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The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.

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Conference Proceedings
GENERATION OF EXPERIMENTAL POLYMER STRUCTURE-PROPERTY DATA USING COMBINATORIAL AND HIGH THROUGHPUT METHODS
Dean C. Webster, May 2008
Polymers can have a large variety of compositions molecular weights molecular weight distributions monomer sequence distributions chain topologies (architectures) and so on; all of which may influence performance properties. Due to the large number of variables and possible compositions it is difficult to predict performance and determining structure-property relationships relies on experimentation. However conducting the experiments is a tedious and time-consuming process so only limited numbers of samples are prepared and evaluated in most studies. Thus a comprehensive picture of the structure-property relationships in most systems is not achieved. The combinatorial and high throughput approach seeks to address this situation by enabling the rapid synthesis and evaluation of a large number of materials in a single experiment.Methods have been developed for the parallel synthesis of polymers having systematic variation in composition and screening of those materials for their key properties such as modulus molecular weight surface properties etc. Analysis of the resulting data can result in the determination of structure-property relationships.
TRANSPARENT ABS ; SIMULATION APPROACHES TO THE COMPOSITION CONTROL
Joong-In Kim, May 2008
Todays talk will cover the composition simulation and the composition control technique developed from the ƒ??classicalƒ? copolymer composition equation and show the industrial application example transparent ABS.Because ABS(Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene) is composed of particular rubber dispersion and matrix it is very important to match the refractive indices of both phases when we make it transparent. In order to match the refractive indices of dispersed and matrix phase Methyl methacrylate is generally incorporated with styrene and acrylonitrile and polymerized to the matrix phase. The composition of the matrix phase directly affects the refractive index of the matrix phase and consequently influences on the optical properties like haze and total transmittance thus composition control technique is needed to make the high-quality transparent ABS products.
MULTIWALLED CARBON NANOTUBES (MWNTs) SURFACE MODIFICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF FLUOROELASTOMER/MWNT COMPOSITES
V. Sridhar , Thanh Tu Pham , Kwang-Jea Kim , Jin Kuk Kim, May 2008
Multi walled carbon nanotubes(MWNTs) surface are modified with acids and the preparation and properties of MWNT reinforced fluoroelastomer composites using a solution technique are reported. The dispersion and morphology of the nanotubes in the polymer matrix are studied by XRD SEM and TEM. Significant improvements in performance characteristics like modulus and tensile strength have been attained even at low loadings of filler. A 'cross hatched pattern' is observed. The increase in decomposition temperature with increase in MWNT loadings is observed due to the antioxidant nature of nanotubes. The effect of increasingMWNT concentrations on dynamic mechanical property(loss tangent) has also been studied.
VOLATILE EXTRACTIVES EFFECTS ON INTERFACIAL ADHESION OF PINE WOOD FILLED PP COMPOUNDS
Kwang-Jea Kim , Sughun Bumm , James L. White, May 2008
Effects of volatile extractives existing in pine wood (PW) particles on polypropylene (PP)/PW compounds are investigated upon interfacial adhesion nucleation behavior and mechanical properties. Results indicate as the concentration of the PW particles is increased the modulus is increased; however the crystalline peak temperature is increased melting peak temperature is decreased and the tensile yield stress is decreased. Few spherulites are locally developed at the interface between the PW and the PP. The amounts of volatile extractives in the PW are increased as the PW concentrations are increased.
MECHANICAL AND THERMAL ANALYSES OF DIFFERENT LOTS OF FILM MADE FROM THERMOFORMABLE GLYCOL MODIFIED POLYETHYLENE TEREPHTHALATE (PETG)
T.P. O’Brien , G.M. McNally , W.R. Murphy , B.G. Millar, May 2008
Glycol modified polyethylene terephthalate (PETG) is a clear tough thermoplastic material suitable for ethylene oxide and gamma ray sterilization and is an excellent heat- seal substrate. While PETG has been proven to have good thermoformability mechanical performance can be suspect particularly in medical packaging applications.Batch properties of PETG were assessed through differential scanning calorimetry dynamic mechanical and thermal analysis and uniaxial tensile testing. Results demonstrate how properties can vary significantly to the detriment of intended function.
