SPE Library

The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.

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Conference Proceedings
RESEARCH OF CONVEYING CHARACTERISTICS OF POLYMER VANE EXTRUDER
Qu Jinping , Yin Xiaochun , He Hezhi , Zhang Guizhen, May 2008
The working principles of vane extruder are entirely different from screw extruder. Materials were conveyed and plasticized by a group of vanes and the materials suffered mainly normal stress during processing. The heat history and mechanical history that the materials suffered were greatly decreased contrast to screw extruder. In this paper working principles of the vane extruder were introduced in detail. Experiments were carried out on the vane extruder to study the conveying characteristics and the experimental results were presented. Experimental results showed that the specific energy consumption is low and the change of material’s properties has little effect on throughput.
RESEARCH OF CONVEYING CHARACTERISTICS OF POLYMER VANE EXTRUDER
Qu Jinping , Yin Xiaochun , He Hezhi , Zhang Guizhen, May 2008
The working principles of vane extruder are entirely different from screw extruder. Materials were conveyed and plasticized by a group of vanes and the materials suffered mainly normal stress during processing. The heat history and mechanical history that the materials suffered were greatly decreased contrast to screw extruder. In this paper working principles of the vane extruder were introduced in detail. Experiments were carried out on the vane extruder to study the conveying characteristics and the experimental results were presented. Experimental results showed that the specific energy consumption is low and the change of materialƒ??s properties has little effect on throughput.
KOAX-S-TRUDER – A NEW FLEXIBLE AND HIGH EFFICIENT PLASTICATING CONCEPT
Johannes Wortberg , Marcel Grossmann, May 2008
A way to get high and constant plasticating capacities without using larger screw diameters or longer processing units can be reached with a new alternative plasticating concept. Using a separate driven coaxial feeding screw the decrease of throughput rate especially for materials with varying physical properties and higher screw speeds can be reduced in a wide range. The separation of solid material and melt within the short transition zone leads to high plasticating capacities and lower melt temperatures by reducing the induced shear energy caused by the rotating screw at higher screw speeds.
KOAX-S-TRUDER A NEW FLEXIBLE AND HIGH EFFICIENT PLASTICATING CONCEPT
Johannes Wortberg , Marcel Grossmann, May 2008
A way to get high and constant plasticating capacities without using larger screw diameters or longer processing units can be reached with a new alternative plasticating concept. Using a separate driven coaxial feeding screw the decrease of throughput rate especially for materials with varying physical properties and higher screw speeds can be reduced in a wide range. The separation of solid material and melt within the short transition zone leads to high plasticating capacities and lower melt temperatures by reducing the induced shear energy caused by the rotating screw at higher screw speeds.
DEVELOPMENT OF NOVEL BAYBLEND FR BLENDS WITH IMPROVED FLAMMABILITY AND HYDROLYSIS RESISTANCE
Marina Rogunova , Jim Mason , Thomas Eckel, May 2008
Bayer MaterialScience has commercialized a third generation of flame retardant PC/ABS blends. The third generation Bayblend® FR resins based on Chlorine Bromine Antimony oxide free technology complies with Blue Angel and White Swan requirements and has a UL94 flammability performance of V0 at 1.5 mm and 5VA rating at 3.0 mm. Bayblend® FR 3010 resin is a typical representative for a non-reinforced flame resistant polycarbonate/ABS blend. This product exhibits a good balance of flow stiffness impact performance chemical resistance and heat distortion properties. Most key properties of the new Bayblend® DP 3008HR resin are similar to those of Bayblend FR 3010. The key property of Bayblend® DP 3008HR resin is improved hydrolytic resistance. The new Bayblend® DP FR 3041 grade exhibits an excellent impact performance together with outstanding flammability ratings (V-0 at 0 75 mm and 5VA at 2.3mm) which makes Bayblend® DP FR 3041 resin an ideal candidate for a wide variety of thin wall applications. Bayer MaterialScience has commercialized a thirdgeneration of flame retardant PC/ABS blends. The thirdgeneration Bayblend?