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The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.

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Conference Proceedings
NEW LOW GLOSS POLYCARBONATE BLENDS FOR AUTOMOTIVE APPLICATIONS
Marina Rogunova , Jim Mason , Robyn Francis, May 2008
Automotive original equipment manufacturers are consistently looking for low-gloss materials for interior applications that can stand up to years of wear and tear and environmental exposure yet maintain aesthetic quality without painting. Bayblend?? LGX 300 resin is specifically developed for automotive interior applications requiring a material that is inherently low in gloss with extra flowability, good weathering and good scratch and mar resistance. Another important attribute of Bayblend LGX 300 is its low-emission characteristic, which is particularly important as automotive manufacturers strive to reduce the levels of VOCs in their automobiles to improve the interior environment and meet federal regulations. Because LGX 300 resin is a low gloss, high-flow polycarbonate (PC) blend with good heat and impact performance; thin-wall part design can be achieved without painting.
INFRASTAKE – STAKING AT THE SPEED OF LIGHT
Scott Beute, May 2008
The practice of forming a molded stud or boss in order to retain another component is nothing new. Long ago engineers recognized the benefits of eliminating glue screws and other fasteners and as a result they developed several different methods of heat staking that have been around for quite some time. Against this backdrop a nonconventional staking process called InfraStake® a relatively new technology in the business has been developed. As the name suggests the energy source is infrared light and the heat transfer mode is radiation (the safe type!). The InfraStake module clamps the parts together heats the boss evenly with precisely directed infrared light and forms the plastic with a non-heated punch driven by a low-force pneumatic cylinder. Figure 1 shows a typical InfraStake module.
INFRASTAKE ƒ?? STAKING AT THE SPEED OF LIGHT
Scott Beute, May 2008
The practice of forming a molded stud or boss in order to retain another component is nothing new. Long ago, engineers recognized the benefits of eliminating glue, screws, and other fasteners, and as a result, they developed several different methods of heat staking that have been around for quite some time. Against this backdrop, a nonconventional staking processcalled InfraStake??, a relatively new technology in the business, has been developed. As the name suggests, the energy source is infrared light, and the heat transfer mode is radiation (the safe type!). The InfraStake module clamps the parts together, heats the boss evenly with precisely directed infrared light, and forms the plastic with a non-heated punch driven by a low-force pneumatic cylinder. Figure 1 shows a typical InfraStake module.
A NEW BLOWN FILM DIE FOR CONTROLLABLY FORMING AND EXTRUDING MICRO-LAYERS POLYMER BLENDS AND COMPOSITES
Mike L. Zumbrunnen , David A. Zumbrunnen, May 2008
The variety and quality of blown film products can be greatly increased if two or more polymer components can be arranged into structures other than a few or several layers or if much thinner and more numerous layers are formed. This paper describes a new blown film smart die in which polymer melts are stretched and folded recursively by chaotic advection. Melts become arranged into multi-layers of prescribed thickness and number. Films can have many dozens hundreds and even thousands of layers. Moreover the layers can transform if desired to give particular derivative blend morphologies such as microscopic sponge-like structures interconnected layers platelets or droplets. Solid particles can also be arranged into networks or oriented within discrete layers.
A NEW BLOWN FILM DIE FOR CONTROLLABLY FORMING AND EXTRUDING MICRO-LAYERS, POLYMER BLENDS AND COMPOSITES
Mike L. Zumbrunnen , David A. Zumbrunnen, May 2008
The variety and quality of blown film products can be greatly increased if two or more polymer components can be arranged into structures other than a few or several layers or if much thinner and more numerous layers are formed. This paper describes a new blown film smart die in which polymer melts are stretched and folded recursively by chaotic advection. Melts become arranged into multi-layers of prescribed thickness and number.Films can have many dozens, hundreds, and even thousands of layers. Moreover, the layers can transform if desired to give particular derivative blend morphologies such as microscopic sponge-like structures, interconnected layers, platelets, or droplets. Solid particles can also be arranged into networks or oriented within discrete layers.