STRUCTURAL STRENGTH OF BLOW MOULDED PET BOTTLE USING MICROWAVE PRE-HEATED PREFORMS
D.U. Erbulut , S. Vasa , S.H. Masood , Kelvin Davies, May 2008
This paper presents an investigation on injection stretch blow moulding (ISBM) of PET bottles which are heated using microwave (MW) ovens instead of infrared lamps. Comparative simulation studies are carried out on structural strength of PET bottles obtained from three performs heated with different power outputs of microwave along with a preform heated conventionally under different process conditions. The comparisons between microwave and infrared heating were carried out to study the structural strength of the bottle under top loading and pressure conditions using ANSYS simulation software. Results indicate the range of microwave power output to be used for better strength of blow moulded bottles.
STRUCTURAL STRENGTH OF BLOW MOULDED PET BOTTLE USING MICROWAVE PRE-HEATED PREFORMS
D.U. Erbulut , S. Vasa , S.H. Masood , Kelvin Davies, May 2008
This paper presents an investigation on injection stretch blow moulding (ISBM) of PET bottles which are heated using microwave (MW) ovens instead of infrared lamps. Comparative simulation studies are carried out on structural strength of PET bottles obtained from three performs heated with different power outputs of microwave along with a preform heated conventionally under different process conditions. The comparisons between microwave and infrared heating were carried out to study the structural strength of the bottle under top loading and pressure conditions using ANSYS simulation software. Results indicate the range of microwave power output to be used for better strength of blow moulded bottles.
STRACTURE AND INTERFACIAL ADHESION OF PP/PBS SANDWICH INJECTION MOLDINGS
Yuji Fujita , Toshihiro Yoshida , Hironari Sano , Naoya Aoki , Masaya Kotaki , Hiroyuki Hamada, May 2008
Polypropylene (PP) based sandwich injection moldings with biomass based polymers (PBS) in the core were studied. In order to obtain superior surface properties such as high chemical resistance and anti-scratch resistnce improvement of interfacial strength between skin and core parts is important which can be controlled by the additional PP component in the PBS core part. The selection of additional PP and injection conditions were found to be important to improve the interfacial strength of which phenomena was understood by the melt rheology at the injection condition.Scratch tests according to ASTM method was performed to investigate the relationship between scratch behavior and skin/core adhesion. Poor skin/core adhesion caused the skin/core delamination upon the scratch tests.
STRACTURE AND INTERFACIAL ADHESION OF PP/PBS SANDWICH INJECTION MOLDINGS
Yuji Fujita , Toshihiro Yoshida , Hironari Sano , Naoya Aoki , Masaya Kotaki , Hiroyuki Hamada, May 2008
Polypropylene (PP) based sandwich injection moldings with biomass based polymers (PBS) in the core were studied. In order to obtain superior surface properties such as high chemical resistance and anti-scratch resistnce, improvement of interfacial strength between skin and core parts is important, which can be controlled by the additional PP component in the PBS core part. The selection of additional PP and injection conditions were found to be important to improve the interfacial strength, of which phenomena was understood by the melt rheology at the injection condition. Scratch tests according to ASTM method was performed to investigate the relationship between scratch behavior and skin/core adhesion. Poor skin/core adhesion caused the skin/core delamination upon the scratch tests.
RESPONSIVE STARCH-BASED MATERIALS
J. L. Willett, May 2008
Starch a low-cost annually renewable resource is naturally hydrophilic and its properties change with relative humidity. Starchƒ??s hygroscopic nature can be used to develop materials which change shape or volume in response to environmental changes (eg humidity). For example starch-based graft copolymers have been produced using reactive extrusion for potential superabsorbent and hydrogel applications. Besides absorbing large quantities of water some of these copolymers display large volume changes in aqueous alcohol depending on solvent quality. Other examples include starch-poly(methyl acrylate) graft copolymer films which shrink at high humidities. Various levels of shrinkage can be triggered in response to changes in relative humidity. (AAm) and varying amounts of 2-acrylamido-2-methyl- 1-propane sulfonic acid (AMPS) display various degrees of swelling in aqueous solutions and approximately discontinuous volume changes in aqueous ethanol solutions over narrow ethanol concentrations. Blown films of starch-PMA graft copolymers display controlled shrinkage in response to increases in relative humidity.