ÿ?? FR resins based on Chlorine ?ÿ?ÿ?? FR 3010 resin is a typical representative for?ÿ?ÿ?? DP?ÿ?ÿ?? DP 3008HR resin is?ÿ?ÿ?? DP FR 3041 grade exhibits an?ÿ?ÿ?? DP FR 3041 resin an ideal?ÿcandidate for a wide variety of thin wall applications.excellent impact performance together with outstandingflammability ratings (V-0 at 0 75 mm and 5VA at 2.3mm)which makes Bayblendimproved hydrolytic resistance.The new Bayblend3008HR resin are similar to those of Bayblend FR 3010.The key property of Bayblenda non-reinforced flame resistant polycarbonate/ABS blend.This product exhibits a good balance of flow stiffness impact performance chemical resistance and heat distortionproperties.Most key properties of the new BayblendBromine Antimony oxide free technology complies withBlue Angel and White Swan requirements and has a UL94flammability
ADVANCED PROCESS CONTROL FOR INJECTION MOLDING BASED ON CAVITY PRESSURE
Walter Michaeli , Andreas Schreiber, May 2008
The manufacturing of complex and high-grade molded parts in the injection molding process places high demands on the process control. Unlike the conventional control of the injection molding process which is based on machine variables the presented advanced process control system performs an online control of the quality determining process variable ‘cavity pressure’. In the holding pressure phase it conducts an online optimization of the process based on the pvT-behavior of the used plastic material. By this means an optimal course of the process in the pvT-diagram is realized in each production cycle and thus the quality constancy of the produced parts can be considerably increased.
ADVANCED PROCESS CONTROL FOR INJECTION MOLDING BASED ON CAVITY PRESSURE
Walter Michaeli , Andreas Schreiber, May 2008
The manufacturing of complex and high-grade molded parts in the injection molding process places high demands on the process control. Unlike the conventional control of the injection molding process, which is based on machine variables, the presented advanced process control system performs an online control of the quality determining process variable ƒ??cavity pressureƒ??. In the holding pressure phase it conducts an online optimization of the process based on the pvT-behavior of the used plastic material. By this means, an optimal course of the process in the pvT-diagram is realized in each production cycle and thus, the quality constancy of the produced parts can be considerably increased.
MODELLING THE NON-LINEAR VISCOELASTIC AND LOCALLY DISTRIBUTED MATERIAL BEHAVIOR OF SEMI-CRYSTALLINE THERMOPLASTICS
Walter Michaeli , Markus Brinkmann, May 2008
High simulation suitability can only be achieved by a precise modelling of the material properties. However the influencing factors on the non-linear viscoelastic mechanical properties of thermoplastics are numerous. Additionally injection-moulded parts exhibit inhomogeneous properties depending on their processing conditions. Semi-crystalline thermoplastic parts exhibit strong gradients in their inner properties. This paper describes an approach to include all these influencing factors by modelling the non-linear viscoelastic material behaviour and coupling injection-moulding simulation and structural analysis. This approach is evaluated by comparing simulation and test results.
MODELLING THE NON-LINEAR VISCOELASTIC AND LOCALLY DISTRIBUTED MATERIAL BEHAVIOR OF SEMI-CRYSTALLINE THERMOPLASTICS
Walter Michaeli , Markus Brinkmann, May 2008
High simulation suitability can only be achieved by a precise modelling of the material properties. However, the influencing factors on the non-linear viscoelastic mechanical properties of thermoplastics are numerous. Additionally, injection-moulded parts exhibit inhomogeneous properties depending on their processing conditions. Semi-crystalline thermoplastic parts exhibit strong gradients in their inner properties. This paper describes an approach to include all these influencing factors by modelling the non-linear viscoelastic material behaviour and coupling injection-moulding simulation and structural analysis. This approach is evaluated by comparing simulation and test results.
