The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.
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Mechanical Design of Short-Fiber Reinforced Injection Molded Parts in 3D
By means of integrative simulation the anisotropy of short-fiber reinforced thermoplastics can be selectively exploited for the development of highly-stressed injection molded parts. The results of a complete 3D-calculation of the injection molding process using 3D-SIGMA software provide the basis for that. An interface and special user subroutines for the FEA program ABAQUS/Standard then permit the accomplishment of anisotropic structural analyses. Thus a precise mechanical design of short-fiber reinforced injection molded parts is possible almost without additional work.
Describing the Non-Linear Viscoelastic Material Behavior of Thermoplastics
The significance of structural analyses (FEA) for the dimensioning of plastic parts is heavily dependent on the material model used to describe the mechanical behavior. At the Institute of Plastics Processing (IKV) a new nonlinear viscoelastic material description was developed and implemented as a subroutine in the ABAQUS/Standard FEA program. Part tests confirm the high level of simulation quality for loading cases of practical relevance.
Novel Exterior Plasma Coating System Using a Stretch Blow Molding Module
Microwave induced plasma polymerization offers significant barrier improvement for PET bottles. This is essential to extend shelf life of sensitive beverages like beer especially in small bottles. For using the plasma process to coat the exterior of bottles a novel reactor concept is presented which proves to be highly suitable for industrial implementation.
Process-Simulation of Compression Moulding Compounds
This paper presents a flow model considering shear- and elongational viscosity as well as wall slipping effects of fibre-reinforced compression moulding compounds (SMC, GMT, LFT). The advantages compared to commonly used models are the improved computation of the pressing force and fibre orientation distribution.
Effect of Rheology and Die Design on Flow Balancing of Profile Extrusion Dies
A major challenge in profile extrusion die design is flow balancing at the die exit as an unbalanced flow causes distortion of the profile. This is especially true for complicated profile dies with uneven thicknesses in certain sections of the die. In this work, we demonstrate the use of a factorial statistical design of numerical experiments to study the effect of geometrical parameters and polymer shear thinning behavior on the optimum flow balancing of a profile die.
Function, Application and Handling of Hot Stamping Foils
Unlike many inks and coatings which can be somewhat “one dimensional”, hot stamping foils have multiple layers that perform different functions within the foil that contribute to a successful imprint or image. What makes this method of hot stamp decoration problematic is that any time one layer is changed it can have a direct affect on the outcome of a decoration. Without getting too technical we are going to address each layer and its contribution to the decoration of a plastic part.
The Effect of Material Selection in Feed-Block Coextrusion of a Three Layer Film
This paper describes a case study dealing with the development of a three-layer product on a feedblock coextrusion system. The problems or phenomena that occurred during the product development experiments are explained via flow simulation and the rheological properties of the materials used. The results of the study are compared with real film samples produced during the development
Flow Simulation of Coextrusion Feed-Blocks
The paper discusses how flow simulation is used to analyze and optimize the design of the coextrusion feedblocks. The results help to explain the reason behind certain design arrangements. A case study of a problem encountered in an actual, three-layer film production will be used to demonstrate how the design of the feed block merge section and the material flow properties, especially the elongational viscosity, can create conditions for the “wave” type interfacial instability.
A Comparative Rheological Study of Isotactic and Syndiotactic Polypropylene Resins with Similar MFI
A comparative rheological study of four pairs of isotactic and syndiotactic polypropylene resins with similar MFI was conducted. The rheological tests included double bore capillary rheometry, frequency sweeps and creep and recovery compliance. It was found that, for similar MFI, the viscoelastic behavior is significantly different between these two types of resins which suggest that stereoregularity has an important effect on the viscoelastic behavior of polypropylene melts.
Performance of Tocopherols as Antioxidants in ABS
Mixed tocopherols, ?-tocopherol, and ?-tocopherol were evaluated for antioxidant performance in ABS using oxidation induction time as the response. Three commonly used phenolic antioxidants and vitamin E (?-tocopherol) were used as controls. Mixed tocopherols were found to have a greater antioxidant effect than the hindered phenolic AOs or vitamin E in ABS. ?-tocopherol was found to be primarily responsible for the improved performance of mixed tocopherols.
