SPE Library

The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.

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Conference Proceedings
Using sc-CO2 as a Processing Aid for Improving the Properties of Polymer Nanocomposites
Quang T. Nguyen, Donald G. Baird, May 2006
Supercritical carbon dioxide (sc-CO2) is used in this work as a processing aid for improving the dispersion of the clay nanoparticles in the melt intercalation process of HDPE-clay nanocomposites. Some preliminary experiments were performed to study the effect of sc-CO2 on the melt intercalation process. Results from the mechanical properties and rheological studies show a direct effect of the sc-CO2, suggesting that the presence of sc-CO2 in the melt blending process can enhance the degree of mixing and the dispersion of the nanoclays into the polymer matrices.
Reactive Extrusion of PBT for Low Density Foaming
B. Jeong, M. Xanthos, K. Hyun, May 2006
Branching or partial cross-linking of polybutylene terephthalate (PBT) resins by reactive modification with multi-functional epoxides was investigated. The rheology of the PBT products could be controlled by varying material and operational conditions of the reactive extrusion process. The modified PBT was adaptable to low density foam extrusion, where higher melt strength is necessary.
Application of Recycled Industrial Polyolefins in Pail Design Using FEM
S. Haider Rizvi, S.H. Masood, Igor Sbarski, May 2006
This paper presents the application of recycled industrial HDPE and PP and their blends with virgin resins in pail design using finite element analysis. Results predict that these blends can be used in pails for the packaging of non food grade materials such as paints, oil and grease.
Interfacial Adhesion in Bamboo Fiber/Biodegradable Polymer Composites
M. Nakamura, K. Kitagawa, H. Okumura, U.S. Ishiaku, M. Kotaki, H. Hamada, May 2006
Surface treatment with natural resin on bamboo fibers is hypothesized to improve the interfacial adhesion between bamboo fibers and biodegradable polymers. Effect of the surface treatment on the interfacial adhesion was investigated by evaluation of mechanical properties and fracture behavior of the composites.
Carbon Composite Bipolar Plates for Fuel Cell
Sun Ho Park, Chang Min Hong, Young Jun Lee, May 2006
The shape and intrinsic conductivity of conductive fillers affect to performance of bipolar plate, therefore the effect of conductive fillers and morphology of polymer/ conductive filler composites on conductivity were evaluated to utilize in fuel cell. The mixture of conductive fillers such as graphite/carbon black, graphite/carbon nanofiber, and graphite/carbon nanotube were also estimated to minimize the loading of conductive fillers in bipolar plates.
Modeling of Non-Isothermal Film Blowing Process by Using Variational Principles
M. Zatloukal, H. Mavridis, J. Vlcek, P. Saha, May 2006
A recently proposed model of the film blowing process (Zatloukal and Vlcek) was generalized and consequently applied to the case of high-stalk tubular film blowing of HMW-HDPE. It was found that the proposed model has a good capability to describe and predict the relevant experimental data. In the second part of the paper, a non-isothermal version of the film blowing model is developed and tested. Finally, a novel version of the generalized Newtonian model is proposed, which allows one to take into account the effect of extensional melt rhelogy.
Investigation of PPA Interactions with Polymer Melts in Coextrusion Flows
M. Zatloukal, J. De Witte, C. Lavallée, May 2006
Recently proposed new slip model based on 'effective continuum methods' was developed and used for investigation of process aids interactions with polymer melts in single as well as multi-layer flows. Specific attention has been paid to understanding the role of process aids on stabilization of the zig-zag type of interfacial instabilities in film blowing coextrusion.
Modeling of Viscoelastic Multi-Layer Flows for Different Polymer Melts
M. Zatloukal, M.T. Martyn, J. Vlcek, P.D. Coates, May 2006
Modified Leonov model has been employed in the modeling of the coextrusion flows with same as well as differerent polymer melts. Flow visualization measurements were used for verification of the used numerical scheme. Specific attention is paid here to the possible numerical difficulties which may occur during modeling of the merging area with different polymer materials. Both, measurements as well as FEM analysis of the coextrusion flows were discussed from the wave type of interfacial instabilities point of view.
Investigation of Advanced Constitutive Equations Under Different Flow Conditions
M. Zatloukal, R. Pivokonský, T. Gough, P.D. Coates, May 2006
The predictive capabilities of three models (eXtended Pom-Pom, PTT- XPP and modified Leonov model) are tested for both, steady as well as transient shear and uniaxial extensional flows of LDPE. In the second part of the paper, the modified Leonov model is employed in FEM modeling of the abrupt contraction flow and predicted stress fields are compared with the stress measurements from the flow visualization cell.
The Elimination of Weld Line Witness Marks in Injection Moulding
Peter S. Allan, Keith W. Rawson, Michael J. Bevis, May 2006
The surface witness marks of weld lines in injection mouldings can be particularly unsightly in certain resin compounds. This paper will describe a method that offers the potential to eliminate weld line witness marks. The process involves the combination of selectively heating the mould surface and the application of melt shearing in the mould cavity.
Shape Memory Binary Blends: Compositionally Tailored Fixing and Recovery
Cheryl J. Campo, Patrick T. Mather, May 2006
Semicrystalline-amorphous blends exhibit shape memory due to (1) the elastomeric nature imparted by crystallites that act as physical crosslinks and (2) temporary shape fixing made possible by the vitrification of a continuous, miscible amorphous phase. PVDF-containing binary blends were studied using calorimetry and rheology in order to characterize the morphological control afforded by subjecting such materials to different thermal histories. The sensitivity of the aforementioned techniques to changes in blend morphology will also be discussed.