INFLUENCE OF POLYPYRROLE ON ELECTRICAL CONDUCTIVITY OF INJECTION-THERMOPLASTIC-COMPOSITE BIPOLAR PLATES
Rungsima Yeetsorn , Michael Fowler , Costas Tzoganakis, May 2008
Thermoplastic composites are thought to be one of the most promising candidate materials to substitute for conventional materials in bipolar plates for PEM Fuel Cells but it is difficult to meet desirable conductivities when using thermoplastic composite plates while maintaining processability. In this regard introducing small amounts of polypyrrole to the composites enhances electrical conductivity of the composites. Experiments involved both ex-situ tests of bipolar plate materials and in-situ fuel cell tests. From results the conductivity of the material and fuel cell performance increased more than 5% by adding 1.8% of polypyrrole.
INFLUENCE OF POLYPYRROLE ON ELECTRICAL CONDUCTIVITY OF INJECTION-THERMOPLASTIC-COMPOSITE BIPOLAR PLATES
Rungsima Yeetsorn , Michael Fowler , Costas Tzoganakis, May 2008
Thermoplastic composites are thought to be one of the most promising candidate materials to substitute for conventional materials in bipolar plates for PEM Fuel Cells, but it is difficult to meet desirable conductivities when using thermoplastic composite plates while maintaining processability. In this regard, introducing small amounts of polypyrrole to the composites enhances electrical conductivity of the composites. Experiments involved both ex-situ tests of bipolar plate materials and in-situ fuel cell tests. From results, the conductivity of the material and fuel cell performance increased more than 5% by adding 1.8% of polypyrrole.
NEW DEVELOPMENTS IN HIGH-GLOSS MOLDED-IN-COLOR ENGINEERED POLYOLEFIN ALLOYS
Mitesh Shah , Kevin Cai , Marta Drewniak , Sudhir Bafna, May 2008
High-gloss molded-in-color (MIC) engineered polyolefin materials have been rapidly gaining acceptance in the automotive industry as an alternative to painted plastic. This is evidenced by the recent commercialization of INDURE® X-76 for exterior trim on the Ford F-250 platform. INDURE® X-76 offers excellent surface durability weatherability processability and part appearance while reducing total system costs. This paper reviews the performance attributes and applicability of this class of high-gloss engineered polymers focusing on new developments that extend the property and performance envelope. High-gloss molded-in-color (MIC) engineeredpolyolefin materials have been rapidly gaining acceptance in the automotive industry as an alternative to painted plastic. This is evidenced by the recent commercialization of INDURE ?? X-76 for exterior trim on the Ford F-250?ÿ platform. INDURE ?? X-76 offers excellent surface ?ÿ ?ÿdurability weatherability processability and part appearance while reducing total system costs. This paper reviews the performance attributes and applicability of this class of high-gloss engineered polymers focusing on new developments that extend the property and performance envelope.
EXTRUSION FOAMING OF HIGH-MELT-STRENGTH PP WITH SUPERCRITICAL CARBON DIOXIDE I: CELL NUCLEATION BEHAVIORS
Taher Azdast , Eung Kee Lee , Kyung-Min. Lee , Chul B. Park , Hani E. Naguib , Amir H. Behravesh , Elke Pachner , Andreas Praller, May 2008
This paper investigates the cell nucleation behaviors ofnon-crosslinked high-melt-strength (HMS) polypropylene (PP)foams blown with supercritical Carbon Dioxide (CO?ÿ2). Varying?ÿ?ÿ2. It was also observed that the effect of CO2on the cell density was more pronounced when low talc contentwas used?ÿ. Regardless of the amount of nucleating and blowing?ÿ?ÿ. It also appeared that?ÿthe die pressure did not affect the cell density significantly.agent the cell density was significantly improved by using a diewith a high pressure-drop-rate geometrythe talc and CO2 content changed the cell density. The effect ofdie pressure and pressure drop rate on cell nucleation behaviorsof HMS PP was also observed by using different die geometries.Three dies were deliberately designed to have either differentpressure drop rates while having the same die pressure or withdifferent die pressures while having same pressure drop rate.Experimental results indicated that regardless of the die theeffect of talc on the cell density was more significant at a lowconcentration of CO
RHEOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF LONG CHAIN BRANCHED POLYETHYLENE MELTS AT HIGH SHEAR RATE
Jaejwan Kim , Dong Hak Kim , Younggon Son, May 2008
Capillary extrusion experiments involving a number of polyethylenes with emphasis on assessing the effect of long chain branching are performed. None of the metallocene catalyzed linear low density polyethylenes (mLLDPE) produced by Dow Chemicals which are believed to have some level of long chain branching show temperature dependence on the viscosity at the gross melt fracture regime. Furthermore these materials do not show spurt or stick-slip flow in contrast with most linear polyethylenes. LDPE and blends of LDPE with linear polyethylenes also show the absence of stick-slip flow but temperature dependence on the viscosity. From these observations we conclude that the stick-slip flow is very sensitive to the existence of long chain branching and the behavior of the stick-slip flow can be used as an indicator of LCB.
RHEOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF LONG CHAIN BRANCHED POLYETHYLENE MELTS AT HIGH SHEAR
Jaejwan Kim , Dong Hak Kim , Younggon Son, May 2008
Capillary extrusion experiments involving a number of polyethylenes with emphasis on assessing the effect of long chain branching are performed. None of the metallocene catalyzed linear low density polyethylenes (mLLDPE) produced by Dow Chemicals, which are believed to have some level of long chain branching, show temperature dependence on the viscosity at the gross melt fracture regime. Furthermore, these materials do not show spurt or stick-slip flow, in contrast with most linear polyethylenes. LDPE and blends of LDPE with linear polyethylenes also show the absence of stick-slip flow, but temperature dependence on the viscosity. From these observations, we conclude that the stick-slip flow is very sensitive to the existence of long chain branching, and the behavior of the stick-slip flow can be used as an indicator of LCB.
SIMULATION OF SCREWS FOR INJECTION MOLDING
Dr. Jiri Vlcek , Luke Miller , CT Huang, May 2008
This paper deals with the simulation of the plastification unit (extruder) for the injection molding process. It shows the theory and how the method of simulation of an extruder for the extrusion process is modified to cover the effects in injection molding mainly the facts that the screw stops rotating for a certain time and it moves backward while rotating and melting the polymer. To see the quality of the prediction of such a modified program a set of experiments was performed. A comparison of the results of these experiments with the program prediction will be shown. The presentation will also cover the most important variables to be checked for achieving good melt delivery performance in the injection molding process.
SIMULATION OF SCREWS FOR INJECTION MOLDING
Dr. Jiri Vlcek , Luke Miller , CT Huang, May 2008
This paper deals with the simulation of the plastification unit (extruder) for the injection molding process. It shows the theory and how the method of simulation of an extruder for the extrusion process is modified to cover the effects in injection molding, mainly the facts that the screw stops rotating for a certain time and it moves backward while rotating and melting the polymer. To see the quality of the prediction of such a modified program, a set of experiments was performed. A comparison of the results of these experiments with the program prediction will be shown. The presentation will also cover the most important variables to be checked for achieving good melt delivery performance in the injection molding process.
AN ESTIMATE OF LONG SERVICE TERM FOR GRP PRODUCTS
Valery G. Makarov , Rakhil M. Sinelnikova, May 2008
The long service term of GRP products such as technological pipes ducts scrubbers etc. is determined by the chemically resistant layer of multilayered fiberglass which is in direct contact with the technological environment. The diffusion of technological medium into the structure of the GRP leads to a change in the dielectric properties of the material. These changes can be used to predict the long service term of GRP products under the influence of technological environment. The ability to predict the residual life period of GRP products and results of the pipe operation with the partially damage of the chemical resistant layer under conditions of the sulfuric acid production are considered.
