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The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.

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Conference Proceedings
Analysis of Weld Seam Quality for Laser Transmission Welding of Thermoplastics Based on Fluid Dynamical Processes
Mireia Fargas, Lars Wilke, Oliver Meier, Helmut Potente, May 2007
Even though laser transmission welding (LTW) has already been implemented in industrial production, there are still process limitations rendering it uncompetitive with conventional processes and preventing its reaching full potential. The influence of the key process parameters and their interdependence is still not completely understood. This understanding is a condition for the optimization of the weld joint along with a more detailed theoretical description of the thermo-physical processes involved. This paper will present the results of an on-line detection method, the correlation to the mechanical properties and the FEA simulation, as well as possible approaches for overcoming existing limitations.
Structure-Property Investigation of Novel Multi-Layer Nanoclay Composites Formed Controllably with a Continuous Chaotic Blender
C. Mahesha, D.A. Zumbrunnen, D. Ratnaweera, D. Perahia, M.C. Kampf, May 2007
A continuous chaotic blender (CCB) has been used in prior work to controllably form a variety of polymer blend morphologies and arrange solid additives into networks. Low permeation films, electrically conducting plastics, and toughened plastics are examples of materials produced. In this study, initial property measurements are presented for extruded nanocomposite films having platelets localized and oriented within numerous discrete layers. The films have hierarchical internal structures and multiple nano-scales. The relation of barrier properties to structure is investigated by using the controlled in situ structuring capabilities of CCBs. Internal structure, crystalline morphology, degree of crystallinity, and oxygen permeation are presented.
Diffusivity Measurement of a Hydrophilic Migratory Additive in IPP Films
Siqiang Zhu, Noah Welsh, Douglas E. Hirt, May 2007
This paper describes the measurement of the diffusivity of a commercial hydrophilic additive, Irgasurf HL560, in polypropylene (PP) films at different temperatures. The model used was a standard 1-D diffusion model, in which the film weight was expressed as a function of time as the additive concentration at the film surface was kept at zero at all times. Experimentally, two cases were compared: 1. washing additive off the film with limited contact with the solvent; 2. immersing the film in solvent with continuous stirring. The effect of solvent diffusion into PP film was evaluated by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). In both cases, film weight was measured after completely drying the film. Diffusivity was calculated by fitting experimental data to the mathematical model. Activation energy was obtained through the plot of diffusivities at different temperatures.
Functionally Graded Shape Memory Polymer
Kyung Min Lee, Patrick T. Mather, May 2007
In this paper, we present a new concept in for shape memory polymers (SMPs): functionally graded SMP. To make such a material, a commercially available UV curable polymer, NOA63, was cured by high intensity ultraviolet irradiation for various reaction times ranging from 5 min to 3.5 hours. The photo-cured NOA63 samples were characterized using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA), and optical microscopy (OM) in order to investigate the high quality of shape fixing and recovery. The glass transition temperature was precisely controlled by varying the UV exposure time, resulting in NOA63 having Tg from 30 °C to 47 °C. DMA measurements for NOA63 revealed increasing tensile storage modulus with increasing crosslink density. A NOA63 sample was photo-cured in a spatially graded fashion, with different exposure times at different positions on for the same sample, demonstrating the possible usage of an optical temperature sensor or medical devices. Bulk and surface shape memory responses were investigated, revealing high quality shape fixing and recovery.
Weldability Evaluation on Effects of Filler Content of Polypropylene Copolymers for the Electromagnetic Welding Process
Joon Park, Brendon Au, Jon Esposito, Duane Lewis, C.K. Yoon, May 2007
The weldability using the electromagnetic process has been evaluated for different grades of polypropylene copolymers being used for automotive and domestic applications. As previous publications [1 – 2] have revealed, the electromagnetic welding process has demonstrated its robustness on various resins and applications.In this paper, comparative study between the vibration welding process and the electromagnetic welding process has been performed to evaluate effects of filler (talc and glass) content on weldability for polypropylene copolymers.Extensive DOE procedures to optimize the vibration welding process and electromagnetic welding process have been performed. In Ref. [3], a definition of weldability for the material has been suggested. For more conclusive evaluation, both welding strength and failure modes of the welded plaques need to be investigated. The same definition for weldability has been used for this study.In this study, it has been found that talc and glass content adversely affects weldability, while the electromagnetic welding process showed slightly better performance in welding strengths.
Recent Developments in Infrared Weld Technology
Robert Cunningham, Ken Sanborn, May 2007
This paper will present new developments in equipment and product in the field of Infrared Welding. These developments are a significant improvement over hot plate technologies and allow infrared welding to compete with other welding techniques at a lower cost for equipment and tooling. Recent developments in Polyamide materials allow one major headache associated with infrared welding of polyamides to be reduced. The paper will cover possible uses, advantages and design considerations. The overall benefit for the industry is to allow welding of a high strength high heat material in smaller production runs and for applications that use processes other than injection molding or non-glass reinforced grades which can present welding issues for other welding techniques.
