends for Automotive Interior: Composition Effects on Surface Structure and Scratch Resistance
Doris Machl, Christelle Grein, Klaus Bernreitner, May 2006
This paper will outline surface properties like scratch and gloss performance in PP/EPR blends consisting of a PP matrix and a dispersed EPR phase with crystalline PE core particles. A brief overview of the influence of intrinsic polymer parameters and processing conditions will be given.
Influence of Nanofiller Structure on Gas Permeability and Mechanical Properties of Epoxy/?-Zirconium Phosphate Nanocomposites
W.-J. Boo, L.Y. Sun, J. Liu, A. Clearfield, H.-J. Sue, May 2006
The morphology, gas permeability and physical/ mechanical properties of synthetic ?-zirconium phosphate based epoxy nanocomposites with variations in degree of exfoliation are investigated. The state of exfoliation and dispersion is directly confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) at different locations of the samples. The fundamental structure-property relationship of ?-ZrP reinforced epoxy nanocomposites as a function of degree of exfoliation of ?-ZrP layer structure is discussed.
How to Handle Being Restructured
Roger F. Jones, May 2006
Many professionals at some point in their careers find themselves at a dead end or restructured out of a job. This is the time in life to think about new directions, maybe to become a musician or painter, but more likely to go in business for yourself. Whether such a move would involve building your own manufacturing company or offering professional services as a consultant will depend on an individual’s personality traits, professional training, experience, and accomplishments. This paper describes ways to make a successful transition from professional employee to professional entrepreneur.
Molecular Diamonds®/Polymer Nanocomposites
Arun Ghosh, David A. Schiraldi, May 2006
Diamondoid nanofillers, found in natural gas/petroleum streams, have face-fused diamond crystal lattice cage. These diamond-like structures of these materials lead to their stability, strength, and rigidity. The diamondoids were used as additives in polypropylene, cyclic olefin copolymer and polycarbonate. The diamondoids examined in this study consisted of pure diamantane, triamantane, the tetramantane isomer, and a methylated tetramantane mixture. Effects of diamondoids on stress-strain, thermal, optical and morphological properties of polymers were studied.
Effect of Nano Particles on Foaming Behaviors of PP
Wenge Zheng, Y.H. Lee, Chul B. Park, May 2006
This research investigates the foaming behaviors of polypropylene (PP) and PP/clay nanocomposites blown with supercritical CO2. The cell nucleation and expansion behaviors of the PP-based nanocomposite foams are studied at various clay contents and die temperatures. The effects of the nano-particles on the cell morphology, the cell density and the expansion ratio of the PP/clay nanocomposite foams are identified.
Material Optimization of PA12 Laser Sintering Powder to Improve Surface Quality
Ernst Schmachtenberg, Michael Schoenfeld, Thomas Seul, May 2006
Laser Sintering can be an alternative for small lot production. However, the surface roughness does not always meet the specifications without finishing. An encapsulation of Laser Sintering particles with surfactants can significantly improve the quality of Laser Sintering parts by improving the separation between melt and powder during the process.
Battery Container Failures
P.R. Lewis, May 2006
Many industrial and consumer products rely on battery power, with product failure inevitable if the battery container cracks. Electrolyte damage to surrounding equipment can be severe owing to the corrosive properties of most electrolytes. Failure of the container can be caused by internal or external problems, such as explosions of excess hydrogen gas or by external impacts. However, many problems are exacerbated by poor design of the container, including moulding under inappropriate conditions or by the presence of severe stress concentrations. Several case studies are described in which one or more of these factors caused product loss or personal injury.
Effect of the Model Properties Over the Injected Part Dimensions
M.V. Candal, R. Morales, May 2006
The influence of the elements number of a finite element mesh in the simulation results (weight and linear shrinkage along the length and width of a specimen) was studied. Besides, simulation results were compared with a mesh obtained from solids modelator software (CAD) and from simulator software (CAE). The convergence simulation results showed similar tendencies with the experimental ones. The modelator mesh gives a faster convergence than the simulator one.
Thermoforming Process Optimization by using the Experiment Design Technique
R. Morales, M.V. Candal, May 2006
The influence of process parameters in the final properties of a thermoformed part was studied. An Experiment Design (DOE) of fractional factorial 24-1 type was employed. Process variables studied were: sheet temperature, vacuum pressure, and cycle and delay time. The experimental results showed the delay time as the most important parameter to obtain good quality parts.
Employing Microwave Energy to Mold Thermoplastic Material
Yogesh Vakharia, Shrujal Vakharia, May 2006
The objective of these experiments is to test the effect of microwave energy on different kinds of tools like metal and composite, and explore the use of the tool that can be heated up in the microwave oven. Following the test result, we shall select the correct combination of tool, microwave power level and time period to mold the plastic. This process of molding thermoplastic material can be economical, quicker, neater, cleaner and more efficient as compared to conventional methods of heating like oven or gas fired heating.
Applicability of Polymer Process Models for the Simulation of Starch Processes
H. Potente, A. Thümen, N. Böhm, May 2006
In the plastics industry it is common to use simulation software tools for designing processes. In contrast there are even no software tools which are 100% suitable for performing these tasks in case of starch processes. In case of simulating starch processes these one-dimensional process models mainly meet one problem: the different material behaviour of starch. In the study at hand the applicability of the available process models was investigated.
Electron-Beam Cured Resin Systems for Wood Composites
W.L. Griffith, G.F. Dorsey, D.P. Harper, W.W. Moschler, Jr., T.G. Rials, Ting Song, P.M. Winistorfer, Song Cheng, May 2006
In wood composites, low-temperature electron-beam curable resin systems offer tremendous energy savings and unique opportunities to develop novel products. Mechanical properties (strength and stiffness) and compositional properties (such as durability of resin-towood bonds) were investigated.
Load-Dependent Thermo-Mechanical Application Limits
C. Dallner, G.W. Ehrenstein, May 2006
The common approach to determine thermomechanical application limits as the beginning of the decrease of the temperature-dependent modulus from DMA-measurements results in optimistic thermo-mechanical application limits. The reason for it is analyzed and allowable estimations are suggested. Also the time-, stress- and temperature-dependent deformation behaviour at static loading is investigated to derive time- and stress-dependent thermal application limits.
The Use of Electron Beam Irradiation to Control the Degradation of a Medical Device by Altering the Through Thickness Molecular Weight Profile
Louise Pick, Fraser Buchanan, Dermot Leonard, David Farrar, May 2006
This paper investigates the effect of electron beam radiation on the through thickness molecular weight profile of a bioresorbable polymer. Stacks of thin layers of two bioresorbable polymers were irradiated and the molecular weight of each layer determined. Experiments were carried out to determine the reduction in mass of each layer over time. It was found that there was a clear decrease in molecular weight in the layers nearest the beam, resulting in faster degradation.
Mixed Field Irradiation - Induced Modification of Thermally Cured Castor Oil Based Polyurethanes
Aba Mortley, H.W. Bonin, V.T Bui, May 2006
Thermal curing of castor oil based polyurethanes is limited by increasing polymer viscosity. To enhance further crosslinking, they were subjected to intermediate doses from a mixed ionizing radiation field. Limitations of thermal curing and increases in mechanical strength due to radiation-induced crosslinking were confirmed by changing 13C-NMR and FTIR spectra.


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Brown, H. L. and Jones, D. H. 2016, May.
"Insert title of paper here in quotes,"
ANTEC 2016 - Indianapolis, Indiana, USA May 23-25, 2016. [On-line].
Society of Plastics Engineers
Available: www.4spe.org.

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