DEVELOPMENT OF ANTIMICROBIAL PLA NANOCOMPOSITES WITH SILVER CONTAINING LAYERED NANOCLAYS FOR PACKAGING AND COATING APPLICATIONS
M.A. Busolo , M.J. Ocio , J. M. Lagaron, May 2008
This paper presents the development and characterization of the antimicrobial activity of a novel family of commercial food contact compliant silver-modified nanolayered clays and of their nanobiocomposites with polylactic acid. The antimicrobial nanolayered clays showed an antimicrobial effectiveness of 99.99% against Gram-negative Salmonella spp. In addition the PLA-clay nanocomposite also showed a significant antimicrobial activity and a synergistic water vapour permeability reduction of 32% with respect to neat PLA. The results indicate that these novel active nanolayered fillers can potentially exhibit numerous applications in plastic and bioplastic packaging and coatings where simultaneous barrier and antimicrobial performance are desirable.
DEVELOPMENT OF ANTIMICROBIAL PLA NANOCOMPOSITES WITH SILVER CONTAINING LAYERED NANOCLAYS FOR PACKAGING AND COATING APPLICATIONS
M.A. Busolo , M.J. Ocio , J. M. Lagaron, May 2008
This paper presents the development and characterization of the antimicrobial activity of a novel family of commercial food contact compliant silver-modified nanolayered clays and of their nanobiocomposites with polylactic acid. The antimicrobial nanolayered clays showed an antimicrobial effectiveness of 99.99% against Gram-negative Salmonella spp. In addition, the PLA-clay nanocomposite also showed a significant antimicrobial activity and a synergistic water vapour permeability reduction of 32% with respect to neat PLA. The results indicate that these novel active nanolayered fillers can potentially exhibit numerous applications in plastic and bioplastic packaging and coatings where simultaneous barrier and antimicrobial performance are desirable.
OPTIMIZATION OF A PET PREFORM DESIGN FOR BETTER BOTTLE BARRIER PROPERTIES
Dinu Chettiar , S.H. Masood , D.U. Erbulut, May 2008
This paper presents an investigation on the optimization of the preform design to produce PET bottles with uniform thickness distribution and better barrier properties using a blow moulding simulation software. The barrier properties were studied by calculating the blow up ratio (BUR) of the initial and the final bottles. The bottle blown up using the new preform design had a higher value of BUR indicating that it had better barrier properties due to increased molecular orientation. Results from the simulation were also used to study the mechanical strength and the internal pressure variations on the bottle using the Pro/Mechanica finite element analysis (FEA).
POLYMER ORIENTATION IN POLYPROPYLENE-TALC COMPOSITES STRETCHED BELOW THE MELTING TEMPERATURE
Rahul H. Rane , K. Jayaraman , T. R. Bieler , K. L. Nichols , M. H. Mazor, May 2008
Solid-phase die-drawing of composites with semicrystalline polyolefins and particulate filler is a new process for producing expanded and oriented structural materials1-2. The objective of this work was to investigate the maximum draw ratio attained with composites of isotactic polypropylene and talc and the polymer chainaxis orientation obtained over various draw ratios at 10°C below the melting temperature. The maximum attainable draw ratio with the PP-talc composite was considerably greater than with the neat PP. The extent of debonding and void growth was well advanced before significant orientation was developed in the crystalline lamellae of the polypropylene matrix.
POLYMER ORIENTATION IN POLYPROPYLENE-TALC COMPOSITES STRETCHED BELOW THE MELTING TEMPERATURE
Rahul H. Rane , K. Jayaraman , T. R. Bieler , K. L. Nichols , M. H. Mazor, May 2008
Solid-phase die-drawing of composites with semicrystalline polyolefins and particulate filler is a new process for producing expanded and oriented structural materials1-2. The objective of this work was to investigate the maximum draw ratio attained with composites of isotactic polypropylene and talc and the polymer chainaxis orientation obtained over various draw ratios at 10?øC below the melting temperature. The maximum attainable draw ratio with the PP-talc composite was considerably greater than with the neat PP. The extent of debonding and void growth was well advanced before significant orientation was developed in the crystalline lamellae of the polypropylene matrix.
