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Conference Proceedings
INVESTIGATION ON VARIOUS VARIOTHERM PROCESSES IN INJECTION MOLDING
Shoko Toyoyama, Tomohiko Sugie, Yuka Kobayashi, Asami Nakai, Hiroyuki Hamada, May 2010
In recent years, to eliminate defects and improve the product quality, many variotherm processes have been proposed and commercialized in injection molding. However, what the true function is for each technology and how the efficiency is from one technology to the other, are still not clear. In this study, we have systematically conducted various technologies, including Conventional Injection Molding (CIM), Rapid Heat Cycle Molding (RHCM), Induction Heating Molding (IHM), and Electricity Heating Mold (E-mold) by using 3D Transient Cool technology. The functions and the heating-cooling efficiency for each technology can be visualized. The comparison for all technologies is also performed.
DEGRADATION BEHAVIOR OF HEMP FIBER REINFORCED THERMOSETTING POLYMER
Shoko Toyoyama , Tomohiko Sugie , Yuka Kobayashi , Asami Nakai , Hiroyuki Hamada, May 2010
Natural fiber-reinforced composites are very attractive due to environmental considerations. There are currently many types of natural fibers that are suitable to be used as reinforcement in polymer composites. In this paper hemp fiber mat was selected to be the reinforcement for unsaturated polyester resin. In order to determine the long-term water resistance of this composite specimens were immersed into hot water.Weight changes of the specimens were recorded with time and their respective mechanical properties were determined through bending tests. A correlation was established between moisture absorption and mechanical performance of the composites.
STUDY OF POLY(1-BUTENE) SURFACE MODIFIED BY AIR PLASMA TREATMENT
N. O-Charoen, T. Hashimoto, Y. W. Leong, H. Hamada, May 2010
A low-temperature pulsed direct current discharge air plasma treatment has been used to improve the surface properties of poly(1-butene) films. The changes in the surface hydrophilicity and roughness of modified poly(1-butene) films were investigated by contact angle measurements, scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. These experiments revealed that the plasma treatment can greatly change the surface chemistry as well as morphology of poly(1-butene). The polar functional groups generated due to plasma treatment on the surface of poly(1-butene) sheets causes decrease in contact angle. However, the aging process of the plasma treated samples showed that the effect was not permanent. Scanning electron microscope and atomic force microscope observations revealed that the surface topography was changed by air plasma etching, and the surface roughness increases.
POLYLACTIDE TOUGHENING USING IMPACT MODIFIERS
Siqiang Zhu , Rahul Rasal , Douglas Hirt, May 2010
The major objective of this research was poly(lactide) (PLA) toughening using two impact modifiers (IMs). IM1 was derived from biodegradable resource and IM2 was non-degradable ethylene-acrylate copolymer. Blend films were prepared using a single screw extruder, and their mechanical properties were measured using tensile testing. Results showed that the Young's modulus did not change significantly with increasing concentration of IM1, but decreased with IM2 concentration. The maximum elongation at break was 240% for IM1 at 8 wt% loading and 255% for IM2 at 12 wt% loading. Clarity of the films decreased with higher additive concentrations for both IMs, but IM1 gave clearer film than IM2 for given composition. AFM images showed IM1 dispersed in PLA as isolated islands at lower compositions and transitioned to short threads at higher compositions; IM2 existed mostly as islands. Annealing of the films at 100 ?§C for 1 h increased the percent crystallinity, but did not affect the mechanical properties significantly.
THE WARPAGE AND OPTICAL PROPERTY INFLUENCED BY THE PROCESS-INDUCED PROPERTY VARIATION IN MULTI-COMPONENT MOLDING
Nathalie Chapleau, Hongbo Li, Michel A. Huneault, May 2010
Sequential multi-component molding is one of great methods to fabricate the modern injection products. Previous literatures have shown that various parameters, including the product geometries and materials selection, will affect the warpage of final products significantly. However, the interaction between the first shot and the second shot is not clear. In this study, various process-induced properties of the first shot are taken into consideration for the further processing. Results, not only show that the process-induced properties can affect the warpage and optical property crucially but also further help discover the inside mechanism more comprehensively.