Fracture Behaviour of Injection Moulding Post-Consumer Wood/Plastic Composite Foams
R. Gosselin, B. Riedl, D. Rodrigue, May 2006
This study investigates fibre reinforced microcellular foams produced via injection moulding using recycled polymers. The objective is to determine the effect of wood, blowing agent and coupling agent contents on impact and tensile properties. Birch wood fibres were blended with a post-consumer HDPE/PP matrix to produce the composites. Azodicarbonamide was used as a blowing agent while maleic anhydride polypropylene copolymer was used as a compatibilizer. Optimal results were obtained with 20 wt.% wood contents.
The Effect of Sharp Corners and Runner Length on Melt Flow Imbalances
Raymond W. McKee, Joshua A. Hoover, May 2006
This study revealed that the use of 90 degree sharp corners has virtually no effect on mold filling imbalance. The study also found that mold fill rates can have a significant impact on the shear induced imbalances found in multi-cavity molds. Further, the study found that increasing the length of the secondary runner will initially decrease the shear induced imbalance developed in the primary runner. Continuing to increase the length has a diminishing effect on the degree the imbalance decreases.
Replication of Injection Molded Parts with Micro-Scale Features
Osamu Murakami, Kazushi Yamada, Masaya Kotaki, Hiroyuki Hamada, May 2006
The effects of melt viscosity and molding conditions on the replication of microscopic v-groove features in injection molded parts were examined for polycarbonate (PC). A polarized Raman spectroscopy was used to characterize the microstructure of these molded parts. It has been found that high replication of micro-scale features can be achieved by higher mold temperature and higher melt temperature even with high viscosity PC. The difference of the molecular orientation at the inside of the injection molded v-groove was observed among the different molding conditions.
Geometrical Effect and Material Selelction in Multi-Component Molding (MCM) Development
Chao-Tsai Huang, Ching-Hui Yeh, Shi-Chang Tseng, May 2006
Due to its complicated nature and the unclear physical mechanism for the Multi-Component Molding (MCM) processes, conventionally the trial-and-error method can not catch the crucial factors effectively. In this study, the product geometrical effect and material selection in MCM processes have been conducted. Results showed that the product geometries and molded materials will affect the final products significantly. In addition, it can be the good guidelines to help people understand the mechanism and make the proper design to fabricate the modern MCM products.
Film-Casting Behavior as a Function of Molecular Structure and Rheology
Christopher W. Seay, Donald G. Baird, May 2006
Polyethylene resins with different molecular structures and rheological properties are investigated in terms of their performance in film-casting. Four metallocene catalyzed polyethylene resins with different degrees of long-chain branching and two conventional polyethylene resins are analyzed in terms of their dimensional changes during film production. With an increase in long-chain branching, and thus strain hardening-behavior, an increase in the necking phenomenon is observed during film-casting.
Antimicrobial Additives in Medical Plastics Compounds
Lawrence A Acquarulo, Jr., Lawrence Johnson, Anthony Listro, Charles J. O’Neil, May 2006
Bacterial infections in hospitals are a leading cause of death in the U.S. and can be caused by bacterial growth on plastic medical devices. The purpose of this paper is to identify effects of microorganisms on plastics, discuss pros and cons of antimicrobial additives in medical plastics.
Measurement of Surface Properties of Polymeric Materials Using Nanosphere Embedment Measurements
Stephen A. Hutcheson, Gregory B. McKenna, May 2006
Here we report results from our ongoing investigation of the surface properties of polymers using a nanoparticle embedment method that was originally pioneered by Teichroeb and Forrest. We describe a viscoelastic contact mechanics solution that includes surface adhesive forces and a time dependent Poisson's ratio. The results show that, with properly designed experiments, both the surface adhesion properties and the surface rheological properties can be extracted from nanosphere embedment measurements.
A Test Method for Rolling Resistance of Rubber Compounds
A.N. Gent, May 2006
A test method is described for measuring energy losses in rolling, using the damped oscillations of a pendulum. The amplitude of oscillation decays initially at a constant rate, and changes to a decreasing rate as the swings become small. In principle, the two processes provide separate measures of energy dissipation. The proposed method could be used for studying the effects of surface features of tire treads and roads on tire rolling resistance, in addition to characterizing the dissipative properties of tread compounds.
High Whiteness Masking Masterbatch for Film Applications
Sushanta D. Roy, Sam D’Uva, May 2006
Repro" or recycled polymer waste has been utilized in the polymer industry for years. In the manufacture of polyethylene films it is desired to introduce repro (recycled film scrap etc.) back into the film process. The recycled resin stream often contains residual inks or colorants which adversely affects the desired color of the final product when producing white films. A new masterbatch "Reproclean" has been developed to help mask the color of the recycled resin in the final film product. Results indicate that Reproclean significantly improves the whiteness and brightness indices of white polymer films."

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"Insert title of paper here in quotes,"
ANTEC 2016 - Indianapolis, Indiana, USA May 23-25, 2016. [On-line].
Society of Plastics Engineers
Available: www.4spe.org.

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