THE INJECTION MOLDING OF NANOSTRUCTURED POLYSTYRENE TEMPLATES TO INVESTIGATE THE CONTROL OF HUMAN MESENCHYMAL STEM CELL DIFFERENTIATION
Israd H. Jaafar , John. P. Coulter , Sabrina S. Jedlicka, May 2008
The injection molding of nano-structured polystyrene (PS) surfaces and its application in the stimulation of stem cell differentiation is described. PS was selected as a base substrate for in vitro human mesenchymal stem cell (hMSC) culturing due to its bio-compatibility and wide use as a cell culturing medium. The approach was adopted to improve upon current biochemical differentiation methods. A customized mold was designed where a nanopatterned silicon wafer served as the insert for injection molding. The effect of a nano-pillared PS surface in comparison to planar control on hMSC cell response was observed.
THE INJECTION MOLDING OF NANOSTRUCTURED POLYSTYRENE TEMPLATES TO INVESTIGATE THE CONTROL OF HUMAN MESENCHYMAL STEM CELL DIFFERENTIATION
Israd H. Jaafar , John. P. Coulter , Sabrina S. Jedlicka, May 2008
The injection molding of nano-structured polystyrene (PS) surfaces and its application in the stimulation of stem cell differentiation is described. PS was selected as a base substrate for in vitro human mesenchymal stem cell (hMSC) culturing due to its bio-compatibility and wide use as a cell culturing medium. The approach was adopted to improve upon current biochemical differentiation methods. A customized mold was designed where a nanopatterned silicon wafer served as the insert for injection molding. The effect of a nano-pillared PS surface in comparison to planar control on hMSC cell response was observed.
REACTION KINETICS STUDYUSING SPECIALIZED BATCH MIXER
Marios Avgousti , Mark D. Wetzel , Fred Best, May 2008
Although reactive extrusion is an important process component in many industrial applications no convenient method to determine reaction kinetics exists in extrusion literature. Batch mixer torque versus time" relationship reflecting reaction kinetic contributions at various melt tem- peratures and shear rates can be used to study reactive sys- tems. This work aims at developing a rapid batch mixer test to differentiate reaction kinetic mechanisms. In order to demonstrate the validity of the test we will be presenting experimental studies of PET polymer degradation model system. Reaction kinetic information obtained from batch system will be linked to previously-reported continuous extrusion process characterization studies."
INTEGRATION OF FORMING AND INJECTION MOLDING PROCESSES ON IN-MOLD DECORATION PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT
Chao-Chang Tang , Jian-Hong Lin , Kin-Fu Lu , Meng-Chih Chen , Chao-Tsai Huang , Chau-Kai Yu, May 2008
Decoration processing for injection molded parts such as painting printing hot stamping electroplating and so on is commonly applied to enhance the surface quality and product value. Due to extra processes cost and pollution problems increase. One of great solutions which is performed in-mold decoration has been utilized to minimize the processes for years. However since it is so complicated from film forming to injection molding how to realize the process mechanism is the crucial factor. In this study the integration of forming and injection molding processes is proposed and performed both experimentally and numerically.
MORPHOLOGY AND PROPERTIES OF EXFOLIATED GRAPHITE/THERMOPLASTIC POLYURETHANE NANOCOMPOSITES
Hyunwoo Kim , Christopher Macosko, May 2008
Functionalized graphite sheets (FGS) and isocyanate treated graphite oxide (iGO) were incorporated into thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) via melt compounding solvent blending and in-situ polymerization. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) indicated that FGS is exfoliated while iGO forms mixed morphology of partial intercalation and exfoliation. Their dispersion into TPU resulted in noticeable enhancements in electrical conductivity stiffness and gas barrier. Average aspect ratios of graphitic additives determined by fitting properties with composite theories agree well with values from direct TEM imaging.


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