MELT EXTRUDED WATER-SOLUBLE STARCH-BASED FILMS
Nathalie Chapleau , Hongbo Li , Michel A. Huneault, May 2010
The interest for biodegradable and water-soluble packaging films has gained attention as they have a potential in several applications such as pouches for powders and liquids, liners and bags, and medical delivery devices. In this work, starch-based materials are used to produce melt extruded films. Starch is a biopolymer that can be gelatinized to form thermoplastic starch (TPS). The gelatinization is carried out in an extruder by applying shear and heat in presence of plasticizers. The influence of the TPS composition on the final properties of the films will be investigated. The crystalline structure, the mechanical properties and water solubility will be evaluated.
EFFECTS OF PC-OLIGOMER ADDITION ON THE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF ULTRA-HIGH SPEED INJECTION-MOLDED PC/ABS BLENDS
Toshikazu Umemura , Susumu Takashima , Machiko Mizoguchi , Hiroyuki Hamada, May 2010
Incorporation of low molecular weight components (oligomer) improves processability and surface appearance of injection moldings. Camera housings are commonly made from a compound consisting polycarbonate (PC) acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) PC-oligomer (PC-O) and glass fiber (GF). Even at high GF content smooth product surfaces can be obtained by incorporating PC-O. The addition of PC-O causes high fracture strain due to slippage between molecular chains and at the interphase. However an opposite tendency was observed in ultra-high speed (1000 mm/s) moldings as the ABS-rich region appeared to be highly elongated thus suggesting that there was less slippage at the interphase.
STRUCTURE-PROPERTY RELATIONSHIP OF WELD-LINE IN INJECTION MOLDED POLYPROPYLENE
Katsuyuki Yokomizo, Yoshihiro Banno, Masaya Kotaki, Hiroyuki Hamada, May 2010
Coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulation of a bead-spring polymer model was conducted for two polymer flow fronts flowing parallel to one another as would be found in a weld line. The effect of a molecular orientation of the flow fronts on the structure developed at the weld-line interface was studied by changing a shear flow and chain length. It was observed that the time evolution of the interfacial thickness was suppressed by shear flow for a long chain system. According to the calculation of the orientation order parameter of the bond vector as a function of the position along the chain, it was revealed that the bonds in the central part of the long chain was kept to be oriented more strongly than in the outer part, whereas the central part of the chain was quickly relaxed for short chain. It was suggested that the relaxation of molecular orientation was closely related to the interdiffusion of polymer in the weld interface.
STRUCTURE-PROPERTY RELATIONSHIP OF WELD-LINE IN INJECTION MOLDED POLYPROPYLENE
Katsuyuki Yokomizo , Yoshihiro Banno , Masaya Kotaki , Hiroyuki Hamada, May 2010
Coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulation of a bead-spring polymer model was conducted for two polymer flow fronts flowing parallel to one another as would be found in a weld line. The effect of a molecular orientation of the flow fronts on the structure developed at the weld-line interface was studied by changing a shear flow and chain length. It was observed that the time evolution of the interfacial thickness was suppressed by shear flow for a long chain system. According to the calculation of the orientation order parameter of the bond vector as a function of the position along the chain, it was revealed that the bonds in the central part of the long chain was kept to be oriented more strongly than in the outer part, whereas the central part of the chain was quickly relaxed for short chain. It was suggested that the relaxation of molecular orientation was closely related to the interdiffusion of polymer in the weld interface.
RHEOLOGICAL BEHAVIOR OF POLY(1-BUTENE)/WOOD COMPOSITES
Yan-Chen Chiou, Ya-Yuen Chou, Hsien-Sen Chiu, Chau-Kai Yu, Chia-Hsiang Hsu, May 2010
The work deals with the influence of content of the untreated wood flour filler (natural pine wood) on rheological behavior of blends with poly(1-butene) matrix. Therefore the blends with 5, 10, 15, 20, 30 and 50 % of wood flour were prepared in microcompounder. The rheological behavior was studied in oscillatory shear regime. Cole-Cole plot was used for determination of differences in molecular weight and distribution. It was found that low content of the wood flour acts as a lubricant agent and decreases zero shear viscosity. On the contrary, increasing content of the wood flour has an opposite effect.