ECO-FRIENDLY FLAME RETARDANT POLYCARBONATE AND POLYESTER ALLOYS
XY Li , Mike Nyers , Rudiger Gorny , Jim Mason , Marie Urick , Marty Boykin, May 2008
Bayer MaterialScience has developed flame retardantalloys of polycarbonate and polyester. These productscontain no brominated or chlorinated flame retardants making them eco-friendly. To counter the adverse effectof flame retardants on the hydrolysis resistance ofPC/Polyester blends stabilization against hydrolysis ofthese products has been developed. Makroblend?ÿ?? EC100?ÿ?ÿ?? EC150 resin has?ÿa UL 94 V0 rating at 1.5 mm and 5VA at 2.3 mm it hasgood impact resistance at room temperature low specificoptical smoke density and passes the FAR 25.853a-60stest at 2.0 mm.and EC100HR resins have UL 94 V0 and 5VA ratings at3.0 mm with excellent low temperature impact resistanceand hydrolysis resistance. Makroblend
RESEARCH ON THE MICRO-EXTRUSION CHARACTERISTIC OF MINI-SCREW IN THE SCREW EXTRUDING SPRAY HEAD
Liu Bin , Xie Yi , Huang Xingxing , Feng Yanhong, May 2008
Based on hydrodynamics and melt conveying theory the micro-extrusion characteristics of mini-screw used in the screw extruding spray head of FDM were researched in detail in this paper. The research was about the relationship between extrusion production capacity and the main geometrical parameters of screw and barrel( the active length of screw the diameter of screw the helix angle the width of screw arris the depth of screw channel the clearance between screw and barrel etc) and the processing parameters such as screw speed the pressure of nozzle. Theoretical analysis was performed to find out the quantitative relationships between production capacity of extrusion and main parameters (the screw speed main geometrical size of screw the clearance between screw and barrel the pressure of nozzle etc) were found out so that the theoretical guidance on the design of spray head with screw could be provided.
RESEARCH ON THE MICRO-EXTRUSION CHARACTERISTIC OF MINI-SCREW IN THE SCREW EXTRUDING SPRAY HEAD
Liu Bin Xie , Yi Huang Xingxing , Feng Yanhong, May 2008
Based on hydrodynamics and melt conveying theory, the micro-extrusion characteristics of mini-screw used in the screw extruding spray head of FDM were researched in detail in this paper. The research was about the relationship between extrusion production capacity and the main geometrical parameters of screw and barrel (the active length of screw, the diameter of screw, the helix angle, the width of screw arris, the depth of screw channel, the clearance between screw and barrel, etc), and the processing parameters such as screw speed, the pressure of nozzle. Theoretical analysis was performed to find out the quantitative relationships between production capacity of extrusion and main parameters (the screw speed, main geometrical size of screw, the clearance between screw and barrel, the pressure of nozzle, etc) were found out so that the theoretical guidance on the design of spray head with screw could be provided.
EVALUATION OF DISPERSION CHARACTERISTICS OF POLYMER-CLAY NANOCOMPOSITES BY X-RAY DIFFRACTION MEASUREMENT AND MICROSCOPY
W. Michaeli , U. Klemradt , A. Elas , K. Berdel , D. Carmele, May 2008
Although polymer-clay nanocomposites have been investigated for a long time there are only few publications on the characterisation of the state of dispersion of clay in polymers. X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements and microscopy are usually applied. However results of both can easily be misinterpreted. Nanocomposites of clay and polypropylene are prepared. The state of dispersion is analysed by XRD optical and electron microscopy. XRD measurements show the effect of sample preparation and geometry and clay orientation on the results. Sample preparation also affects the results of microscopic analyses. These effects have to be considered when nanocomposites are analysed.
