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Conference Proceedings
DISPERSION OF FUNCTIONALIZED CARBON NANOFIBERS IN THERMOPLASTIC POLYURETHANES
Guillermo A. Jimenez , Sadhan C. Jana, May 2008
Carbon nanofibers - as received oxidized and functionalized with polyol - were mixed with thermoplastic polyurethanes (TPU) at the time of in situ synthesis in a chaotic mixer. The TPU was synthesized from polypropylene glycol butanediol and 4 4'-diphenylmethane diiocyanate. The degree of nanofiber dispersion was analyzed using hard segment hydrogen bonding. It was found that functionalized carbon nanofibers showed more interactions with hard and soft segments in TU. Consequently these fibers dispersed well promoted mixing between the hard and soft segment phases and prompted an increase of glass transition temperature.
FOAM INJECTION MOLDING OF CELLULOSE FIBER REINFORCED POLYPROPYLENE COMPOSITES
T. Kuboki , J.W.S. Lee , C.B. Park , M. Sain, May 2008
This paper investigates the effects of the fiber content and the processing conditions such as the shot size and the injection speed on the foaming behavior of injection molded composite foams made from cellulose fiber reinforced polypropylene. Composites are injection molded by using an advanced structural foam molding machine with a physical blowing agent N2. Foamed specimens are prepared with different injection speeds and void fractions while the mold pressure profile void fraction and foam morphology are characterized. The results suggest that there is an optimum fiber content for the cell morphology of injection molded composite foams made of cellulose fiber reinforced polypropylene.
FOAM INJECTION MOLDING OF CELLULOSE FIBER REINFORCED POLYPROPYLENE COMPOSITES
T. Kuboki , J.W.S. Lee , C.B. Park , M. Sain, May 2008
This paper investigates the effects of the fiber content and the processing conditions, such as the shot size and the injection speed, on the foaming behavior of injection molded composite foams made from cellulose fiber reinforced polypropylene. Composites are injection molded by using an advanced structural foam molding machine with a physical blowing agent, N2. Foamed specimens are prepared with different injection speeds and void fractions while the mold pressure profile, void fraction and foam morphology are characterized. The results suggest that there is an optimum fiber content for the cell morphology of injection molded composite foams made of cellulose fiber reinforced polypropylene.
EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF EXTRUSION AND SURFACE TREATMENT OF ORGANO CLAY WITH PET NANOCOMPOSITES
Karnik Tarverdi , Somchoke Sontikaew, May 2008
The use of organoclay in polymers is expected to increase on average annually by about 5 percent. This paper describes melt blending techniques using PET nanocomposites containing commercially available organoclays with different percentage of surfactant coatings. This paper will also evaluate the morphology and mechanical properties of the composites using a range of techniques like scanning electron microscope melt rheology andthermal analysis. Comparisons will be made between properties of amorphous and semi crystalline films in terms of surfactant used and material properties. It will be demonstrated that the quantity of surfactant used with the organoclays can significantly affect dispersion and properties of composites produced.
THE EFFECT OF RESIDUAL STRESSES ON BIOLINKER PROTEIN G ADHESION TO PMMA
Nicholas George , Leslie R. Farris , Sung-hwan Yoon , Melisenda McDonald , Carol Barry, May 2008
The ability to manufacture micro-scale features on polymers with good optical properties has proven to be useful in biomedical applications such as microelectromechanical systems (Bio-MEMS). High rate manufacturing of such Bio-MEMS could be accomplished through the injection molding process. A drawback to the injection molding process is the occurrence of residual stresses as a result of flow induced orientation. In bio-MEMS applications the directed adsorption of bio sensing molecules like antibodies to the surface is critical. A patented PMMA bacterial Protein G antibody orientation method previously reported termed ALYGNSA can be used to achieve such adsorption. The bacterial protein G linker protein is used in part on two residual stressed (high and low) injection molded micro-fluidic patterned PMMA discs. Results indicate low residual stress may aid the adsorption of Protein G and enhancement of antibody orientation.