NUMERICAL SIMULATION FOR THERMAL CONTROL SYSTEM IN VARIOTHERM MOLD DESIGN
Yuan-Rong Chang, Hsien-Sen Chiu1, Wen-Hsien Yang, Rong-Yeu Chang, May 2010
In injection molding, suitable temperature controlled in different regions within the mold is a very important issue. To manage the thermal feature in mold, various dynamical control systems, such as PID, proportional, and on-off types, are adopted. However, using those controls, the dynamic properties within the mold are still very complex. In this paper, we have conducted various control systems to manage mold temperature variation and their effects on the product by using variotherm system. Results show the dynamic behavior of the temperature distribution in the mold is strongly dependent on the control system. The optimization for those systems is also performed.
AN INVESTIGATION ON THE TEMPERATURE BEHAVIOR IN MOLD EMBEDDED WITH HEATER
Shia-Chung Chen , I-Chao Wang , Yan-Chen Chiou , Ya-Yuen Chou , Wen-Hsien Yang, May 2010
Conventionally, a mold is to be cooled by cooling channels in an injection molding process. However, the demand for the high quality plastics has popularized the varied-thermo control of mold system. An electrical heater system is one of the popular heating methods used in varied-thermo type methods for its low cost and ease of use. To achieve good efficiency, the system layout and the switchover between heating and cooling have to be properly designed and optimized. In this study, a true 3D fully transient approach is proposed to simulate the temperature behavior of mold embedded with heater. Furthermore an experimental apparatus is also set up to measure and verify this transient behavior.
ADVANCED CHARACTERIZATION OF NANOFIBER BASED NONWOVENS
W. Sambaer, M. Zatloukal, D. Kimmer, May 2010
Polyurethane (PU) solved in dimethylformamide (DMF) was electrospun under one set of conditions by using two different supporting textiles. The mechanical properties of nanofiber mats were measured by the Sentmanat extensional rheometer and the pore size distribution was calculated by a newly proposed digital image analysis methodology applied on nanoscale SEM images taking macroscopic features of the nonwovens into account. It has been found that supporting textiles have very high effect on mechanical properties of nanofiber mats (even if their fiber diameter distributions are similar), which can be explained by different porosity of the prepared samples.
DEFECTS DURING EXTRUSION PROCESSES RECOGNIZE, ANALYZE, GRADUATE AND ERADICATE
Byoung-Ho Choi, Rajesh Paradkar, Pak-Meng Cham, William Michie, Zhenwen Zhou, Alexander Chudnovsky, May 2010
Cutbacks, off-shoring and other cost reduction processes have led to a major loss of internal company know-how. Inefficient product and process qualities result primarily from non-aligned parameters, which are influenced by the operator. In the context of a research project conducted in collaboration with partners in industry, recognition features are established for defects in pipe extrusion lines. Products and processes can be analyzed, and defects graduated in process models, which put forward a catalog of potential measures on the basis of a self-compiled database. Reasonable variables for optimizing the products are identified, which means that defects can be eliminated by remaining within prescribed boundaries. The results are made available to all comparable production lines and validated.
SEM AND FTIR ANALYSIS OF PE PIPE FRACTURE IN ACCELERATED TEST CONDITIONS
Byoung-Ho Choi , Rajesh Paradkar , Pak-Meng Cham , William Michie , Zhenwen Zhou , Alexander Chudnovsky, May 2010
The critical level of degradation for fracture initiation and the speed of stress corrosion crack (SCC) propagation depend on the rates of toughness deterioration and buildup of the degradation related stresses as well as on the manufacturing and service stresses. Some PE samples tested using an aggressive environment at various test conditions are investigated. SEM and FTIR analysis of PE pipes fractured in accelerated test are applied to validate the proposed model of crack initiation and propagation in PE. SEM is useful to identify the change of fracture mechanisms from chemical degradation driven crack to mechanically driven crack by the formation of visible striations. FTIR analysis enables to quantify by means of carbonyl index the chemical degradation on the crack surface.