EVALUATION OF DISPERSION CHARACTERISTICS OF POLYMER-CLAY NANOCOMPOSITES BY X-RAY DIFFRACTION MEASUREMENT AND MICROSCOPY
W. Michaeli , U. Klemradt , A. Elas , K. Berdel , D. Carmele, May 2008
Although polymer-clay nanocomposites have been investigated for a long time, there are only few publications on the characterisation of the state of dispersion of clay in polymers. X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements and microscopy are usually applied. However, results of both can easily be misinterpreted.Nanocomposites of clay and polypropylene are prepared. The state of dispersion is analysed by XRD, optical and electron microscopy. XRD measurements show the effect of sample preparation and geometry, and clay orientation on the results. Sample preparation also affects the results of microscopic analyses. These effects have to be considered when nanocomposites are analysed.
MEASURING DISTINCTNESS OF IMAGE OF HIGH GLOSS SURFACES
Dieter P. Gruber , Michael Buder-Stroisznigg , Gernot Wallner , Bernhard Strauß , Lothar Jandel, May 2008
Human eye-apparatus notices varying distinctness of image (DOI) of glossy surfaces very accurately. Therefore high resolving measuring techniques are required. This paper aims on presenting the Intensity Profile Analysis (IPA), a novel methodology for the measurement of distinctness of surface reflected images. IPA enables measuring fine detail reproduction of glossy surfaces with good correlation to standard DOI measurements while featuring considerably enhanced preciseness. IPA is a non-contact technique and therefore applicable for uncured or hot surfaces.
FEASIBILITY STUDY OF THE USE OF DDGS PLASTIC COMPOSITES
David Grewell , Gowrishankar Srinivasan , Maria Baboi, May 2008
Recently, an increase in the demand for ethanol as a fuel additive has resulted in a dramatic increase in its coproducts namely distiller’s dried grains with solubles (DDGS). This work studied a composite of DDGS and conventional petrochemical plastics (polyvinyl chloride) for applications in windows construction. The goal was to characterize the composite and its processibility for “green” plastics. The experiments showed that DDGS can be effectively extruded with PVC; at low filler levels (5- 10%) of DDGs strengthening of the PVC was seen. However, higher filler levels (>10%) of DDGS degraded the mechanical properties of PVC/DDGS composites. Also, ground DDGS perform better as reinforcement agents compared to standard DDGS. Caustic pretreatment was also studied and it was found not to effect the mechanical properties significantly. Also, the addition of PVA had little effect on the properties of the composite.
TRANSFER OF TEMPLATE PATTERNED CARBON NANOTUBES TO A POLYMER SURFACE USING THE THERMOFORMING PROCESS
Arun Kumar , Ming Wei , Carol M. F. Barry , Stephen Orroth , Ahmed Busnaina , Joey Mead, May 2008
Carbon nanotubes (CNT’s) are of interest because of their high thermal, mechanical, and electrical properties. They are often combined with polymers to enhance the properties; however, it would be useful for a number of applications to incorporate the CNT’s in a patterned structure. In this work we investigate approaches to pattern the carbon nanotubes and transfer this pattern to a polymer substrate using thermoforming, a commercially relevant process. We have used electrophoretic deposition of multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) onto the circuits followed by transfer to a polyurethane film by thermoforming. The electronic circuit had a copper (Cu) wire with a width of 55 &m. MWCNT’s were deposited onto the copper wires using the electrophoresis method with direct current (DC) voltage. A novel mold design for the thermoforming process was developed, which has a removable insert to keep the patterned MWCNT circuit inside the mold. The thermoforming process parameters (temperature (heating time), forming time and vacuum) were optimized to obtain transfer of the patterned MWCNT’s to the polyurethane surface
Thermoplastic Film Adhesives for Rear Injection Molding
Dieter Rueger, September 2008
PowerPoint Presentation at ACCE 2008.
State-of-the-Art Fastening Technology in Thermoplastics and Thermosets
Joe Gobernatz, September 2008
PowerPoint Presentation at ACCE 2008.
Adhesives for Automotive Interiors
Dave Whitinger, September 2008
PowerPoint Presentation at ACCE 2008.


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ANTEC 2016 - Indianapolis, Indiana, USA May 23-25, 2016. [On-line].
Society of Plastics Engineers, ISBN: 123-0-1234567-8-9, pp. 000-000.
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