The Effect of Shear-Induced Imbalances on the Impact Strength of Injection Molded Impact Bars
During the injection molding process, shearinduced imbalances can have a drastic affect on many material properties. Samples of tensile bars were molded using an amorphous and semi-crystalline material at three different injection rates. The tensile bars were then Izod impact tested based on the location of the hot and cold side of the bars. A comparison was made to display the effects of the imbalances. The resulting impact strengths were then graphed accordingly and compared within each subgroup.
Effects of Composition and Functionality on the Properties of Thiol-Ene Films
To understand the effects of both composition and functionality on thiol-ene cross-link systems, a diverse array of film systems were fabricated and tested. Di-, tri-, tetra-, and nona-functional thiol monomers were combined with di-, and tri-functional ene monomers at three different compositions: 40/60, 50/50, and 60/40, thiol/ene molar ratios based upon reactive functional groups. Polymerization kinetics studies were conducted using photo-differential scanning calorimetry and realtime Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. Experiments to determine glass transition temperature were done with DMTA.
Clay Nanocomposites Incorporated into Biodegradable Polymers
Nanocomposites based on biodegradable polycaprolactone (PCL) and mica clay organically modified with L-arginine were prepared through solvent blending. Their properties were analyzed with TGA, DSC, and tensile testing. The addition of the organically modified clay caused an increase in properties, but at large incorporation, properties began to decrease. Samples of 3%, 5% and 10% organically modified clay were compared to pure PCL.
The Electromagnetic Shielding Effectiveness of Carbon Nanotubes Polymer Composites
The effects of content and aspect ratio of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) upon the electromagnetic (EM) shielding effectiveness (SE) of CNTs polymer composites were investigated and developed. The multi-wall CNTs (MWNTs) with two types of aspect ratio (500 and 10,000) were compounded with three kinds of polymeric materials, such as Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene copolymer (ABS), liquid crystal polymers (LCPs), and Melamine resins (MF). The observed highest SE of these composites is 60 dB which is realistic for an industrial application (40 dB).
Design of a Containerized Mobile Turnkey Compounding Plant for the Direct Extrusion of PP with Hollow Glass Microspheres
Interest in transportable modular production plants is on the rise. These containerized solutions combine flexibility with minimal expense for installation and start up. This presentation will highlight the issues surrounding a successful implementation of this concept for an insulated pipe construction used for offshore crude oil transport.
Adaptive GPC Control of Barrel Temperatures in Injection Molding
Injection molding barrel temperatures have high interaction and slow responses. The classical proportionalintegral-derivative (PID) control has difficulties to control for them accurately. An adaptive multi-input-multi-output (MIMO) generalized predictive control (GPC) scheme is developed, implemented and tested for barrel temperatures control of a reciprocating-screw injection molding machine. Experimental results illustrate GPC superiority over the traditional PID control.
Effect of Low Density Polyethylene on Polystyrene Foam
This work examines the foam density of polystyrene (PS) blended with low density polyethylene (LDPE) at various ratios and the thermal conductivity of vacuum insulation panels (VIPs) using PS/PE with filers foams as core materials. The experimental results indicate LDPE strongly influences the foam density of PS/PE foam and the content of open-cell in PS/PE with fillers foam. A higher content of open-cells in PS/PE with fillers foam can lead to a lower thermal conductivity of VIP.
Mechanical Properties of Textile-Inserted PP/PP Knitted Composites
Composites consisting of the same material with different reinforcement and matrix shapes, such as fibre and matrix phases, can create high interfacial strength. This paper concentrates on the experimental investigation of all-polypropylene single phase composites. It is interestingly noteworthy that reinforced homo PP composites exhibited superior energy absorption capability when compared with their virgin counterpart for both static and dynamic impact test.
Viscoplastic Behaviour of Ultra-High Molecular Weight Polyethylene
We have carried out experiments on UHMWPE in uniaxial compression in which we have measured the stress-strain and stress relaxation behaviour, covering a wide range of strains and strain rates. A constitutive model that makes use of Eyring processes has been developed and implemented numerically. This model can represent rate-dependent stress – strain behaviour. We have derived a set of values for the model parameters such that it gives a good representation of the observations.
Computer Simulation of 3D Filling and Packing Process in Injection Molding
This paper presents a true three-dimensional numerical simulation of the mold filling and packing in injection-molded part. The segregated finite element method and control volume finite element are combined with VOF method to solve the flow/temperature field and to track the melt front advancement during the process. The iterative solver (SOR) was employed for the solution of the equations. Several numerical examples are compared with Hele-Shaw approximation.
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