HIGH WATER BARRIER NANOBIOCOMPOSITES FOR COATING AND LAMINATION APPLICATIONS
A. Fendler , E. Giménez , J. M. Lagaron, May 2010
Polysaccharides and protein biopolymers are of increasing interest for their use as sustainable coating materials.However their main drawback in these applications is their inherent high water-permeability and low water resistance at high relative humidity conditions. In this study two specifically designed commercial fillers of different nature and aspect ratio were successfully incorporated into two polysaccharides: methyl cellulose and chitosan. The morphology study indicated that a good dispersion with intercalation of the fillers was observed in both matrices. The water barrier properties of the nanobiocomposites were found to be enhanced to a significant extent particularly for the higher aspect ratio filler as compared to the pure matrix materials while the biodegradability of the composite materials was maintained.
IMPROVEMENT OF INJECTION MOLDING MACHINE CAPACITY BY INTRUSION TECHNIQUE
Abbass Mokhtarzadeh, Avraham Benatar, May 2010
In plastics molding industry, there is always a tradeoff between investment for higher capacity machine and actual capacity requirement for particular component. If capacity of molding machine is little lower than the capacity that is actually required for molding the component, the technique called intrusion can be used. Hence, intrusion is a technique that allows molding a part that has a greater volume of plastics than the maximum capacity of the machineƒ??s injection unit. Such techniques could be used when molding heavy sections or when the shooting capacity of the machine is not adequate. The paper talks about systematic study of the technique and its effect on performance of polymer blends and composites.
EXPERIMENTAL AND NUMERICAL ANALYSIS OF THE FLOW FRONTS ADVANCING IN MICRO INJECTION MOLDING WELD LINE DEVELOPING PROCESS
Lei Xie , Gerhard Ziegmann, May 2010
Understanding the weld line forming process is important for micro parts molded by injection molding technology. In this paper, the flow fronts advancing during weld line forming process of micro injection molding is investigated by both experimental and numerical methods.A glass insert flow visualization mold is devised to record the whole process of the melts flowing and weld line forming. Arburg?? 220S is chosen as the micro injection molding machine and PP is the objective material. The molding part is a micro dumbbell tensile sample, which is totally 24 mm long and has 12 mm long micro scale testarea with rectangular cross section (0.4 mm width mm depth). The numerical simulation is realized by software Comsol?? Multiphysics 3.4 taking surface tension account into. In order to find out how the processing parameters affect weld line forming in micro scale, the experiments were carried out in different processing conditions, injection pressure (25, 30, 35, 40 MPa), injection speed (15, 20cm3/s), mold temperature (120, 135 ?§C). Flow visualization experimental analyses indicate that injection pressure, injection speed and mold temperature all have effects on the flowing speed of the melts. Injection pressure and mold temperature also influence with the shape of flow fronts. Numerical simulation results give a good confirming description for the flow fronts shape which is consistent with experimental observation. In addition the characteristic prediction for the v notch size is carried out.??0.1
ENVIRONMENTAL AGEING OF MATERIALS USED FOR COLLAPSIBLE FUEL STORAGE TANKS
Davide S.A. De Focatiis, C. Paul Buckley, Lian R. Hutchings, May 2010
The purpose of this work was to perform a comparative analysis of various candidate nitrile coated fabric materials supplied by potential vendors to be used as fuel storage tanks and compare the results to the currently fielded polyurethane storage tanks. Our strategy is to utilize advanced environmental ageing methods to simulate extended weathering conditions. Our results demonstrate that the nitrile coated fabrics performed well in our evaluation. Their breaking strengths are about equal to the currently fielded urethanes and they performed comparably when subjected to environmental ageing conditions.
FINITE ELEMENT PREDICTION OF RESIDUAL STRESS FORMATION IN HOT PLATE WELDED POLYCARBONATE
Kittichai Sojiphan , Avraham Benatar, May 2010
During plastic welding, localized heating and coolingnear the weld results in residual stress formation due todifferences in thermal expansion between hot and coldregions. ANSYS finite element analysis was used to firstpredict the temperature fields and cooling rates for hotplate welding of polycarbonate. The temperature fieldswere then used as the input for ANSYS viscoelastic stressanalysis to predict the residual stress distribution.Similarly, the residual stress was also predicted forthrough transmission laser welding and vibration weldingof polycarbonate. The predictions were found to be ingood agreement with previously published residual stressmeasurements.


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