THE EFFECT OF RESIDUAL STRESSES ON BIOLINKER PROTEIN G ADHESION TO PMMA
Nicholas George , Leslie R. Farris , Sung-hwan Yoon , Melisenda McDonald , Carol Barry, May 2008
The ability to manufacture micro-scale features on polymers with good optical properties has proven to be useful in biomedical applications such as microelectromechanical systems (Bio-MEMS). High rate manufacturing of such Bio-MEMS could be accomplished through the injection molding process. A drawback to the injection molding process is the occurrence of residual stresses as a result of flow induced orientation. In Bio-MEMS applications the directed adsorption of bio sensing molecules, like antibodies, to the surface is critical. A patented PMMA, bacterial Protein G antibody orientation method previously reported termed ALYGNSA can be used to achieve such adsorption. The bacterial protein G linker protein is used in part on two residual stressed (high and low) injection molded micro-fluidic patterned PMMA discs. Results indicate low residual stress may aid the adsorption of Protein G and enhancement of antibody orientation.
DEVELOPMENTS ON PROPYLENE-ETHYLENE COPOLYMERS BLENDS WITH STYRENE BLOCK COPOLYMERS
Nei S. Domingues, May 2008
Thermoplastic Elastomers (TPEs) based on styrene block copolymers such as SBS and SEBS still draw technological and scientific interest because their low cost formulations combine the entropy-elasticity of elastomers with the processability of thermoplastics. This class of material plays an important role in replacing many traditional thermo-set rubber applications. Metallocene catalysts provided a broad range of new olefin based copolymers. Among them the propylene a-olefin copolymers had a fast growth in TPE scenario as modifier in polymer blends because of their properties. In a previous paper we discussed the use of metallocene based ethylene-octene copolymers in blends with SBCs. They provide the right balance of costperformance when used as an elastomeric extender. In this study we demonstrate the effect of different metallocene based propylene -olefins copolymers (PAO) in blends with SBCs. The results achieved for the PAO containing compounds indicate that such family of materials can be tailored to yield new TPEs with a combination of desirable softness and mechanical properties with improved processing.
DEVELOPMENTS ON PROPYLENE-ETHYLENE COPOLYMERS BLENDS WITH STYRENE BLOCK COPOLYMERS
Nei S. Domingues , Carolina C. J. R. Bulhões, May 2008
Thermoplastic Elastomers (TPEs) based on styrene block copolymers such as SBS and SEBS still draw technological and scientific interest because their low cost formulations combine the entropy-elasticity of elastomers with the processability of thermoplastics. This class of material plays an important role in replacing many traditional thermo-set rubber applications. Metallocene catalysts provided a broad range of new olefin based copolymers. Among them the propylene a-olefin copolymers had a fast growth in TPE scenario as modifier in polymer blends because of their properties. In a previous paper we discussed the use of metallocene based ethylene-octene copolymers in blends with SBCs. They provide the right balance of costperformance when used as an elastomeric extender. In this study we demonstrate the effect of different metallocene based propylene -olefins copolymers (PAO) in blends with SBCs. The results achieved for the PAO containing compounds indicate that such family of materials can be tailored to yield new TPEs with a combination of desirable softness, and mechanical properties, with improved processing.
REALISTIC APPEARANCE OF WOOD GRAINS FORMED WITH SMART BLENDERS ON SURFACES AND INSIDE EXTRUDED PLASTICS
Dave Zumbrunnen , Mike Zumbrunnen, May 2008
Smart blending machines operate by chaotic advection a new sub-field of fluid mechanics. Melts that are introduced into them become converted to multi-layers of controllable average thickness. Upon extrusion patterns can be readily generated inside and on film sheet tubes or other shapes that have the appearance of realistic wood grains. Moreover simulated wood grains can be varied through on-line control. An infinite variety of grains can be formed or a specific grain can be repeated at desired intervals. In this paper the machines and process are described and examples are presented.
REALISTIC APPEARANCE OF WOOD GRAINS FORMED WITH SMART BLENDERS ON SURFACES AND INSIDE EXTRUDED PLASTICS
Mike Zumbrunnen , Dave Zumbrunnen, May 2008
Smart blending machines operate by chaotic advection, a new sub-field of fluid mechanics. Melts that are introduced into them become converted to multi-layers of controllable average thickness. Upon extrusion, patterns can be readily generated inside and on film, sheet, tubes or other shapes that have the appearance of realistic wood grains. Moreover, simulated wood grains can be varied through on-line control. An infinite variety of grains can be formed or a specific grain can be repeated at desired intervals. In this paper, the machines and process are described and examples are presented.
