The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.
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Unexpected and Unusual Failures of Polymeric Materials
Some failures are predictable, such as due to exposure to environmental conditions. In this paper the focus is on failures that there was no reason to expect. While they may become obvious, they are unpredictable. Some are unusual, involving a cause and effect on the plastic that are not obvious. Examples are cracking of nitrile rubber, contamination of GPC samples by a filter syringe, and PVC plasticizer used for many years being declared unsafe.
Fighting the Flow - How Predicting the Way Plastic Moves Saved Us Money
Over the past seven years Symbol Technologies, Inc. has been using a tool that helps to make plastic housings faster, better and cheaper: FEA analysis of the molding process. This paper details a number of examples where Symbol has used this technology to save money.
WEEE and RoHS - Environmental Design Strategies
Tough new environmental laws are rapidly spreading around the world that directly impact product design. Failure to heed them will result in lost revenue and increase the cost of doing business. This paper explains what they are and details essential strategies for dealing with them.
Selecting Equipment to Minimize Production Costs and Maximize Profitability
Specifying and installing the proper equipment for a process is key to minimizing the long-term cost of producing products. But often the objective to purchasing equipment is to minimize the initial capital cost. Minimizing this initial purchase cost, however, may require the purchaser to add costly modifications to the line after installation, creating higher operating costs, length troubleshooting, and a delay to market entry. Principals and strategies are presented here that show how to avoid this mistake, and case studies are provided as learning tools.
The Effects of Electron Beam Cured Coatings on Polymer Substrates
Performance of two co-extruded and two metallized polypropylene films with EB-cured coatings were studied to determine whether any changes occurred because of the coating and curing process. Selected mechanical properties showed some statistically significant but relatively small differences between the control (uncoated and uncured) and treated (coated and cured) films.
Rheology and Properties of Linear and Branched Polypropylene Blends
The rheological, thermal and mechanical properties of linear and branched polypropylene blends with varying melt flow rates are characterized. These blends are miscible in the melt state and have high melt elasticity while retaining good flow and mechanical properties.
Dispersed Nanoclay in GFRP as a Barrier Against Environmental Attack
E-glass fiber-reinforced vinyl ester plastics with up to 5 wt% montmorillonite dispersed in the matrix were immersed in distilled water for nine weeks. At one week intervals, samples were removed and sectioned, both perpendicular and parallel to the fiber direction. Scanning electron microscopy revealed progressive degradation of the matrix and the glass reinforcement. However, the rate of moisture attack decreased with increasing amount of dispersed clay; this was confirmed by strength, stiffness and ductility measurements.
Recycling of Latex Based Paint as Polymer Feedstock Materials
This work investigates the recycling of used latex paints into non-paint products. Waste latex paint was collected, dried, and prepared for mixing as polymer feedstock. This feedstock was melt-blended with high-density polyethylene (HDPE) and polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) at various composition ratios by injection molding. Tensile mechanical properties and thermal properties of paint/HDPE and paint/PMMA polymer blends were determined. Thermal analysis revealed that these blends are immiscible.
Mechanical Properties and Morphology of PP and TPO / Nanosilica Nanocomposites
Nanosilica (SiO2) was used as a reinforcing filler in PP and PP/elastomer (TPO) blends. The partitioning of SiO2 in each polymer phase and its relation to reinforcement was investigated. SiO2 partitioned preferentially in the PP phase, when maleated PP was used as a compatibilizer. A separated morphology, where SiO2 resides in the PP phase, is required to achieve efficient reinforcement.
Challenges to the Formation of Nano-Cells in Foaming Processes
This paper implements a finite element analysis to track the morphological changes of nano-sized cells in a finite PS/CO2 system. The effects of the initial bulk gas concentration, cell size, intercellular distance, and gas diffusion coefficient on cell ripening are examined. Challenges to the formation of nano-cells in polymeric foaming processes are analyzed.
Simulation Analysis of SMD LED
Surface mount device light emitting diode (SMD LED), requiring the criteria of low weight and small size, is the most important basic components of 3C products. In this paper, MPI software is used to simulate the injection molding of SMD LED and overcome the short shot due to the runners unbalance from the preliminary design. The results show that the decreasing of filling time and the changing of runner size can effectively improve this short shot behavior.