Birefringence, Anisotropic Shrinkage and Luminance in Light Guide Plates: Modeling and Experiment
A.I. Isayev, T.H. Lin, May 2007
The frozen-in birefringence and anisotropic shrinkage of an injection molded light-guide plate (LGP) was simulated using a combination of a CV/FEM/FDM technique, a nonlinear viscoelastic constitutive equation and orientation functions. Various moldings were prepared from two optical grade polycarbonates (PC) and all of the components of birefringence along with shrinkages in the length, width and thickness were measured. The numerical results have been compared with experimental measurements at various processing conditions. The luminance of LGP moldings were found to be strongly dependent on processing conditions.
PA 12: A Manufacturer's Perspective
Ken Egnor, David Jordan, May 2007
Continental Industries has supplied mechanical fittings to the natural gas distribution industry since 1960. In 1969, we developed a complete plastic piping system that included polyethylene pipe, fusion fittings, and mechanical fittings. Continental Industries no longer produces polyethylene pipe but we have become the market leader for mechanical fittings. The original mechanical fittings were molded from PVC but now, fittings molded from PA 11 are much more common. Continental has used PA 11 since 1995 and we have supplied PA 11 fittings for PA 11 piping systems operating at pressures up to 200 psig. Due to the success of PA 11, and the high cost to install and maintain steel piping systems, several manufacturers of PA 12 are entering the market. Continental has sampled PA 12 resins from four manufacturers to determine how the product compares to PA 11. Our main concerns are availability, process capability and performance of the mechanical fitting. This paper will provide information on Continental's mechanical fittings, test methods, code requirements and the results of our PA 12 evaluation.
Effect of Inclusion Size and Location on PE Pipe Lifetime
Byoung-Ho Choi, Alexander Chudnovsky, Kalyan Sehanobish, May 2007
Understanding the slow crack growth (SCG) in engineering materials is very important for the prediction of the lifetime of structures. There are many empirical and theoretical approaches to modeling of SCG. However, there are many factors controlling SCG and structural lifetime such as, as basic material properties, residual stresses, the size and location of the crack origin, the load level and rate, temperature, structure geometry, and so on. Therefore, for engineering plastics it is difficult to predict, the SCG behavior on phenomenological ground. Understanding of fracture mechanism(s), and employment of fundamental science in modeling is required in studies of SCG. In this paper, the numerical algorithm and analysis of SCG is proposed based on Crack Layer (CL) theory. In addition, the time of SCG in HDPE pipe is modeled and compared with experimental data for various stress level. The effect of the crack origin (inclusion) size and location on the lifetime of PE pipes is analyzed using the numerical technique.
Laser Writable Polymers: Markability and Durability Characteristics
Satya Meruva, Michael Barker, May 2007
Generating a durable high contrast laser mark on dark coloured polymers has long been an issue. Various ABS compounds were produced with different additives. The compounds were laser marked using a 1064nm Nd:YAG laser at different power and frequency settings. One aspect of durability analysis, namely wear testing, was carried out using a purpose built scrub tester. The mechanisms of marking were also investigated using both light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Results indicate a clear necessity to obtain optimum values for laser power and frequency, in order to achieve a high contrast and durable mark.
The Marriage of Packaging and Biomaterials. Present and Future
Rafael Auras, May 2007
Containers and packaging represent 32% of solid waste in the USA. Around 65% of this amount is derived from biobased materials such as paper, paperboard and wood, and the rest is composed of glass, metal and plastic. Glass and metal are abundant. Plastics in contrast are mainly obtained from scarce petroleum resources. Therefore, there is much interest in the production of biopolymers obtained from biobased resources, which are forecasted to reduce petroleum dependence. This article provides an overview of the current development and use of biopolymers in packaging applications, and examines their sustainability. It presents a cradle to cradle analysis and the current regulation of these materials.
Continuous Dispersion of Carbon Nanotubes in Polymers Using Ultrasound Assisted Extrusion Process
Rishi Kumar, Todd Lewis, Avraam I. Isayev, May 2007
The unique morphology and strong intertube attraction between carbon nanotubes (CNTs) makes the dispersion of CNTs a big challenge and hence limits its effective use. A novel method for the continuous dispersion of carbon nanotubes in a polymer matrix for manufacturing high performance nanocomposites was developed using an ultrasonically assisted twin screw extrusion process. The effect of ultrasound on die pressure, electrical conductivity, rheological, morphological and mechanical properties of polyetherimide filled with 1-10 wt% MWNT was studied. Ultrasonic treatment caused a reduction in die pressure with a permanent increase of viscosity of treated samples.
A Feasibility Study for Sub-100 Nm Polymer Injection Molding
Aleksandar K. Angelov, John P. Coulter, May 2007
In this work, silicon mold manufacturing is considered to evaluate polymer replication at the nanoscale. The molds are made via e-beam lithography and deep reactive ion etching. Amorphous cyclic olefin copolymer is processed with optimized molding conditions. Characterization of the molds and replicas is carried out with atomic-force and scanning-electron microscopy. We find that the dose exposure is a critical parameter to observe for proper exposure of the mask and that low surface energy plasma polymerized films can be utilized as anti-adhesion layer during injection micro/nano-molding. We have fabricated structured molds and replicated features as small as 55 nm. We also demonstrate that the resolution of injection molded COC products is at least 5 nm.