AN ESTIMATE OF LONG SERVICE TERM FOR GRP PRODUCTS
Valery G. Makarov , Rakhil M. Sinelnikova, May 2008
The long service term of GRP products such as technological pipes, ducts, scrubbers, etc. is determined by the chemically resistant layer of multilayered fiberglass, which is in direct contact with the technological environment. The diffusion of technological medium into the structure of the GRP leads to a change in the dielectric properties of the material. These changes can be used to predict the long service term of GRP products under the influence of technological environment. The ability to predict the residual life period of GRP products and results of the pipe operation with the partially damage of the chemical resistant layer under conditions of the sulfuric acid production are considered.
BENEFITS OF AN ENERGY USAGE INDICATOR FOR INJECTION MOLDING SIMULATION
Paul Brincat , Russell Speight, May 2008
With growing concern regarding our environmental impact greater focus has been placed on ways we can reduce our impact by improving our decisions designs and processes. The use of injection molding simulation has been shown to reduce material consumption reduce production scrap assist in recycling existing materials create better quality products that have a prolonged life and reduce energy consumption required during the manufacturing process. This paper will present the benefits of an additional measure called an Energy Usage Indicator that can assist part designers using injection molding simulation to easily identify the processing requirements of a polymer material.
BENEFITS OF AN ENERGY USAGE INDICATOR FOR INJECTION MOLDING SIMULATION
Paul Brincat , Russell Speight, May 2008
With growing concern regarding our environmental impact, greater focus has been placed on ways we can reduce our impact by improving our decisions, designs and processes. The use of injection molding simulation has been shown to reduce material consumption, reduce production scrap, assist in recycling existing materials, create better quality products that have a prolonged life and reduce energy consumption required during the manufacturing process. This paper will present the benefits of an additional measure, called an Energy Usage Indicator, that can assist part designers using injection molding simulation to easily identify the processing requirements of a polymer material.
RHEOLOGY AND STRUCTURE OF FILLED PROPYLENE/ETHYLENE COPOLYMERS
Paula Wood-Adams , Arkady Fatseyeu , Cheng Huang , Teresa Karjala , Patricia Ansems, May 2008
We have studied a new family of propylene/ethylene(P/E) copolymers produced by The Dow ChemicalCompany which allow high filler loadings whilemaintaining good processability. Our goal was to providea fundamental understanding of the unexpectedly lowviscosity exhibited by these materials when filled withparticulates. We propose that in these copolymers interfacial slip (between the particles and the polymermelt) is enhanced by the presence of a thin layer of lowviscosity polymer around the particles. The formation ofthis layer is surface tension driven and can occur insystems such as these copolymers which are homogeneousin the bulk. Such behaviour has been observed with blockcopolymersand blends; this study is the first time it hasbeen observed in an industrial copolymer of this type.
ITERATIVE LEARNING CONTROL OF MOLD-OPEN POSITION IN INJECTION MOLDING
S. Y. Mo , Y. Yang , F. Gao, May 2008
Mold-open position (MOP) is an important variable in the injection molding machine (IMM) control system. A precise control of mold open position can improve the process stability. This paper demonstrates that the variation of mold-open offset which is the key problem in moldopen positioning. Iterative learning estimator (ILE) is used in batch direction to estimate this offset. To guarantee the repeatability of this offset an Iterative Learning Control (ILC) scheme is applied to control the mold-open velocity to achieve a relatively low and stable value around the end of mold-open. The control result shows that the combined system of ILE and ILC can obtain precise MOP.
ITERATIVE LEARNING CONTROL OF MOLD-OPEN POSITION IN INJECTION MOLDING
S. Y. Mo , Y. Yang , F. Gao, May 2008
Mold-open position (MOP) is an important variable in the injection molding machine (IMM) control system. A precise control of mold open position can improve the process stability. This paper demonstrates that the variation of mold-open offset, which is the key problem in moldopen positioning. Iterative learning estimator (ILE) is used in batch direction to estimate this offset. To guarantee the repeatability of this offset, an Iterative Learning Control (ILC) scheme is applied to control the mold-open velocity to achieve a relatively low and stable value around the end of mold-open. The control result shows that the combined system of ILE and ILC can obtain precise MOP.


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