Lubrication, Single Screw Extrusion Rates and Plasticizer Structure in Flexible PVC Compounds
It is well established that changes in plasticizer structure affect (among other things) flexible PVC compounds' melting temperatures, melt viscosities and lubrication. In turn, these properties affect the extrudability of PVC compounds. The current study looks at the effects of plasticizer structure on PVC compounds' lubrication, melt viscosities, extrusion rates, stock temperatures and shear rates in a single screw extrusion process.
Polyethylene/Polyethylene Ionomer-Based Nanocomposites
Polyethylene-based nanocomposites containing onium ion-exchanged clay (NR4+-MM) and nanosilica (SiO2) were prepared by melt compounding a polyampholyte derivative of maleated polyethylene (PE-g-PA) with high density polyethylene (HDPE). Depending on the amount of the PE-g-PA in the blend, this approach can generate composites with a high degree of NR4+-MM exfoliation and good SiO2 dispersion.
The Effect of Biaxial Orientation Processing Conditions on Immiscible Polymer Blended Sheet
The effect of simultaneous biaxial orientation processing conditions upon the thermal and morphological properties of PS/HDPE and PC/PMMA immiscible polymer blended sheet samples is investigated by singly varying the draw rate and draw range. Bi-component blends were melt-blended by twin screw extrusion at composition ratios selected to result in dual phase, cocontinuous structures. Findings from this work will be applied to a future study of these blended sheet samples as gas separation membranes.
Modification of Polymers by Ionizing Radiation: A Review
Ionizing radiation (gamma rays and electron beam radiation) is widely used in science, technology and medicine. The primary effect of ionizing radiation is based on its ability to excite and ionize molecules, which leads ultimately to the formation of free radicals. Free radicals then can initiate a variety of reactions. In the field of polymers this includes polymerization, cross-linking, grafting and degradation. This contribution is discussing such processes and their practical applications in some detail.
Formability of Solid-State Microcellular Polycarbonate with Varying Levels of Absorbed Carbon Dioxide
Tensile tests were conducted on virgin polycarbonate (PC), PC saturated with CO2, and microcellular PC with varying concentrations of gas, with a particular focus on the strength, ductility, and the strain to failure of these materials. It was found that the ductility of gas-saturated PC exceeded that of the virgin material; while microcellular PC still containing gas exhibited the highest ductility. Thus, the presence of dissolved CO2 could provide significant assistance in the deformation processing of PC and microcellular PC.
Harnessing Molecular Forces to Exfoliate Clay in Thermoset Systems
Layered silicate PMR-15 polyimide nanocomposites are being developed for high-performance aerospace applications. The goal is to achieve full exfoliation under quiescent conditions using a novel approach, whereby intra- and extra-gallery modulus and viscosity are engineered to result in a net force pushing clay layers apart during cure. The current study explores treatment of clay with reactive surfactants which are thermally stable and participate in crosslinking with PMR resin, providing higher thermo-oxidative stability than possible with current technologies.
Chemical and Engineering Issues in Polymer Nanocomposites Design
The field of polymer nanocomposites has reached a certain level of maturity and we are in a position to design a number of polymer nanocomposite products to deliver certain desired properties. In this paper, two examples are presented where basic engineering principles are applied to design nanocomposite products of thermoplastic polyurethanes and blends of polyamide 6 and polypropylene.
Parametric Study on Scratch Behavior of Polymers
The effect of material and surface properties of polypropylene (PP) on scratch behavior were discussed by parametric studies using finite element analysis (FEA). Two different loading conditions were examined. It is found that Poisson's ratio has a negligible effect on scratch performance. Increasing yield stress and reducing coefficient of adhesive friction are important ways to positively affect the scratch performance of polymer. However, increasing the Young's modulus does not necessarily improve scratch performance.
Particulate Fillers on Morphology Development in Chaotic Mixing
The influence of particulate fillers such as carbon black and layered silicate clay on morphology development in chaotic mixing of immiscible polymers was studied and results compared with those of a wellknown compatibilizer. The formation of much smaller droplets in the presence of fillers was explained using reduced interfacial tension and rapid thinning of lamellas and fibrils in chaotic mixing.
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