Effect of Die Land Length on Die Pressure during Foam Extrusion – Part I Experimental Observations
Jing Wang, Chul B. Park, David F. James, May 2007
Entrance pressures are determined experimentally for foam extrusion dies of constant cross section. These pressures are affected by the rheological properties of the polymer matrix, by the plasticizing effect of the blowing agent, and by the cell nucleation and growth. While the pressures change linearly with die land length during extrusion of pure polymer, this relation becomes nonlinear during extrusion of polymer/blowing agent mixtures. It is found that the degree of nonlinearity depends on the amount of premature cell growth and by the processing conditions, including temperature, pressure drop rate, and blowing agent content.
A Finite Element Model of Non-Isothermal Viscoelastic Flow in the Cast Film Process
Christopher Cox, James B. von Oehsen, May 2007
The goal of this work is to develop a model which accurately predicts variation in shape, temperature, stress, velocity, and ultimately structure for a polymer cast film between the slit die and the chill role. The mathematical model is similar to that used in the work of Sollogoub, et al. (Jrnl. non-Newtonian Fl. Mech., 2006). Our approach varies from that effort in the treatment of the free surface and the choice of viscoelastic constitutive model. After describing the mathematical model and the solution procedure, comparisons of simulation results with previous results will be provided.
Processibility and End-Use Properties of Polypropylene Clarified by a High Efficiency Clarifier
Ralph D. Maier, David Hild, P. Magnus Kristiansen, Wiebke Wunderlich, May 2007
Since the mid 1980's, clear polypropylene (cPP) has been available, mainly on account of sorbitol-based clarifiers. Recently, a novel, high efficiency clarifier, based on a new chemistry platform, has become commercially available. The weaknesses of the sorbitols, such as low thermal and chemical stabilities, have been overcome while the requirements for a melt sensitive clarifier are maintained. The high efficacy and thermal and chemical stabilities of the high efficiency clarifier provide advantages with regard to melt processibility and end-use properties of cPP.
Synergistic Biodegradable and Bio-Based Blends and Nanocomposites Created Using Pulverization
Amanda M. Walker, Ying Tao, John M. Torkelson, May 2007
Well-dispersed biodegradable and bio-based blends and nanocomposites have been successfully created by solid-state shear pulverization. Pulverization of granular starch and polyethylene (PE) resulted in damaged starch granules. This altered granule morphology led to improved oxygen barrier properties and tensile modulus in PE/starch blends. High levels of dispersion were also achieved in polymer/clay nanocomposites using poly(caprolactone) as the matrix. Varying levels of clay exfoliation were achieved by altering processing conditions during pulverization. These materials also had improved barrier properties.
Isoconversion Analysis of the Glass Transition
Prashanth Badrinarayanan, Wei Zheng, Sindee L. Simon, May 2007
Various aspects of the glass transition kinetics have been well described by phenomenological models of the glass transition, such as the TNM and KAHR model. An important assumption in these models is that the apparent activation energy, which describes the temperature dependence of the relaxation time, does not vary through the glass transition process. Some recent reports suggest that the activation energy decreases significantly from the glassy to the liquid state. In this work we apply an isoconversion analysis to data in the glass transition region which was obtained on cooling from capillary dilatometry and from differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) in order to determine whether the apparent activation energy changes through the glass transition.
Process Selection for Microfluidic Device Manufacturing
Aaron D. Mazzeo, Matthew Dirckx, David E. Hardt, May 2007
The emerging demand for microfluidic devices is driving decisions for product and manufacturing development. Three potential categories for microfluidic device manufacturing are hot embossing, injection molding, and liquid resin molding. We review the first two, along with two sub-categories of liquid resin molding: polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) casting and UV embossing. We address the processes' strengths and weaknesses with respect to cost, material selection, tooling, temperature requirements, pressure requirements, feature sizes, aspect ratios, and rates. Based on the strengths, weaknesses, and processing parameters of these four micro replication techniques, we provide a table to aid in proper process selection.
Effect of Multiple Shear Histories on Rheological Behavior and Devolatilization of Poly(Ether Ether Ketone)
Jeffrey Galloway, Richard Hoffman, Sanjiv Bhatt, May 2007
The effect of shear history on the properties of poly(ether ether ketone) (PEEK) was investigated by processing it through a twin screw extruder 20 times. Samples were taken at various stages in the recycling sequence for testing. The melt rheological behavior, solid mechanical properties, and total outgassing performance were monitored to evaluate the degradation of the PEEK as a function of processing history.The results of rheological testing suggest that degradation is initially dominated by chain scission with cross-linking becoming more significant with more reprocessing cycles. The rheological and mechanical behavior shows similarities to liquid crystalline polymers and filled polymer systems. The results of outgassing testing showed that the total amount of volatiles decreased with increasing processing cycles.


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