RHEOMETERS FOR HIGH-THROUGHPUT POLYMER CHARACTERIZATION
John M. Dealy, May 2008
High-throughput rheological characterization has applications in many industries but dealing with molten polymers poses special challenges. For purposes of structure determination however rheology has potential advantages over GPC. There is currently no commercial rhometric device that can make rapid measurements on very small samples of molten polymers. However descriptions of several devices designed to accomplish this have been described in presentations and publications. The deformations involved include capillary torsional shear and squeeze flows. Each of these approaches has its advantages and disadvantages and it is not yet clear which if any of them will be able to meet the stringent requirements of high-throughput characterization.
EFFECT OF TIE-LAYER THICKNESS ON THE ADHESION OF ETHYLENE BASED COPOLYMERS TO POLYOLEFINS
R.K. Ayyer , A. R. Kamdar , Y.J. Lin , P.S. Dias , B.C. Poon , A. Hiltner , E. Baer1, May 2008
The effect of chain microstructure on the adhesion of elastomeric ethylene–octene copolymers to polypropylene (PP) and high density polyethylene (HDPE) was investigated using microlayered coextruded tapes having different adhesive tie-layer thicknesses (0.1 ?m – 14 ?m). The adhesive copolymers used were an olefinic block copolymer (OBC) and two statistical ethylene octene (EO) copolymers. The OBC exhibited much higher delamination toughness as compared to the statistical copolymers in T-peel experiments. The dependence of delamination toughness on the tie-layer thickness exhibited two distinct regimes: a fibrillated thin tie-layer regime (0.1 to 1 ?m) and a continuous damage zone in the thick tie-layer regime (2 to 14 ?m). A correlation was found between the damage zone morphology and the critical delamination stress for interfacial failure. The effect of temperature on the delamination toughness was also examined.
EFFECT OF TIE-LAYER THICKNESS ON THE ADHESION OF ETHYLENE BASED COPOLYMERS TO POLYOLEFINS
R.K. Ayyer , A. R. Kamdar , Y.J. Lin , P.S. Dias , B.C. Poon , A. Hiltner , E. Baer, May 2008
The effect of chain microstructure on the adhesion of elastomeric ethyleneƒ??octene copolymers to polypropylene (PP) and high density polyethylene (HDPE) was investigated using microlayered coextruded tapes having different adhesive tie-layer thicknesses (0.1 ?¬m ƒ?? 14 ?¬m). The adhesive copolymers used were an olefinic block copolymer (OBC) and two statistical ethylene octene (EO) copolymers. The OBC exhibited much higher delamination toughness as compared to the statistical copolymers in T-peel experiments. The dependence of delamination toughness on the tie-layer thickness exhibited two distinct regimes: a fibrillated thin tie-layer regime (0.1 to 1 ?¬m) and a continuous damage zone in the thick tie-layer regime (2 to 14 ?¬m). A correlation was found between the damage zone morphology and the critical delamination stress for interfacial failure. The effect of temperature on the delamination toughness was also examined.
CHARACTERISATION OF BIOACTIVE POLYCAPROLACTONE
P. Douglas , G. Walker , D. Jones, May 2008
The effects of a bioactive [Nalidixic Acid - NA] and copolymers [Poly L-Lactic Acid (PLLA) and Polyethylene Glycol (PEG)] on the drug release morphology and mechanical properties of Poly -caprolactone [PCL] were studied. Release of NA increased with the addition of copolymers in the PCL with a maximum release of 55% in a blend containing 5%w/w each of PLLA PEG and NA. The filler effect of the NA was illustrated by an increase in viscosity in the blends. FTIR spectrums showed the blending of the PCL and the NA. The carbonyl bond present in the biodegradable polymers PCL and PEG allowed for some degree of miscibility also confirmed by the decrease in thermal conductivity from 0.26 to 0.2 Wm'C. Mechanical properties were decreased by the copolymers with the Young's Modulus decreasing by 15%.
FABRICATION OF POROUS PCL FIBER WITH CO-CONTINUOUS AND SIZE ADJUSTABLE POROUS STRUCTURES FROM IMMISCIBLE POLYMER BLENDS
Pratapkumar Nagarajan , Kathryn Abbott , Donggang Yao, May 2008
Porous polymer fibers can be fabricated using different methods including hollow fiber extrusion multicomponent fiber extrusion (e.g. with islands-in-sea morphology) and solution processing. However with the current technology it is difficult to achieve a continuous porous structure across the entire fiber cross-section and control the pore size. This greatly limits potential applications of such fibers in many emerging biochemical and biomedical applications. We report here a filament extrusion process of immiscible polymer blends for fabrication of highly porous fibers with continuous and size adjustable porous structures.
INVESTIGATION OF THE ACOUSTICAL BEHAVIORS OF MICROCELLULAR CERAMIC FOAMS
M. Y. Serry Ahmed , C. Wang N. Atalla , C.B. Park, May 2008
The processing method for fabricating high porosity microcellular ceramic foams for sound absorption applications is discussed. By controlling the microsphere content and that of the base elastomer it was possible to adjust the porosity with a very high open-cell content (ranging between 43 - 95%) high microcellular cell densities (9E8 ƒ?? 1.6E9 cells/cm3) and desired expansion ratios (3 - 6 folds). Sound absorption testing was performed by using standard test methods followed by a statistical and theoretical study that was performed to investigate the acoustical behavior of this class of materials. The study shows that due the unique structure of these foams localized effects took place and therefore application of the new morphology-based model was necessary to account for the effects of microstructure and morphology on the sound absorption behaviors of ceramic foams.
EFFECTS OF LONG-CHAIN BRANCHING CONCENTRATION OF SUPERCRITICAL CO2 AND PRESSURE ON THE VISCOSITY OF LINEAR AND BRANCHED POLYPROPYLENES
Hee Eon Park , John M. Dealy, May 2008
Supercritical carbon dioxide (CO2) is of interest as a physical blowing agent in the manufacture of plastic foam and as a plasticizer to reduce melt viscosity during processing. The combined effects of concentration (C) of dissolved CO2 pressure (P) and temperature (T) on the rheological properties of the melt were determined to achieve optimum processing conditions. Linear and branched polypropylenes and their blends were chosen. A high-pressure sliding plate rheometer in which the shear deformation T P and C are all uniform was used. It was possible to use shift factors for T P and C to obtain a master curve.
SIMULATION STUDY ON WARPAGE DEVELOPMENT OF MICROELECTRONICS PACKAGING
Yeong K. Kim, May 2008
The effect of viscoelastic material properties on the warpage development of microelectronic packaging was studied. A chip level packaging of ball grid array was considered for the calculation model. The mechanical properties of thin FR-4 for substrate and molding compound were measured and modeled as elastic and viscoelastic. Based on the modeling stress development during cooldown was calculated by numerical methods. It was found that the deformation predictions were strongly dependent on the material properties modeling and the viscoelastic behaviors of the FR-4 and the molding compound had significant influence on the warpage development. The results showed that the warpage development was totally dependent on the interaction of the relaxation behaviors of the materials and in this particular case the relaxation actually increased the deformation. The results were compared with those when the materials were assumed as elastic and discussions were given to analyze the mechanism.
A WAY OF EXPEDITION TO FIND TREASURES HIDDEN IN THE FIELD OF NANOTECHNOLOGY: COMPUTATIONAL NANOTECHNOLOGY
Seung Soon Jang, May 2008
Now we have two reasons driving the application of computational methods for the Nanotechnology". One is the increasing possibility that we may see at a certain point the breakdown of given macroscopic-bulk-phase- based description in understanding the nano-scale systems. This is mainly because the nano-scale systems do not have such "macroscopic-bulk-phases". The surface or interface of the system that has been usually neglected in the given description becomes the most important part of such nano-scale system. Another reason is that the enhanced speed and accuracy of recent computational tools (both sides of hardware and software) now makes it possible to probe the chemical and physical properties of nano-scale system consisting of 1000~1000000 atoms at the atomistic level very quantitatively."
GENERATION OF EXPERIMENTAL POLYMER STRUCTURE-PROPERTY DATA USING COMBINATORIAL AND HIGH THROUGHPUT METHODS
Dean C. Webster, May 2008
Polymers can have a large variety of compositions molecular weights molecular weight distributions monomer sequence distributions chain topologies (architectures) and so on; all of which may influence performance properties. Due to the large number of variables and possible compositions it is difficult to predict performance and determining structure-property relationships relies on experimentation. However conducting the experiments is a tedious and time-consuming process so only limited numbers of samples are prepared and evaluated in most studies. Thus a comprehensive picture of the structure-property relationships in most systems is not achieved. The combinatorial and high throughput approach seeks to address this situation by enabling the rapid synthesis and evaluation of a large number of materials in a single experiment.Methods have been developed for the parallel synthesis of polymers having systematic variation in composition and screening of those materials for their key properties such as modulus molecular weight surface properties etc. Analysis of the resulting data can result in the determination of structure-property relationships.


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